Autism[1]_PP

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Autism[1]_PP

  1. 1. Autism A Brief Introduction to Autism A.C.Baker Deputy Director Disability October 2006
  2. 2. Autism Your Definition !! <ul><ul><li>Using the sheet of paper supplies write down a simple definition of autism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify at least three traits you feel a person with ASD may display. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify at least three strategies you feel you may have to implement to ensure success in your classroom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally keep your sheet and check your personal data at the end of the session. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Autism ? <ul><ul><li>Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition that affects how the brain functions. It affects how a person communicates with, and relates to, other people. It also affects how they make sense of the world around them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person who has autism is said to have ASD. This is because the symptoms of autism can vary from person to person, and can range from mild to very severe. Asperger’s syndrome is an ASD, on the mild end of the spectrum. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is autism? <ul><ul><li>Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects the way a person communicates and relates to people around them. Children and adults with autism have difficulties with everyday social interaction. Their ability to develop friendships is generally limited as is their capacity to understand other people's emotional expression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with autism can often have accompanying learning disabilities but everyone with the condition shares a difficulty in making sense of the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is also a condition called Asperger syndrome, which is a form of autism used to describe people who are usually at the higher functioning end of the autistic spectrum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Reality to an autistic person is a confusing, interacting mass of events, people, places, sounds and sights. There seems to be no clear boundaries, order or meaning to anything. A large part of my life is spent just trying to work out the pattern behind everything.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                                 - A person with autism   </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symptoms <ul><ul><li>The first symptoms of ASD usually appear when the person is under two years old, and last throughout life. Some people who have autism also have a learning difficulty. This is when they find it harder than most people to learn new skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of ASD can be divided into three main groups. They are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social interaction, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>routine and repetitive behaviour. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Social interaction Issues <ul><ul><li>A child who has ASD may find it hard to get on with other people. They may: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seem distant or detached, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have little or no interest in other people, and find it difficult make friends, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not seek affection in the usual way, or resist physical contact such as kissing and cuddling, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>find it difficult to make eye contact with other people, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not understand other peoples emotions, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prefer to spend time alone. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Communication Issues <ul><ul><li>A child who has ASD may develop speech later than other children, or never learn to speak. When their speech does develop, the language and choice of words they use may be wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A child with ASD may also: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not be able to express themselves well, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not be able to understand gestures, facial expressions, or tones of voice, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use odd phrases and use odd choices of words, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use more words than is necessary to explain simple things, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make up their own words or phrases, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not use their hands to make gestures when they speak, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>find it difficult to understand difficult commands. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Routine and repetitive behaviour <ul><ul><li>Children with ASD may: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>play the same games over and over, or play with games designed for children younger than themselves, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get upset if their daily routines are interrupted in any way, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repeat actions, such as rocking back and forth or head banging. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These symptoms may lead to hyperactivity in younger children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older children and adults may develop obsessions. For example, with specific objects, lists, timetables or routines. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sensory difficulties <ul><ul><li>Some children with ASD also have sensory difficulties. This means that they may get upset if they are over or under stimulated. For example, they may prefer being indoors if they are over sensitive to light, or they may bump into people if they are under sensitive to touch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory difficulties can also lead to problems with movement. A person with ASD may appear clumsy or have an unusual way of walking. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Causes <ul><ul><li>Symptoms of ASD are caused by an abnormality in the development of the brain that occurs before, or soon after birth. It’s now known exactly what causes this abnormality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some evidence shows that having a defective gene may be a risk factor in developing ASD. These genes may be inherited, and the chance of you having ASD if your brother or sister has it, is slightly higher than in the rest of the general population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some research suggests that environmental factors such as pollution or viruses such as rubella (German measles) may trigger ASD. However, ASD is not a result of anything that a parent has done either during pregnancy or after the child is born. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Diagnosis <ul><ul><li>Getting a diagnosis for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is important, to enable access to the right services and treatments to support individual needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASD may be difficult to diagnose as symptoms can vary considerably from person to person, and mild symptoms can be hard to spot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common age for diagnosis is between three and four years old. However, some people may not be diagnosed until they are older, especially if they have mild symptoms. ASD isn’t usually diagnosed before a child is two years old. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnosis in adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people aren’t diagnosed with ASD when they are children, especially when symptoms are very mild. If you have the symptoms of ASD and it interferes with your work or social life, you should speak with your GP. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Tests for ASD <ul><ul><li>There are no specific tests for ASD, although other tests such as hearing tests and blood tests may be done to rule out other health conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no link between the MMR vaccine and ASD. Research shows that more children are diagnosed with ASD now than 10 years ago and the number of children receiving the MMR vaccine has stayed the same. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Treatment For ASD <ul><ul><li>There is no treatment that can ‘cure’ autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are many ways in which a person with ASD can get support to manage their condition. These methods of management and support are often called ‘interventions’. Many people with ASD will require specialist care and support throughout their lives. A lot of different health professionals will work as a team to care for them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The aim of interventions is to help a person with ASD to speak and communicate better, and to get along better in education and at work. Health professionals think that interventions work better when a child with ASD starts them from a young age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because ASD differs from person to person, the type of support a person needs will depend on their own individual circumstances. It will also depend on what services and treatments are available in the area that you live. Not all services are available on the NHS in all areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although not a treatment in itself, a psychologist may set tests to help decide the best treatment options. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Some facts and statistics <ul><ul><li>21% of children with an ASD have been excluded from school at least once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults with autism say that finding a suitable job would improve their lives more than anything else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with autism often want to make friends but due to their disability find it difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAS volunteer befrienders have helped more than 2,000 families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The NAS will train more than 300 professionals in diagnosis and early-intervention techniques </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Some facts and statistics <ul><ul><li>40% of all children with autism wait more than three years for a clear diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An estimated 535,000 people have autism in the UK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys are four times more likely to develop autism than girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 70% of people with autism have an IQ below 70 (the average IQ of the population is 100). This is classed as a learning disability. Some people with autism have normal or high intelligence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people with Asperger's have normal or above average intelligence and can lead independent lives. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Myths and facts about autism Autism is the result of emotional deprivation or emotional stress Autism is a complex developmental disability involving a biological or organic defect in the functioning of the brain Autism is the result of emotional deprivation or emotional stress Autism is a complex developmental disability involving a biological or organic defect in the functioning of the brain Autism is a new phenomenon The first detailed description of a child we now know had autism was written in 1799 by Jean Itard in his account of the wild boy of Aveyron. Autism is a new phenomenon The first detailed description of a child we now know had autism was written in 1799 by Jean Itard in his account of the wild boy of Aveyron. Autism (including Asperger syndrome) is a rare condition Autism is no longer seen as a rare condition and is thought to affect around 535,000 people in the UK today Autism (including Asperger syndrome) is a rare condition Autism is no longer seen as a rare condition and is thought to affect around 535,000 people in the UK today Reality Myth
  17. 17. Myths and facts about autism People with autism wish to avoid social contact People with autism are often keen to make friends but, due to their disability, find this difficult People with autism wish to avoid social contact People with autism are often keen to make friends but, due to their disability, find this difficult A person with autism cannot be educated With the right structured support within and outside of school, individuals with autism can be helped to reach their full potential A person with autism cannot be educated With the right structured support within and outside of school, individuals with autism can be helped to reach their full potential Autism is due to parental rejection or cold, unemotional parents Autism has nothing whatsoever to do with the way parents bring up their children Autism is due to parental rejection or cold, unemotional parents Autism has nothing whatsoever to do with the way parents bring up their children Autism is the result of emotional deprivation or emotional stress Autism is a complex developmental disability involving a biological or organic defect in the functioning of the brain Autism is the result of emotional deprivation or emotional stress Autism is a complex developmental disability involving a biological or organic defect in the functioning of the brain
  18. 18. Myths and facts about autism People with autism who have an extraordinary talent are referred to as 'autistic savants'. Savants are rare: Between 2 and 3% of the UK population have some degree of learning disability, but only 0.06% of these were initially estimated to possess an unusually high level of specific ability. Savant ability is more frequently associated with those having some form of autism rather than with other disabilities. Current thinking holds that at most 1 or 2 in 200 individuals with an autistic spectrum disorder might have a genuine savant talent. However, there is no reliable frequency estimate as yet as there is still no register of people with autism in the UK. All people with autism have a extraordinary ability like the Dustin Hoffman character in the film Rain man Autism is a childhood condition Autism is a lifelong developmental disability with no cure. Children with autism grow up to be adults with autism Autism is a childhood condition Autism is a lifelong developmental disability with no cure. Children with autism grow up to be adults with autism People with autism look different from other people Autism is an invisible disability - most people with an autistic spectrum disorder look just like anyone else who does not have this condition People with autism look different from other people Autism is an invisible disability - most people with an autistic spectrum disorder look just like anyone else who does not have this condition
  19. 19. Who do you Know !! <ul><ul><li>Identify at least one fictional character who is autistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify at least one TV Alien who is autistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name Two film characters who are autistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name one Famous Historical Person who is autistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name at least one contemporary Famous person who is autistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you name any writer who writes about autism. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. NAS adult services <ul><ul><li>Neil McConachie Director, NAS Services Church House Church Road, Filton Bristol BS34 7BD, UK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tel: +44 (0)117 974 8400 Fax: +44 (0)117 987 2576 Email: [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Autistic Society 0845 070 4004 http://www.nas.org.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact a family 0808 808 3555 http://www.cafamily.org.uk </li></ul></ul>

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