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The Human Heart
 

The Human Heart

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Biology 120

Biology 120

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    The Human Heart The Human Heart Presentation Transcript

    • Biology 120 1/23/2012Presented by Bonnie Lim
    • What is a Heart?A muscular organ that provides a continuous blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body
    • Blood Flow of the Heart Blood flows through the heart in one direction, from the atria to the ventricles, and out of the great arteries, or the aorta for example. Blood is prevented from flowing backwards by the tricuspid, bicuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valve. The heart acts as a double pump. The function of the right side of the heart is called right heart is to collect de-oxygenated blood, in the right atrium, from the body via superior and inferior vena cava and pump it, via the right ventricle, into the lungs so that carbon dioxide can be dropped off and oxygen picked up . This happens through the passive process of diffusion.
    •  The left side is called left heart collects oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium. From the left atrium the blood moves to the left ventricle which pumps it out to the body via the aorta. On both sides, the lower ventricles are thicker and stronger than the upper atria. The muscle wall surrounding the left ventricle is thicker than the wall surrounding the right ventricle due to the higher force needed to pump the blood through the systemic circulation.
    •  Starting in the right atrium, the blood flows through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. Here, it is pumped out of the pulmonary semi-lunar valve and travels through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. From there, blood flows back through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium. It then travels through the mitral valve to the left ventricle, from where it is pumped through the aortic semi-lunar valve to the aorta and to the rest of the body. The deoxygenated blood finally returns to the heart through the inferior vena cava and superior vena cava, and enters the right atrium where the process began.
    • Diagram of the blood flow in thebody
    • Location of Heart  The heart is in the middle of the chest. It fits between the two lungs. The heart is on the left side.
    • Parts of the Heart
    • Structure The human heart has a mass of between 250 and 350 grams and is about the size of a fist It is enclosed in a double-walled protective sac called the pericardium The outer wall of the human heart is composed of three layers. The outer layer is called the visceral pericardium since it is also the inner wall of the serous pericardium. The inner layer is called the endocardium and is in contact with the blood that the heart pumps. Also, it merges with the inner lining endothelium of blood vessels and covers heart valves
    • Chambers of the Heart The heart is divided into four main chambers: the two upper chambers are called the left and right atria and two lower chambers are called the right and left ventricles
    • Facts about the Heart The average adult heart beats 72 times a minute; 100,000 times a day; 3,600,000 times a year; and 2.5 billion times during a lifetime. The “thump-thump” of a heartbeat is the sound made by the four valves of the heart closing Because the heart has its own electrical impulse, it can continue to beat even when separated from the body, as long as it has an adequate supply of oxygen
    • Disease of the HeartCoronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease, also known as CHD, is the most common of all the heart-related problems. It’s caused by your arteries getting smaller which leads to your heart not getting enough blood supply.High blood pressure High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a common thing that effects about 50 millions Americans and countless others worldwide. Once again, it’s generally caused by fatty foods. The best thing to do is try to avoid stressful situations as often as possible.
    •  Heart Attack A heart attack is victim are usually elderly or people the intake of greasy , fatty foods and don’t exercise. Also, people that are understand stress may get heart attack. Ischemic heart disease Ischemic heart disease is the opposite of hypertension, in that it is the reduced flow of blood to the heart. The main symptom involved with ischemic heart disease is the concurrent feeling of chest pain, especially pain in the left side of the chest (around the heart)
    •  Tachycardia Tachycardia is a very serious matter in which the heart is racing at an extremely high pace. You may be able to diagnose tachycardia yourself if you have shortness of breath, find yourself dizzy for no reason, or you just get that feeling where you can sense your own heartbeat without even checking your pulse and you know it’s extra high. Rheumatic heart disease Rheumatic heart disease is a problem associated with heart damage from rheumatic flu. It can be diagnosed by a fever and/or rash along with chest pains or heartburn. This is usually due to a problem with the valves in your heart not being able to close properly which leads to blood spilling out into the wrong parts of the heart.
    •  Pulmonary heart disease Pulmonary heart disease is caused by an abnormal pressure on the lungs due to an improper flow of blood to that region. A diagnosis can be reached if you notice you frequently have shortness of breath, chest pain or faint on occasion.
    • Treatment Options Better diet for Heart Health Exercise Change Lifestyle Heart Disease Medications Medical procedures or surgery Heart defect patients can have a heart transplant if there is no other option.