The Big PictureBonner High Impact Institute
Crucible Moment• “…opportunities for civic learning and  democratic engagement remain optional  rather than expected on ma...
Democratic Engagement
To Serve a Larger                        Purpose:                    Education for              Democracy and the         ...
Questions catalyzing the Kettering Colloquium                   (2008):• Why has the civic engagement movement in higher  ...
Our work has attempted to do two things:• provide a framework of democratic  engagement as a way to focus attention on  th...
Technocratic• Engagement in this sense reflects the  dominant academic culture of higher  education, often characterized as...
Democratic• The norms of a culture of democratic  education are determined by values such as  inclusiveness, participation...
Isn’t all engagement             democratic?Engagement “requires going beyond theexpert model that often gets in the wayof...
Comparing Civic Engagement Frameworks                                Civic Engagement                           Democratic...
Transformation through change in institutional culture.First-Order Change                                     Second-Order...
Figure 1                         Transformational Change                                    Depth                         ...
low    3-Dimensional high   Model   high                                            II          IV   (“Johnson     Cube”) ...
low                                       ed    3-                                  at                                grDi...
low                                       ed    3-                                  at                                grDi...
Implications
Why does it matter that we     frame our work around    democratic engagement?Implications for1. Partnerships2. Faculty an...
Generating new knowledge• “We must search for a new epistemology of action  more appropriate to reality than the positivis...
Advancing Knowledge• “…the pursuit of knowledge itself demands  engagement. Increasingly, academics in many  disciplines a...
Epistemology
Curriculum  EpistemologyTransdisciplinarity
Pedagogy   Curriculum  EpistemologyTransdisciplinarity Learning Outcomes
Research    Pedagogy   Curriculum  EpistemologyTransdisciplinarity Learning OutcomesKnowledge Creation
Institutional Environment            Research          Pedagogy         Curriculum         Epistemology      Transdiscipli...
A Civic Ethos
A Crucible Moment• A Civic Ethos governing campus life:  “the infusion of democratic values into  the customs and habits o...
A Crucible Moment• Personal and Social Responsibility  Index (PSRI): “students want their  colleges to foster a stronger  ...
Stewards of Place2002
Being a Steward of Place• “…our colleges and universities must  be actively engaged in the  enhancement of their communiti...
Institutional Stewards of Place• “From their earliest days, state colleges and  universities have diligently served in the...
Disruptive Organizational       Integration
Integration as a key dimension of        transformation change1. Integration of practices2. Integration of policies3. Inte...
Disruptive Organizational             IntegrationIt has been apparent for some timethat “our inability to build integrated...
Disruptive Organizational Integration The concept of disruptive organizational integration borrows from the theory of disr...
Disruptive Organizational             IntegrationFocusing on institutional interventions allowsfor changes in culture that...
Big Picture Thinking About          Change
Academic Capitalism and the          New Economy• An academic capitalist knowledge/  learning regime• A public good knowle...
Knowledge/Learning Regimes   Academic Capitalism               Public Good• “Values privatization      • “Characterized by...
Comparing Civic Engagement Frameworks                                Civic Engagement                           Democratic...
Academic Capitalism and the        New Economy• An academic capitalist knowledge/  learning regime• A public good knowledg...
Public Engagement Knowledge/Learning               RegimeInvolves partnerships of universityknowledge and resources with t...
Public Engagement Knowledge/Learning               Regime Conceptualizes ‘community groups’ as all those outside of academ...
Engagement as a “core value” for the university of the 21st                        century  Engagement implies strenuous, ...
Redefining higher education for the 21st              centuryLocated squarely between the neoliberal,market driven, highly ...
Democratic Civic Engagement and Stewards of Place
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Democratic Civic Engagement and Stewards of Place

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This is a presentation offered by John Saltmarsh, Co-Director of the New England Resource Center for Higher Education, at the Bonner 2012 High-Impact Institute.

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  • Democratic Civic Engagement and Stewards of Place

    1. 1. The Big PictureBonner High Impact Institute
    2. 2. Crucible Moment• “…opportunities for civic learning and democratic engagement remain optional rather than expected on many campuses, and peripheral to the perceived ‘real’ academic mission of too many others.”• “While the civic reform movement in higher education has affected almost all campuses, its influence is partial rather than pervasive…optional rather than expected…”
    3. 3. Democratic Engagement
    4. 4. To Serve a Larger Purpose: Education for Democracy and the Transformation of Higher Education Saltmarsh, J., Hartley, M. eds.(2011) Temple University Press
    5. 5. Questions catalyzing the Kettering Colloquium (2008):• Why has the civic engagement movement in higher education stalled and what are the strategies needed to further advance institutional transformation aimed at generating democratic, community- based knowledge and action?• Is the civic engagement as it is practiced on campuses changing higher education or is higher education changing the way that civic engagement is being practiced?• What would need to happen for civic engagement as it is practiced in higher education to be more democratic?
    6. 6. Our work has attempted to do two things:• provide a framework of democratic engagement as a way to focus attention on the purposes and processes of engagement practices and the implications of democratic engagement for changing institutions; and• link engagement practice to institutional change, examining the kinds of engagement practices that perpetuate/ reinforce the status quo and the kinds of engagement practices that compel change.
    7. 7. Technocratic• Engagement in this sense reflects the dominant academic culture of higher education, often characterized as “scientific,” “rationalized,” “objectified,” or “technocratic,” meaning that the approach to public problems is predominantly shaped by specialized expertise “applied” externally “to” or “on” the community, providing “solutions” to what has been determined to be the community’s “needs.”
    8. 8. Democratic• The norms of a culture of democratic education are determined by values such as inclusiveness, participation, task sharing and reciprocity in public problem solving, and an equality of respect for the knowledge and experience that everyone contributes to education and community building. These democratic processes and purposes reorient civic engagement to what we are calling “democratic engagement.”
    9. 9. Isn’t all engagement democratic?Engagement “requires going beyond theexpert model that often gets in the wayof constructive university-communitycollaboration…calls on faculty to movebeyond ‘outreach,’…asks scholars to gobeyond ‘service,’ with its overtones ofnoblesse oblige. What it emphasizes isgenuine collaboration: that the learningand teaching be multidirectional and theexpertise shared. It represents a basicreconceptualization of…community-based work.” and Rice, Faculty Priorities Reconsidered (2005). O’Meara
    10. 10. Comparing Civic Engagement Frameworks Civic Engagement Democratic Civic Engagement (Focus on Activity and Place) (Focus on Purpose and Process) Partnerships and mutuality Reciprocity Deficit-based understanding of community Asset-based understanding ofCommunity Relationships community Academic work done for the public Academic work done with the public Applied Inclusive, collaborative, problem-Knowledge production/research oriented Unidirectional flow of knowledge Multi-directional flow of knowledge Positivist/scientific/technocratic Relational, localized, contextual Distinction between knowledge producers Co-creation of knowledge and knowledge consumers Primacy of academic knowledge Shared authority for knowledge creationEpistemology University as the center of public problem- University as a part of an ecosystem of solving knowledge production addressing public problem-solving Apolitical engagement Facilitating an inclusive, collaborative,Political Dimension and deliberative democracy Knowledge generation and dissemination Community change that results from theOutcome through community involvement co-creation of knowledge
    11. 11. Transformation through change in institutional culture.First-Order Change Second-Order ChangeAim is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness Aim is to alter the fundamental ways in whichof what is done - to make what already exists more organizations are put together. These changes reflectefficient and more effective. major dissatisfaction with present arrangements.Does not disturb the basic organizational features, or Second-order changes introduce new goals,substantially alter the ways in which faculty and structures, and roles that transform familiar ways ofstudents perform their roles. Those who propose doing things into new ways of solving persistentfirst-order changes believe that the existing goals problems.and structure are both adequate and desirable.Does not require changes that alter the culture of the Is associated with transformational change, definedinstitution, those which require major shifts in an as change that (1) alters the culture of the institutioninstitution’s culture—the common set of beliefs and by changing select underlying assumptions andvalues that creates a shared interpretation and institutional behaviors, processes, and products; (2)understanding of events and actions. is deep and pervasive, affecting the whole institution; (3) is intentional; and (4) occurs over time. Focuses on institution-wide patterns of perceiving, thinking, and feeling; shared understandings; collective assumptions; and common interpretive frameworks are the ingredients of this ‘invisible glue’ called institutional culture.
    12. 12. Figure 1 Transformational Change Depth Low High Lo w Adjustment Isolated ChangePervasiveness (1) (2) Hig h Far-Reaching Transformational Change Change (3) (4) Adapted from Eckel, Hill & Green (1998)
    13. 13. low 3-Dimensional high Model high II IV (“Johnson Cube”) President MelvinJohnson, Tennessee I III State University [Saltmarsh & Clayton (2011)][Graphic by K. Buchner] low low high
    14. 14. low ed 3- at grDimensional high te In Model high II IV (“Johnson VI VIII Cube”) President Melvin DeepJohnson, Tennessee I III State University [Saltmarsh & Clayton (2011)][Graphic by K. Buchner] V VII low low Pervasiv high e
    15. 15. low ed 3- at grDimensional high te In Model high II IV (“Johnson VI VIII Cube”) President Melvin DeepJohnson, Tennessee I III State University [Saltmarsh & Clayton (2011)][Graphic by K. Buchner] V VII low low Pervasiv high e
    16. 16. Implications
    17. 17. Why does it matter that we frame our work around democratic engagement?Implications for1. Partnerships2. Faculty and Staff Practice3. Institutional culture and change
    18. 18. Generating new knowledge• “We must search for a new epistemology of action more appropriate to reality than the positivism which has to date dominated all our teaching.”• “We must, in a conscious way, develop a much more symbiotic interaction with the world around us. This will require a two-way flow of communication with a wide variety of constituencies, leading to a sharing of responsibility for decisions in many areas which to date we have solely considered our own domain.”Ernest A. Lynton, (1983) Re-examining the Role ofthe University: A Crisis of Purpose
    19. 19. Advancing Knowledge• “…the pursuit of knowledge itself demands engagement. Increasingly, academics in many disciplines are realizing that their own intellectual territory overlaps with that of other knowledge professionals working outside the university sector… Knowledge is being keenly pursued in the context of its application and in a dialogue of practice with theory through a network of policy-advisors, companies, consultants, think-tanks and knowledge brokers as well as academics.” Association of Commonwealth Universities (2002)
    20. 20. Epistemology
    21. 21. Curriculum EpistemologyTransdisciplinarity
    22. 22. Pedagogy Curriculum EpistemologyTransdisciplinarity Learning Outcomes
    23. 23. Research Pedagogy Curriculum EpistemologyTransdisciplinarity Learning OutcomesKnowledge Creation
    24. 24. Institutional Environment Research Pedagogy Curriculum Epistemology Transdisciplinarity Learning Outcomes Knowledge CreationStructures, Policies, and Culture
    25. 25. A Civic Ethos
    26. 26. A Crucible Moment• A Civic Ethos governing campus life: “the infusion of democratic values into the customs and habits of everyday practices, structures, and interactions” as the “defining character of the institution…”
    27. 27. A Crucible Moment• Personal and Social Responsibility Index (PSRI): “students want their colleges to foster a stronger institutional emphasis on contributing to the larger community.”
    28. 28. Stewards of Place2002
    29. 29. Being a Steward of Place• “…our colleges and universities must be actively engaged in the enhancement of their communities and regions.”
    30. 30. Institutional Stewards of Place• “From their earliest days, state colleges and universities have diligently served in their role as stewards of place, answering the call to join with public and private partners in their communities and regions to take advantage of opportunities and confront challenges. On issues ranging from economic development to school reform to regional planning to environmental protection and more, public higher education institutions have teamed up with a wide range of local stakeholders to identify problems, explore potential solutions, and test those solutions in real life.”
    31. 31. Disruptive Organizational Integration
    32. 32. Integration as a key dimension of transformation change1. Integration of practices2. Integration of policies3. Integration institutional priorities (across practices, structures, and policies)
    33. 33. Disruptive Organizational IntegrationIt has been apparent for some timethat “our inability to build integratedlinks among…reform efforts, in theirconception and in their practice,ultimately limits our ability to effect thekind of transformative change that wemight have hoped for.”(Schoem, D. 2002. "Transforming UndergraduateEducation: Moving Beyond Distinct. UndergraduateInitiatives.” Change Magazine. November/December)
    34. 34. Disruptive Organizational Integration The concept of disruptive organizational integration borrows from the theory of disruptive innovation (Christensen, 2011) but focuses on a transformed organizational model instead of a new business model driven by applications of technology. It also draws on the framework of democratic engagement and the need for second order institutional change that reflects major dissatisfaction with present arrangements and introduces new goals, structures, and roles that involve new ways of solving persistent problems. The integration that is pursued is intended to disturb the basic organizational features, substantially altering the ways in which administrators, faculty and students perform their roles.
    35. 35. Disruptive Organizational IntegrationFocusing on institutional interventions allowsfor changes in culture that can alter conditionsand shape individual experiences and changepractice. It is associated with transformationalchange, which Eckel, Hill, and Green define aschange that “ (1) alters the culture of theinstitution by changing select underlyingassumptions and institutional behaviors,processes, and products; (2) is deep andpervasive, affecting the whole institution; (3) isintentional; and (4) occurs over time” (1998, p.3). Disruptive organizational integration isnot only deep and pervasive, but it has theadded dimension of being integrated acrossthe institution (practices, policies,institutional priorities).
    36. 36. Big Picture Thinking About Change
    37. 37. Academic Capitalism and the New Economy• An academic capitalist knowledge/ learning regime• A public good knowledge/learning regime Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoads, 2004
    38. 38. Knowledge/Learning Regimes Academic Capitalism Public Good• “Values privatization • “Characterized by and profit taking in valuing knowledge as a which institutions, public good to which inventor faculty, and the citizenry has corporations have claims.” claims that come before • “The Cornerstone of the those of the public.” pubic good knowledge• “Knowledge is regime was basic constructed as a private science that led to the good, valued for discovery of new creating streams of knowledge within high-technology academic disciplines, products that generate serendipitously leading profits as they flow to public benefits.” through global markets.”
    39. 39. Comparing Civic Engagement Frameworks Civic Engagement Democratic Civic Engagement (Focus on Activity and Place) (Focus on Purpose and Process) Partnerships and mutuality Reciprocity Deficit-based understanding of community Asset-based understanding ofCommunity Relationships community Academic work done for the public Academic work done with the public Applied Inclusive, collaborative, problem-Knowledge production/research oriented Unidirectional flow of knowledge Multi-directional flow of knowledge Positivist/scientific/technocratic Relational, localized, contextual Distinction between knowledge producers Co-creation of knowledge and knowledge consumers Primacy of academic knowledge Shared authority for knowledge creationEpistemology University as the center of public problem- University as a part of an ecosystem of solving knowledge production addressing public problem-solving Apolitical engagement Facilitating an inclusive, collaborative,Political Dimension and deliberative democracy Knowledge generation and dissemination Community change that results from theOutcome through community involvement co-creation of knowledge
    40. 40. Academic Capitalism and the New Economy• An academic capitalist knowledge/ learning regime• A public good knowledge/learning regime• A public engagement knowledge/ learning regime
    41. 41. Public Engagement Knowledge/Learning RegimeInvolves partnerships of universityknowledge and resources with those ofthe public and private sectors to enrichscholarship, research, creative activity,and public knowledge; enhancecurriculum, teaching and learning;prepare educated, engaged citizens;strengthen democratic values and civicresponsibility; address and help solvecritical social problems; and contributeto the public good.
    42. 42. Public Engagement Knowledge/Learning Regime Conceptualizes ‘community groups’ as all those outside of academe and requires shared authority at all stages of the research process from defining the research problem, choosing theoretical and methodological approaches, conducting the research, developing the final product(s), to participating in peer evaluation.
    43. 43. Engagement as a “core value” for the university of the 21st century Engagement implies strenuous, thoughtful, argumentative interaction with the non- university world in at least four spheres: setting universities’ aims, purposes, and priorities; relating teaching and learning to the wider world; the back-and-forth dialogue between researchers and practitioners; and taking on wider responsibilities as neighbours and citizens. Association of Commonwealth Universities
    44. 44. Redefining higher education for the 21st centuryLocated squarely between the neoliberal,market driven, highly privatizeduniversity and the need for universitiesto more effectively address social issuesand improve the human condition arethe issues of community engagement,publically engaged scholarship, anduniversity-community partnerships.
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