«Everyone is aware nowadays that it is advisable to consume
‘at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day’. Consume...
Sustainable evolution

of eating habits

Observations Evolution of the level of fruit and vegetable

In the ma...
At the same time, they are the main source of betacarotene and vitamin B9 for both adults and children...
adult calcium intake.
As reported at the Louis Bonduelle Foundation Conference,
Paris, June 2010.

of fruit and veg...

 between countries in the south of Europe, who show
high consumption levels, and the countries in the north...
Spain and 80g in France.
fruit and vegetables per day.
The average amount of processed fruit and vegetables
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How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ?


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Everyone is aware nowadays that it is advisable to consume ‘at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day’. Consumer information is not the issue: it is necessary to ask oneself what other factors are limiting consumption.

More cases studies on : http://www.fondation-louisbonduelle.org/france/en/health-professionals/cases-studies.html

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How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ?

  1. 1. «Everyone is aware nowadays that it is advisable to consume ‘at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day’. Consumer information is not the issue: it is necessary to ask oneself what other factors are limiting consumption.» How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ? Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is a major issue for public health and is the subject of nutritional recommendations throughout Europe. Yet despite the policies which have been implemented and the knowledge amongst consumers regarding the virtues of fruit and vegetables, there is no way of avoiding the fact: the majority of Europeans do not follow the recommendations. In Europe, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables is only 220g per person per day for adults instead of the 400g minimum recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). What are the driving factors behind this consumption and the obstacles to be confronted and, most importantly, overcome? For many years now, numerous measures have been implemented throughout the EU in response to [OLZL XLZ[PVUZ HUK [V KLÄUL LMMLJ[P]L Z[YH[LNPLZ MVY increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. Without attempting to deliver a comprehensive analysis, over the following few pages the Louis Bonduelle Foundation will present an overview of the consumption of fruit and vegetables in Europe… and oday in Europe, six of the seven major risk factors regarding premature death in adults are linked to the way ^L LH[ KYPUR VY TV]L (U PUZMÄJPLU[ JVUZTW[PVU VM MYP[ and vegetables is associated with these six factors. A revealing statistic: just 27% of European mothers consume over 400g of these foodstuffs per day, in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO). Of course, this is only an average and there are wide va- T riations, not only between regions, with those in the south showing better results than those in the north, but also in terms of individual socio-economic status. Such variations give an insight into the scale of the problem: there are multiple determinant factors regarding the consumption of fruit and vegetables and numerous obstacles. In order to be effective, action taken to increase consumption must work on several different levels at the same time.y www.fondation-louisbonduelle.org YURI ARCURS - FOTOLIA.COM suggest a few ways by which it might be increased.
  2. 2. Sustainable evolution of eating habits Observations Evolution of the level of fruit and vegetable consumption In the majority of countries in Europe, the average daily consumption of fruit and vegetables has been calJSH[LK H[ N WLY HKS[ H ÄNYL ^OPJO PZ ^LSS ILSV^ [OL WHO recommendations of 400g minimum [1]. For children, on average they only eat 80g of fruit and vegetables per day: it is estimated that only between 6% and 24% of them reach the level recommended by the WHO. But behind this average we observe a wide variation amongst EU member states, and also within the various countries themselves. FRANCE, AN AVERAGE PUPIL REPRESENTATIVE OF EUROPEAN TRENDS 2001 saw the birth of the PNNS (national programme for nutrition and health), launched by French authorities, and [OL ÄYZ[ HWWLHYHUJL VM [OL UV^ ^LSSRUV^U YLJVTTLUKH tion to “eat at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day” +H[H MYVT [OL ÄYZ[ 05*( UH[PVUHS PUKP]PKHS KPL[HY` consumption) survey, collected between 1998 and 1999, showed that about 60% of adults then consumed less than two portions of vegetables and less than one-and-a-half portions of fruit per day. Eight years later, the INCA 2 survey carried out between 2006 and 2007 shows that these consumption levels have remained broadly stable in both adults and children, although a slight increase in consumption by adult females was observed during the period. Vegetable consumption amongst the French has stagnated at around 170g per person per day for adults and 100g for children. But although remaining broadly constant, vegetable consumption demonstrates many different variability factors which are to be found in most European countries. “It is higher in the south of France than in the north, rises with higher levels of education and varies in line with age, between generations, according to income, etc.”, explains Lionel Lafay, the manager of the dietary consumption and epidemiology monitoring unit at Anses (formerly Afssa), the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety. Accordingly, the overall consumption Nutritional intake from vegetables amongst the French population Due to their nutritional make-up, vegetables are a weak source of calories and fat and make a significant contribution to the intake of fibre and micronutrients. ;OL` HYL [OL THPU ZVYJL VM MPIYL PU JOPSKYLU
  4. 4. HM[LY IYLHK WYVKJ[Z At the same time, they are the main source of betacarotene and vitamin B9 for both adults and children. They are also one of the five main sources for B1, B5, B6 and C vitamin intake in adults. And finally, vegetables are the number one source of potassium in HKS[Z [OL [OPYK PU JOPSKYLU HUK HYL PU [OL [VW MP]L for copper, iron, magnesium and manganese for both HKS[Z HUK JOPSKYLU ;OL` HSZV JVU[YPI[L
  5. 5. VM [OL adult calcium intake. As reported at the Louis Bonduelle Foundation Conference, Paris, June 2010. of fruit and vegetables varies between 280g and 700g per person per day. This spread is mainly due to the variation in vegetable consumption which is more pronounced than for fruit, the end result being that one adult in two is in the “low consumption” category (i.e. consuming less than two portions per day, or 160g). Furthermore, while older people (55-79 years old) consume on average 202g of vegetables per day, young adults (18-34) consume about one-third less (133g per day on average). VARIATIONS BETWEEN THE COUNTRIES OF EUROPE Let us now turn to the variations across Europe in fruit and vegetable consumption. Dietary reports by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), which present the observable total consumption of fruit and vegetables, highlight the large differences Recommendations are not always consistent across Europe National recommendations for the consumption of fruit and vegetables vary considerably from one European region to another. Many countries have opted for a combined recommended consumption of fruit and vegetables, without distinguishing between the two, of between 3-5 portions per day and 5-9 portions per day. On the other hand, www.fondation-louisbonduelle.org some countries do differentiate between fruit and vegetables. Whatever the situation, many countries, like France, lead a national campaign to encourage the consumption of fruit and vegetables: “5-a-day” in the UK, “6 om dagen” in Denmark, “5 am Tag” in Germany, “2 + 2 a day” in the Netherlands, etc. “However, target levels for fruit and vegetable consumption in the national nutrition policies of certain Nordic and Western European countries are too low ”, bemoans Laura Fernandez-Celemin, the manager MVY ZJPLU[PÄJ HMMHPYZ H[ ,-0* ,YVWLHU Food Information Council). As reported at the Louis Bonduelle Foundation Conference, Paris, June 2010. p. 2 - How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ?
  6. 6. DUTOURDUMONDE between countries in the south of Europe, who show high consumption levels, and the countries in the north and east of Europe who have low consumption levels. The EPIC study, carried out at 27 health centres spread HJYVZZ [LU KPMMLYLU[ ,YVWLHU JVU[YPLZ JVUÄYTZ [OH[ [OL consumption of fruit and vegetables is highest in Mediterranean countries and that the lowest consumption levels are recorded in Scandinavia and the Netherlands, in both men and women [2]. This north-south divide in Europe is JVUÄYTLK I` [OL +(-5, Z[K` IHZLK VU OVZLOVSK WYchases [3]. However, consumption studies carried out in the Scandinavian countries such as the Monica study in Sweden [4], the AVTK survey in Finland [5] or the national individual dietary consumption study in Denmark [6], show an increase in the consumption of fruit and vegetables in these traditionally low consumption countries. In the long term, the north-south divide may shrink if this trend persists. Furthermore, while the consumption of fruit and vegetables remains too low in most EU countries, this is particularly true amongst the lowest income groups. For example, the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables for people at the lower end of the income scale in France is just 2.1 portions (1.2 portions of fruit and 0.9 of vege- A few consumption statistics by country In Poland, in adults the daily consumption of vegetables amounts to 295g and 282g for fruit. In the UK, the average consumption of fruit and vege[HISLZ MVY `VUN ^VTLU PZ WVY[PVUZ N WLY KH` In Portugal, children consume 112g of vegetables per KH`
  7. 7. PU [OL MVYT VM ZVW HZ HNHPUZ[ QZ[ N PU Spain and 80g in France. 0U 9VTHUPH
  8. 8. VM HKS[Z JVUZTL SLZZ [OHU N VM fruit and vegetables per day. The average amount of processed fruit and vegetables consumed is 26g per person per day in France, as HNHPUZ[ N PU 0[HS` HUK N PU *`WYZ As reported at the Louis Bonduelle Foundation Conference, Paris, June 2010, and the EGEA Conference in Brussels, May 2010. tables, a total of 170g) [7], and is just below 2.5 portions (200g) in the UK, where only 9% of young women follow the recommendations [8].z Determinants and obstacles to the consumption of fruit and vegetable “Everyone is aware nowadays that it is advisable to consume ‘at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day.’ Consumer information is not the issue: it is necessary to ask oneself what other factors are limiting consumption”, observes Prof. Pierre Combris. Experts are beginning to understand these factors. Age, sex and socio-economic status must be combined with other de- terminants, such as food preferences, culinary knowledge and skill, and product accessibility. And without forgetting other personal factors such as time constraints, personal values, the concept of a balanced diet or a lack of control over one’s diet. Added to this are factors linked to the social environment such as other people’s attitudes, social pressure or family mealtime ha- How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ? - p. 3 www.fondation-louisbonduelle.org - FOTOLIA.COM
  9. 9. Sustainable evolution of eating habits bits, all of which influence dietary preferences and guide dietary choices and behaviour [9]. And while the consumption of fruit and vegetables is stagnating despite public promotional campaigns about nutrition and health, it must be concluded that a number of obstacles lay behind these factors. AGE AND HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION: TWO KEY FACTORS According to data collected in France by TNS Worldpanel in 2007, the variables which have the greatest effect on vegetable consumption are age and household composition. Regarding the second of these factors, in France we can observe that families with children and single men consume fewer vegetables than single women and couples without children [10]. As for age, with adults there is a positive correlation between the quantities and the type of fruit and vegetables consumed. “The effect of age is more marked in the case of fresh fruit and vegetables than for tinned and frozen produce, but the graphs show very similar evolution patterns: consumption increases consistently until about 60-65 and then falls off”, says Prof. Combris. “The important point is to make a clear distinction between life cycle effects and those which are generational: at the same age, the younger generations now consume fewer fruit and vegetables, especially fresh produce, than preceding generations.” And these age and generation related effects are not only observed in France. In the United Kingdom [11] and also in Sweden [12], for example, we can observe a lower Variable determinants according to context Not all countries in Europe share the position where people with high levels of education eat more vegetables than those in lower socio-economic groups. A Finnish team [22] compared the relationship between socio-economic status and consumption of vege[HISLZ PU UPUL , JVU[YPLZ .LYTHU` +LUTHYR Spain, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia and Lithuania). In France, Italy and Spain, the level of education turns out to reveal little about the consumption of vegetables: those with the highest qualifications consume slightly fewer vegetables than the rest. On the other hand, in the Nordic and Baltic countries, the relationship is a strong one and, conversely, those with the highest qualifications are daily consumers of vegetables. These results suggest that a positive association between the level of education and the consumption of vegetables is dependent on the availability and accessibility of vegetables. In fact, it is in those countries where there is a low availability and a high price of vegetables that the level of education is a positive influence on consumption. www.fondation-louisbonduelle.org consumption of fruit and vegetables by young adults than by older people. Accordingly, if today’s young Europeans maintain their specific dietary habits, their consumption of fruit and vegetables will remain much lower than that of preceding generations. It is therefore vital to combat this long-term trend towards a significant reduction in the average consumption level of these healthy foodstuffs. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: A DETERMINANT OF THE CONSUMPTION OF FRESH VEGETABLES The socio-economic status of the household, namely its income and educational level, also constitutes a strong determinant of the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed [13-14]. Purchasing data for French households by TNS Worldpanel 2007 reveals that 15% of the richest households buy more than 12kg of extra vegetables per person per year compared to the poorer households (the average amount of vegetables - fresh and processed excluding potatoes – consumed being 64kg per person per year) [10]. But this effect of socio-economic status is not the same for all types of vegetables. With the help of this data, a team at INRA has attempted to assess whether the consumption of fresh and processed vegetables is governed by the same determinants [10]. The result: the consumption of fresh vegetables follows the same determinants as vegetables in total (namely age, household structure and income), while the purchase of processed products remains at similar levels for all households. So it is the consumption of fresh vegetables which determines the main differences in the total consumption of vegetables, even though researchers discovered a reduction in the proportion of processed vegetables linked with the advance of age, and also with higher income and higher qualifications. Fact: processed products have been adapted to consumption habits and pricing trends have put fresh products at a disadvantage. “Between 1960 and 2005, the price of fresh ]LNL[HISLZ PUJYLHZLK
  11. 11. compared to this average”, explains Prof. Pierre Combris. As a result, “fresh fruit and vegetables have now become a real ‘social indicator’ ”, the researcher notes. But beware. Although many countries in Europe confirm this trend [15-16], it cannot be generalised to include countries with high levels of fruit or vegetable production, such as Greece, Spain, Portugal, Poland and Hungary, where the highest levels of consumption are to be found. In these countries it is even possible to observe the opposite trend, namely higher consumption of fruit and vegetables amongst those of low socio-economic status [9]. BETWEEN RATIONAL CHOICE AND EMOTIONAL NEED… To the effects of age, generation, household composition and socio-economic status we must add those factors associated with the individual or the products. p. 4 - How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ?
  12. 12. MBT_STUDIO Amongst product-related factors, we think first of all of price. Compared to that of many energy-rich foodstuffs which provide sugars and fats at the same time as giving immediate satisfaction, the price level of fruit and vegetables puts them at a disadvantage, which may partly explain the low consumption amongst the poor. And, because what we decide to eat is not determined simply by our physiological or nutritional requirements, choosing often presents a dilemma between reason, which demands a fruit salad, and emotion, which encourages you to succumb to a chocolate cake. Much more than the price of the product, where sensitivity is affected by hedonistic and social factors [17], it is the “cost/sacrifice” relationship which plays a role in our motivation to consume more fruit and vegetables. Within the “cost/sacrifice” balance the senses also play a part, including bitterness [18] and the cooking odours of some Interventions vegetables [19], which have been clearly identified as presenting a barrier to consumption. And finally, another factor in the equation: time, which not only includes the time available to the consumer, often put forward as a barrier to the consumption of fruit and vegetables [20], but also the amount of time the product can be kept for. Accordingly, alongside shopping habits and the consumer’s storage facilities, the perishability of the product may also present an obstacle to the act of purchase [21]. 0U [OL JVSSLJ[P]L ZJPLU[PÄJ HZZLZZTLU[ JHYYPLK V[ I` INRA [9], Patricia Gurviez, a lecturer in marketing and consumer behaviour at AgroParisTech, sums up the situation as follows: “It can be stated that for many consumers in the West, fruit and vegetables are neither cheap, practical, convenient nor easy to store, and are also perceived as time-consuming to buy and cook, and require a certain know-how.” z Removing obstacles to consumption Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a public health priority and therefore constitutes the main objective of numerous initiatives across Europe. Practical experience has highlighted a number of key elements in terms of the effectiveness of such interventions. Accordingly, conclusions from the INRA collective scientific assessment suggest an effective approach is “an approach which takes different components into account, based not only on personal factors but also on variations in the living space and social environment of the target group, the support and commitment shown by decision-makers and representatives of the target population regarding the planning and implementation of the initiative, and its durability over the long term.” [9]. ACTION AT THE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL A number of strategies can be used to encourage beOH]PVYHS JOHUNL ;OL ÄYZ[ [`WL VM HWWYVHJO JVUZPZ[Z VM playing on consumer preferences and motivations. It involves initiatives in the areas of nutritional education, information marketing and “5-a-day” campaigns which aim to increase consumer demand. Experience shows that they play a positive role by improving the understanding and perception of fruit and vegetables. However, “they are not able to overcome all obstacles to consumption”, observes Prof. Combris. And the reason: they do not take into account the fact that individual determinants of consumption (knowledge, intentions, attitudes, motivations) and factors linked to social environment play an equally im- How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ? - p. 5 www.fondation-louisbonduelle.org - FOTOLIA.COM
  13. 13. Sustainable evolution of eating habits portant role. Accordingly, nutritional education, irrespective of the duration of the initiative and the arguments used (whether positive or moralising) rarely lead to real behavioural change [23-24]. The impact of such initiatives proves even less effective amongst lower income groups who are unable to implement the recommendations due to their dietary habits, the constraints of their environment and their income levels [23]. As for informational marketing tools (dietary pyramids, nutrition labels, targeted advertising, promotion of “5-a-day”, etc.), they all suffer from a major weakness: the recommendations tend to seem unrealistic for the people in ques[PVU BD -VY M[YL YLMLYLUJL VUL ZOVSK UV[L [OL ILULÄ[Z of culturally-targeted information [26], of varied angles of attack [27], of promoting consumption frequency rather than portion size [28] and of leading separate campaigns for vegetables and fruit [3]. LEADING TARGETED CAMPAIGNS One way of improving the effectiveness of such initiatives is to lead nutrition policy campaigns targeted for example at an age range or a vulnerable subpopulation, and at local SL]LS LN H[ H ZWLJPÄJ ZJOVVS VY ^P[OPU H WHY[PJSHY JVTT nity. The objective remains to stimulate demand through information and education, but such targeting also has a WHY[PJSHY ILULÄ[! P[ LUHISLZ HU PUKP]PKHS»Z LU]PYVUTLU[ [V IL JOHUNLK I` PUÅLUJPUN [OL HJJLZZPIPSP[` [V WYVKJ[Z In view of the importance of the socio-economic determinant and the low consumption of fruit and vegetables amongst vulnerable groups, it is important that they receive priority treatment as part of such initiatives. In France, one study therefore assessed the impact on a disadvantaged group given “Fruit and vegetable vouchers” [7]. The results demonstrate the possibility, using this method, of reducing the proportion of consumers with very low consumption of fruit and vegetables, namely those eating less than one portion a day. (Z [OLZL PUP[PH[P]LZ HYL ]LY` JVZ[S` [OL ZWLJPÄJ [HYNL[PUN VM consumers with the greatest need opens up interesting possibilities. Similarly, in the UK the Healthy Start Programme Why target the young? The younger generations represent the target of choice for nutritional initiatives, but why? Firstly, because they often steer clear of vegetables due to their sensory properties and low energy value, consequently there is a high risk of the young falling short of their micronutrient requirements. Secondly, because dietary habits and preferences are formed in early childhood, especially in terms of fruit and vegetable consumption: people who consume most vegetables during childhood are also those who consume most in adolescence and adulthood. And lastly, for young children to accept vegetables, nothing beats repeated exposure, both during and after introduction to solid MVVKZ BD concentrated mainly on women with low incomes, either pregnant or with young children. The assessment showed a positive impact: an increase in consumption of fruit and vegetables to 3.3 portions per day on average, with 18% of ILULÄJPHYPLZ YLHJOPUN YLJVTTLUKLK SL]LSZ B D One other priority target group: the younger generations. To this end, the school environment constitutes a special activity area, whether for nutritional education initiatives, for the distribution of fruit and vegetables, or for introducing gardening projects. Amongst activities carried out with children, we can cite the ProChildren project which targets children between the ages of 11-12 in nine European countries. The chosen tools: the distribution of fruit and vegetables in schools, the organisation of class-based workshops, the distribution of customised information by computer and activities to be performed at home within the family environment. The YLZS[Z ZOV^LK H ZPNUPÄJHU[ PUJYLHZL PU [OL JVUZTW[PVU VM fruit and vegetables, an increase which was maintained one year after the study, and the importance of the availability of fruit and vegetables at home [30]. 12,2 % of people in France are in a position of food insecurity +YPUN [OL ZLJVUK UH[PVUHS PUKP]PKHS MVVK JVUZTW[PVU Z[K` 05*( JHYYPLK V[ PU -YHUJL IL[^LLU a series of questions was put to participants to assess the extent of food insecurity and to characterise those who MVUK [OLTZLS]LZ PU ZJO H WVZP[PVU BD ;OL YLZS[!
  14. 14. VM WLVWSL PU -YHUJL ^LYL HZZLZZLK HZ ILPUN PU H WVZP[PVU of food insecurity, namely that they experience inadequate access in terms of quality or quantity to a healthy and acceptable diet. Even if such people do not always have a low income, they are confronted with extremely difficult financial challenges. Their consumption of fruit and vegetables is even lower than those from the low income group ^OV KV UV[ MHSS UKLY [OL JH[LNVY` VM MVVK PUZLJYP[` UHTLS` N HUK N VM MYP[ HUK ]LNL[HISLZ YLZWLJ[P]LS` per day. Their diet shows an energy-rich intake which is higher than the rest of the sample group and one which is U[YP[PVUHSS` UIHSHUJLK -Y[OLYTVYL [OPZ
  15. 15. YLWYLZLU[Z V]LY TPSSPVU WLVWSL PU -YHUJL HZ HNHPUZ[ [OL million who receive assistance from the various food charities and organisations, and equates to over five million people experiencing high dietary vulnerability who do not receive any assistance at all. From which arises the necessity to take action for those who do not benefit from assistance in order to reach everyone who finds themselves in a position of food insecurity. www.fondation-louisbonduelle.org p. 6 - How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ?
  16. 16. MONKEY BUSINESS - FOTOLIA.COM Furthermore, a study performed in Norway highlights the importance during such initiatives of the free distribution of produce in order to encourage the involvement of the most disadvantaged groups [31]. Accordingly, in the United States, a pilot programme introduced by the USDA UP[LK :[H[LZ +LWHY[TLU[ VM (NYPJS[YL ILULÄ[LK MYVT six million dollars for the school year 2002/2003. The objective: to encourage the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables in 107 primary and secondary schools in four Z[H[LZ ^P[O HU L_WLUKP[YL VM WLY WWPS ;OPZ ZPNUPÄJHU[ subsidy, combined with the strong commitment of the pupils, parents, head teachers and teachers, as well as that of the catering staff, all contributed to the programme’s success [32]. VARIETY OF PRODUCE (UK ÄUHSS` VUL V[OLY ^H` VM PUJYLHZPUN [OL JVUZTW[PVU VM fruit and vegetables: greater product variety. To this end, everyone involved in the sector (producers, processors, distributors) has their own distinctive role to play: improve the sensory and nutritional properties of the produce; make them easier to use by adapting them to consumer behaviour and habits; and all the while making sure they are affordable. But the complexity lies in combining these three rules. Accordingly, fruit and vegetables can be adapted to snacking trends, with healthy products which can be consumed without cutlery and between meals. But while this approach may work in the Netherlands and Germany where the availability of fruit and vegetable snacks for consumption in the middle of the day has become fairly commonplace over recent years, this concept has not been so easy to establish in France. Several trials have been set up, but only destalked radishes have met with any success. Price probably remains a barrier. We can therefore see the importance of always adapting the product to the culture of the country and the context in which it is marketed: where raw fresh vegetables are a luxury, their promotion has less impact on buying patterns than in producer countries where they are generally more affordable. Another solution Innovative ways of improving products In order to increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables, some companies, such as the Dutch cooperative Hoogsteder, are developing more attractive products for the consumer. Based on the observation that consumers are never attracted by a product if they don’t know how ripe it is or how to prepare it, and often make impulsive purchases based on their own experiences, the cooperative has developed a range of fully ripe fruit. These come under the category of ready-to-eat foodstuffs and help to guide consumers as they make their purchases. But this way of marketing products has its limits: it is only suitable for a SPTP[LK UTILY VM WYVKJ[Z L_V[PJ MYP[Z WLHYZ WLHJOLZ etc.), mainly affects only customers of the large supermarket chains and suffers from higher prices. Source: “Nutrition Health Village” conference during SIAL, Paris, October 2010. to encourage the purchase of fruit and vegetables is to adapt the packaging to the modern family unit, in order to reduce waste and reduce the price. There is therefore an enormous amount of work to be done, but it is worth the LMMVY[ HZ I` YLTV]PUN ZLUZVY` IHYYPLYZ HUK KPMÄJS[PLZ VM utilisation, according to Prof. Combris, “in the long term, innovation in terms of variety and product remain the most promising avenues for adapting the fruit and vegetables on offer to the tastes and practices of the consumer.” In summary, to increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables, products must be available everywhere and accessible in all senses of the word: physically present, at affordable prices, and people must know how to use them, all of which involves them becoming part of their normal repertoire of foodstuffs which can then be integrated into their diet. Accordingly, it is not enough to simply improve access to fruit and vegetables, consumers need support.z How can the consumption of vegetables in Europe be increased ? - p. 7 www.fondation-louisbonduelle.org
  17. 17. Sustainable evolution of eating habits References [1] Elmadfa I et al. European Nutrition and Health Report 2009 (Forum of Nutrition). http://www.univie.ac.at/enhr/ downloads/enhrii_book.pdf (consulté en janvier 2011). [2] Agudo A et al. 2002. Consumption of vegetables, fruit and other plant foods in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts from 10 European countries. Public Health Nutrition 5(6b) : 1179-96. [3] Naska A et al. 2000. Fruit and vegetable availability among ten European countries: how does it JVTWHYL ^P[O [OL ºÄ]LHKH`» YL commendation? British Journal of Nutrition 84(4) : 549-56. [4] Krachler B et al. 2005. Trends in food intakes in Swedish adults 1986-1999: ÄUKPUNZ MYVT [OL 5VY[OLYU :^LKLU MONICA (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Study. Public Health Nutrition 8(6) : 628-35. [5] Prättälä R. 2003. Dietary changes in Finland, success stories and future challenge. Appetite 41(3) : 245-9. [6] DFVF, 2005. Danskernes kostvaner 2000-2002, Hovedresultater, Danmarks Fodevareforskning, DFVF, publikation (11), Soborg, Danmark,165 p. [7] Bihan et al. 2010. Distribution de chèques fruits et légumes : faisabilité et impact. La santé de l’Homme (Revue de l’INPES). [8] Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008). http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/lidnssummary.pdf (consulté en janvier 2011). [9] Les fruits et légumes dans l'alimentation : enjeux et déterminants de la consommation. Rapport de l'expertise ZJPLU[PÄXL JVSSLJ[P]L TLUtL WHY S0UYH à la demande du ministère de l'Agriculture et de la Pêche (2007), France, 371 p. [10] Plessz M, gojard S. La consommation de légumes des ménages français : préparation domestique ou achats de produits transformés. Aliss Working Papers (2010), 2010-07, 24 p. [11] Henderson VR, Kelly B. 2005. Food advertising in the age of obesity: Content analysis of food advertising on general market and African American television. 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