The Benefits of Aerobic Exercise on Hypertension

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The Benefits of Aerobic Exercise on Hypertension

  1. 1. The Benefits of Aerobic Exercise on Hypertension<br />Gregg Fyffe<br />August 3rd 2010<br />
  2. 2. Prevalence of Hypertension<br />29% of Australians have Hypertension1.<br />Most Frequently managed chronic problem by general practitioners2.<br />Directly cost the United States of America $50.8 billion3 in 2002.<br />Primary or contributory cause of death in 118000, one death every 4.5mins3.<br />Genetics accounts for 1/3 risk of developing Hypertension3,4.<br />Is the 3rd greatest risk factor for deteriorating overall health. Behind smoking and inactivity1.<br />Sedentary individuals have a 30-50% greater chance of developing hypertension in their lifetime1.<br />
  3. 3. Measurement and Confirmation<br />Source: Mancia.G et al.(1983) Am Heart Assoc Vol 9<br /><ul><li>Blood Pressure has been documented to rise as much as 27/14 mmHg during initial meeting with a GP5.
  4. 4. Therefore BP must be measured minimum of 2 times to confirm a hypertensive state.</li></ul>NHFA Classification values for confirming Hypertension1.<br />(National Heart Foundation of Australia.)<br />
  5. 5. Genetic Risk<br />Source: Am Heart Assoc(2003) Stats8<br />
  6. 6. Controlled trial of Aerobic Exercise on hypertensionMartin. JE, Dubbert.PM, Cushman. WC.(1990) Controlled trial of Aerobic exercise in hypertension. American Heart Association. 1990;81;1560-1567<br />27 sedentary male subjects<br />Av. Age 43.5 years<br />Av. BP 138/95 mmHg (grade 1)<br />Crossover Population<br />
  7. 7. Results:Martin. JE, Dubbert.PM, Cushman. WC.(1990) Controlled trial of Aerobic exercise in hypertension. American Heart Association. 1990;81;1560-1567<br />
  8. 8. Results continued...Martin. JE, Dubbert.PM, Cushman. WC.(1990) Controlled trial of Aerobic exercise in hypertension. American Heart Association. 1990;81;1560-1567<br />Figure 2 shows the favourable effect aerobic exercise has on decreasing diastolic BP. For the initial aerobic exercise group there was a decrease of 9.6mmHg*. The crossover population also decreased by 6.1mmHg, however this was not statistically significant. No decrease was observed in the control group.<br />Figure 3 demonstrates the favourable effect, of the 10 week aerobic exercise program, on lowering systolic blood pressure. A decrease of 6.4mmHg in the aerobic exercise group and a decrease of 9.1*mmHg (*stat significant) for the crossover group. No decrease was noted in the control group.<br />
  9. 9. Conclusion:<br />Significant reductions in BP only occurred with aerobic exercise. <br />These changes in BP were not accompanied with changes in weight and/or %body fat. This provides crucial evidence in support of the antihypertensive effect of aerobic exercise6<br />A meta-analysis by Whelton et al (2002) confirmed the long term effect of aerobic exercise is a lowering of BP. <br />This result is more pronounced in hypertensive individuals7<br />Additionally, aerobic training was shown to have many other favourable effects on cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes6.<br />
  10. 10. Whelton et al. (2002) Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Ann Inten Med. 2002;136:493-503<br />
  11. 11. Recommendations:<br /><ul><li>Aerobic exercise is shown to reduce BP, and is highly recommended1,7. Minimum 150mins/wk 50-65% maximum HR1.
  12. 12. A combined aerobic and resistance training program has many favourable effects on cardiovascular risk factors and increasing quality of life8.
  13. 13. Acute bouts of aerobic exercise are found to reduce BP by 5-7mmHg post exercise which can last for up to 22hours. This may reduce the need for antihypertensive medications in many hypertensive patients5</li></li></ul><li>References:<br />Baster.T,Brook.C.B. (2005) Exercise and Hypertension. Australian Family Physician Vol. 34 No.6<br />Britt.H, Miller. G, Knox, S.(2001) General Practice Activity in Australia. Canberra, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.<br />American Heart Association. (2003) Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. Dallas, Texas.<br />Dickson.M.E, Sigmund.C.D.(2006) Genetic Basis of hypertension: revisiting angiotensinogen. Hypertension(American Heart Association). 48(1):14-20<br />ManciaMancia.G,Parati.G, et al.(1987) Alerting reaction and rise in blood pressure during measurement by physician and nurse. Hypertension(American Heart Association)Vol 9:209-215 <br />Martin. JE, Dubbert.PM, Cushman. WC.(1990) Controlled trial of Aerobic exercise in hypertension. American Heart Association. 1990;81;1560-1567<br />Whelton et al. (2002) Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Ann Inten Med. 2002;136:493-503<br />Kelley. GA, Kelley KS.(2000) Progressive Resistance Exercise and Resting Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. Hypertension, American Heart Association 2000;35;838-843<br />Additional Resources<br />Pescatello.L.S, Franklin. B.A.(2004) American College of Sports Medicine, Position Stand: Exercise and Hypertension. DOI: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000115224.88514.3A<br />Powers, S. Howley, E. (2009) Exercise Physiology- Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 7thEdn, MCGraw-Hill Companies Inc. New York. NY<br />Levy. D, Larson. M.G, Vasan.R.S, et al.(1996) The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure.Journal of American Medical Association. 1996. 275: 1557-1562<br />

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