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When people tell lies, there are four underlying mechanisms at work:
Arousal : Lying causes anxiety and arousal, either because of dissonance at conflicting values and behavior, or due to fear of getting caught. This can be detected via lie detectors, speech errors and hesitations, repetitions, fidgeting and displacement activity, blinking, higher vocal pitch and pupil dilation.
Thinking : To lie, we usually have to think a lot harder, such as to ensure coherence in our arguments. This leads us to take longer in speaking with more pauses. We also tend to use more generalities to avoid getting trapped by specific detail.
Behavior control : We try to control body language that might give us away. In fact this is impossible and leakage often occurs, for example where we are controlling our face and our legs give us away.
Emotion : Our emotions change when we are lying. For example, duping delight, where the liar is secretly pleased at their perceived success. Guilt may also appear. Micro-emotions in facial muscles can betray hidden emotions.
Methods of detecting lies
Lie detectors, electromyography and pupil dilation
errors and hesitations, repetitions,generalisations higher vocal pitch
Micro-expressions of emotion (emotion leakage)
Why is detection of emotional state in others important?
Humans pretty good at detecting authenticity of emotion conveyed.
Why? If inauthentic lie? – potential threat / danger
BBC - Science & Nature - Human Body and Mind - Spot The Fake Smile
The FACs (Ekman & Friesen, 1976)
Intuitively know when a facial expression may be conveying the possibility of a lack of sincerity or a lie but can go beyond this
Ekman & Ffriesen carried out study to isolate which facial muscles are associated with each emotion and thus if present incongrunetly, may indicate a lie
During a 2007 interview with Katie Couric, Alex Rodriguez demonstrated what Dr. Paul Ekman calls, from left, gestural slips, unilateral contempt and microfear
"The most reliable thing that he did is what we call a gestural slip," Dr.
Ekman said. Several times during his session with Ms. Couric, Mr.
Rodriguez raises his left shoulder (only one shoulder) as he speaks
A half-shrug can be prompted by feelings like helplessness in the face
of tough questions, or a "Who, me?" response to accusations. It doesn't
square with firm denials, Dr. Ekman said.
Asked if he ever witnessed or suspected illegal
drug use among players. His answer: "I never saw" (left
shoulder lifts) anything . I never had raw evidence."
Mr. Rodriguez also displayed what Dr. Ekman said might be repeated microexpressions of "unilateral contempt": a tightening and raising of the corner of the lip that can indicate arrogance or a feeling a moral superiority.
"He does them very frequently," Dr. Ekman said. "It doesn't fit with anything he says.“
But this particular microexpression might not mean anything if it's one that Mr. Rodriguez displays regularly, under all sorts of conditions.
"It's possible that it's a tic," Dr. Ekman said. In order to find out, an investigator would spend lots of time interviewing Mr. Rodriguez about other topics that are not stressful, "to establish a baseline of what he's like when he's not on national television."
Ms. Couric asked Mr. Rodriguez if he had ever been tempted to use illegal drugs. He answered with a simple "No" accompanied by what might be a microfear expression, according to Dr. Ekman - a horizontal stretching of the lips that is often an effort to conceal fearfulness.
"The fear of being disbelieved is the same as fear of being caught," Dr. Ekman said. "He is afraid that we're not going to believe it."
Mr. Rodriguez's lips stretch in a similar way when he talks of his disappointment with the report.
On its own, the expression doesn't carry as much weight to Dr. Ekman as an indicator of submerged feelings. But in combination with repeated half-shrugs and numerous movements at the corner of the lip - sometimes within seconds of one another - his suspicions are stronger. He also noticed that when Mr. Rodriguez denied taking drugs, he was seemingly contradicted by his head, which nodded slightly in the affirmative.
"It suggests a higher probability of lying," he said
Spotting a Genuine Smile
The history of research in the smiles field isn’t as laughable as the subject would suggest, French scientist Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne used electrodiagnotics and electronic stimulation to distinguish the smile of real enjoyment and other kinds of smiling by experimenting with the heads of people who were executed in the guillotine testing how facial muscles reacted.He found out there is two sets of muscles that control the way we genuinely smile, zygomatic major muscles which run down the side of the face and connect to the corners of the mouth, and the orbicularis oculi muscles that pull back the eyes.The zygomatic majors pull the mouth back exposing the teeth and enlarging the cheeks, the orbicularis oculis however make the eyes narrower and cause wrinkles in the corners of them.
Keep in mind the zygomatic major muscles can be consciously controlled allowing people to show insincere friendliness or subordination through fake smiles, the orbicularis oculis however can’t be controlled acting independently when feeling pleassure and reveal our true feelings …if you want to know how to distinguish genuine enjoyment smiles, observe the wrinkles in the corner beside the eyes (in the side photo try to spot which is real and fake, I made it harder as the model has glasses ), the eyebrows will also slightly dip down.Ever wonder why they ask you to say “Cheese” when taking a photo? pronouncing the word pulls back on your zygomatic muscles but they forget about the orbicularis oculis resulting in a fake smile