Power and Influence in
Organizational Relationships

Bolaji Okusaga
Self -Concept
Self-concept
and self
image

• Each individual is unique with own
self-concept
• View of self affects one’s ...
1. Understanding Self Concept and
Relationship Building
An internal
sense of
individuality
and
wholeness.

Who are you?
Name, gender,
race, religion,
occupation,
role, etc.

Evol...
Self-Esteem
Emotional – Self
Appraisal

Practical – Self
Worth

Continuum – Body
Image

• The emotional appraisal
of self-...
Self Actualization
What is Your Role?
• What is your role?
• What do you want your role to be?
How Do You Perceive Your Ro...
Factors Affecting Self-concept
Health status:
• illness, injury, loss of control, dependency on others

Role stressors:
• ...
Self Esteem
The value you
place on
yourself

Your perceived
worth

It is either low
or high
Self Disclosure

Definition
• Revealing information about
yourself to others that is
normally hidden
• Think of Oprah Winf...
Obansanjo’s int. with BBC
HardTalk
GEJ’s Int. With Amanpour
My Oga at the top
JoHari Window: How It Works
KNOWN TO ME

KNOWN
TO
OTHERS

UNKNOWN
TO
OTHERS

Public
Arena
Open

Hidden
Avoided
Private

UN...
The Benjamin Franklin Effect

THE BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
EFFECT

• People will like you
more if you ask them
to do you a favour...
Exploring the Benjamin Franklin
Effect
How can requesting
kindness cause a person
to change his or her
opinion about you?
...
A process through
which people exchange
information, feelings,
and meaning through
verbal and non-verbal
messages: it is f...
About Interpersonal Skills
…are sometimes also referred to
as people skills or
communication skills.

Interpersonal skills...
Listening Skills
Stop
Talking

Put the
Speaker at
Ease
Prepare
Yourself to
Listen

Be Patient

Empathise

Remove
Distracti...
Guidelines for Interpersonal
Behaviour
Be properly prepared for
meetings, interviews,
etc.

Show interest in other
people,...
Dimensions of Interpersonal
Exchanges
BASIC DIMENSIONS

 The verbal aspects of such
one- to-one exchanges
have two basic ...
Dimensions of Interpersonal
Exchanges
Understanding AND
Agreement

Understanding WITH
Disagreement

(Yes it’s alright)

(Y...
Communication and Interpersonal
Relationships

Two people that
share
communication in
any form have an
interpersonal
relat...
The Role and the Need for
Relationships
Need for
inclusion

• The degree with which
we establish and
maintain mutual
inter...
Stages in Relationship Building
Initiating
Experimenting
Intensifying

Integrating
Bonding
Stages in Relationship in
Disintegration
Differentiation

Circumscribing

Stagnating

Termination

Avoiding
2. Power and Influence
Power Defined
Capacity

• the capacity of a person, team,
or organization to produce
effects on others.

Potential

• Peop...
Types of Power
Expert Power

• Power of knowledge
• Here roles can sometimes be reversed between Bosses
and subordinates

...
Dynamics of Power
Positional Versus Personal
Legitimate
Coercive

Reward

Control
over information
Positional Resources

R...
The Role of Power

With power you can…
Intercede
favorably on
behalf of
someone in
trouble

Get a
Get approval
desirable
f...
Influence

Definition
The degree of actual
change as a result of
power

Dynamics
Can be manipulative,
inappropriate or
dis...
Influence Strategies
Retribution
Application
Retribution

• Produces immediate effect based on rigid specifications
• Creates resistance, resentment, alien...
Influence Tactics
Rational persuasion

Personal appeals

Coalition tactics

Exchange of
benefits

Inspirational
appeals

U...
The Confluence of Power and Influence at
Play
EXPERT
REFERENT
LEGITIMATE
REWARD
COERCIEVE

Logical Persuasion
Inspirationa...
Power and Information
Based on
legitimate
power

Relates to
formal
communication
network

Common in
centralized
structures...
Power and Organizational Politics
Forming
Alliances

Cultivating
Networks

Controlling
Information

Trading
Blames

Creati...
Dynamics of Organizational Politics
The People
aligned with
Power benefits

Those who know
how to cope with
organizational...
5 Steps to Become an Influential
Manager

Develop reputation as
expert

Time spent on
relationship should be
based on work...
Stemming Political Tendencies within an
Organisation

Increase

Decrease

• Resources
• Political Norms
• Clear Rules
• Po...
Thank you
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Power and influence in organizational relationships

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Power and influence plays a major role role in the workplace as well as in the larger society. It impacts policy articulation and implementation in government and has a bearing on the success and failure of businesses.

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Power and influence in organizational relationships

  1. 1. Power and Influence in Organizational Relationships Bolaji Okusaga
  2. 2. Self -Concept Self-concept and self image • Each individual is unique with own self-concept • View of self affects one’s ability to function as well as health Components of selfknowledge • self-esteem • self-actualization
  3. 3. 1. Understanding Self Concept and Relationship Building
  4. 4. An internal sense of individuality and wholeness. Who are you? Name, gender, race, religion, occupation, role, etc. Evolution Definition Identity Begins during childhood as parents provide role models Continues during adolescence as teens establish own identity
  5. 5. Self-Esteem Emotional – Self Appraisal Practical – Self Worth Continuum – Body Image • The emotional appraisal of self-concept. • How do you regard yourself? • Feel about self? • Sense of worth or value? • This appraisal is an ongoing process so…levels of self-esteem can change. • Body image is dynamic: the body changes through normal growth and development. • Cultural and societal attitudes affect body image
  6. 6. Self Actualization What is Your Role? • What is your role? • What do you want your role to be? How Do You Perceive Your Role? • A part of self-concept is the way a person perceives their ability to carry out significant roles • How do you bridge the gap between Ideal role expectations and Realistic possibilities
  7. 7. Factors Affecting Self-concept Health status: • illness, injury, loss of control, dependency on others Role stressors: • overload, strained, feelings of inadequacy Developmental transitions • aging Personal “success” or failure history Crisis and/or life events: personal and/or global
  8. 8. Self Esteem The value you place on yourself Your perceived worth It is either low or high
  9. 9. Self Disclosure Definition • Revealing information about yourself to others that is normally hidden • Think of Oprah Winfrey Application: The JoHari Window • Open Self • Blind Self • Hidden Self • Unknown Self
  10. 10. Obansanjo’s int. with BBC HardTalk
  11. 11. GEJ’s Int. With Amanpour
  12. 12. My Oga at the top
  13. 13. JoHari Window: How It Works KNOWN TO ME KNOWN TO OTHERS UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Public Arena Open Hidden Avoided Private UNKNOWN TO ME Blind (spot) Bad Breath Salad Teeth Unknown Unconscious
  14. 14. The Benjamin Franklin Effect THE BENJAMIN FRANKLIN EFFECT • People will like you more if you ask them to do you a favour Benjamin Franklin knew how to deal with haters. Born in 1706 as the eighth of 17 children to a Massachusetts soap and candlestick maker, the chances Benjamin would go on to become a gentleman, scholar, scientist, statesman, musician, author, publisher and all-around general bad-ass were astronomically low, yet he did just that and more because he was a master of the game of personal politics.
  15. 15. Exploring the Benjamin Franklin Effect How can requesting kindness cause a person to change his or her opinion about you? The things you do often create the things you believe. How can asking for a favour turn a hater into a fan?
  16. 16. A process through which people exchange information, feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages: it is face-toface communication. Application Definition Interpersonal Communication The use of language The use of Non-Verbal Cues The layers of meaning that lie within or can be inferred from what was said or unsaid based on the frame of reference of the participants in the communication process
  17. 17. About Interpersonal Skills …are sometimes also referred to as people skills or communication skills. Interpersonal skills are how people relate to one another. It involves using skills such as active listening, tone of voice, delegation, and leadership. It is how well you communicate with someone and how well you behave or carry yourself. The term is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations through social communication and interactions.
  18. 18. Listening Skills Stop Talking Put the Speaker at Ease Prepare Yourself to Listen Be Patient Empathise Remove Distractions Listen to the Tone Avoid Personal Prejudice Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
  19. 19. Guidelines for Interpersonal Behaviour Be properly prepared for meetings, interviews, etc. Show interest in other people, their work and ideas. Accept advice or help and be prepared to offer same. Behave in professional and responsible manner, keep emotions in check. Be helpful, supportive and value everyone you work with. Show willingness to carry out your fair share of work with timeliness and diligence. Be honest, objective and constructive. Avoid negative or destructive behaviour. treat other people the way you wish to be treated.
  20. 20. Dimensions of Interpersonal Exchanges BASIC DIMENSIONS  The verbal aspects of such one- to-one exchanges have two basic dimensions: 1. Understanding 2. Agreement STATES OF AGREEMENT 1. Understanding AND Agreement 2. Understanding WITH Disagreement 3. Misunderstanding with Agreement 4. Misunderstanding WITH Disagreement
  21. 21. Dimensions of Interpersonal Exchanges Understanding AND Agreement Understanding WITH Disagreement (Yes it’s alright) (Yes but not so) Misunderstanding with Agreement (No but alright) Misunderstanding WITH Disagreement (No and not alright)
  22. 22. Communication and Interpersonal Relationships Two people that share communication in any form have an interpersonal relationship People who learn how to develop interpersonal relationships with most everyone they meet certainly experience more success in life than those who don’t. Effective and personal communication stands at the heart of every relationship
  23. 23. The Role and the Need for Relationships Need for inclusion • The degree with which we establish and maintain mutual interest Need for control • The need to establish satisfactory levels of influence and power Need for affection • The need to offer love to others, as well as receive love from others
  24. 24. Stages in Relationship Building Initiating Experimenting Intensifying Integrating Bonding
  25. 25. Stages in Relationship in Disintegration Differentiation Circumscribing Stagnating Termination Avoiding
  26. 26. 2. Power and Influence
  27. 27. Power Defined Capacity • the capacity of a person, team, or organization to produce effects on others. Potential • People have power they don’t use and may not know they possess • Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person
  28. 28. Types of Power Expert Power • Power of knowledge • Here roles can sometimes be reversed between Bosses and subordinates Referent Power • Ability to impact others or effect change based on the strength of relationship between the leader and followers • This power is based more on relationship than status Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power • Status and position backed power • This is usually official • Potential to impact others based on control over the distribution of rewards or desired resources. • The potential to impact others or effect change through the administration of negative sanctions • The court martial is a vivid example
  29. 29. Dynamics of Power Positional Versus Personal Legitimate Coercive Reward Control over information Positional Resources Referent Expert Persuasiveness Personal Resources Personal & Positional resources need not be mutually exclusive
  30. 30. The Role of Power With power you can… Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble Get a Get approval desirable for Get items on placement and off expenditures for a beyond the agendas talented budget subordinate Get fast access to decision makers Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts
  31. 31. Influence Definition The degree of actual change as a result of power Dynamics Can be manipulative, inappropriate or dishonest Knowing about these makes you aware of their use by others
  32. 32. Influence Strategies Retribution
  33. 33. Application Retribution • Produces immediate effect based on rigid specifications • Creates resistance, resentment, alienation • Stifles initiative and innovation Reciprocity • Produced result without friction • Depends largely on trust • May be time-wasting due to need for boss-subordinate negotiations Reason • Relies on logic and principles to produce results • Demands time based on the need to set-up process for establishing evidence and advance logic
  34. 34. Influence Tactics Rational persuasion Personal appeals Coalition tactics Exchange of benefits Inspirational appeals Upwards appeals Pressure tactics Consultation Ingratiation Appeals to authority (legitimating tactics) Yukl, 89; Yukl & Van Fleet 92
  35. 35. The Confluence of Power and Influence at Play EXPERT REFERENT LEGITIMATE REWARD COERCIEVE Logical Persuasion Inspirational Appeals Appeals to authority Exchange benefits Pressure Tactics
  36. 36. Power and Information Based on legitimate power Relates to formal communication network Common in centralized structures (wheel pattern) Control over information flow
  37. 37. Power and Organizational Politics Forming Alliances Cultivating Networks Controlling Information Trading Blames Creating Obligations Organizational Power Plays Managing Impressions
  38. 38. Dynamics of Organizational Politics The People aligned with Power benefits Those who know how to cope with organizational uncertainties gain power
  39. 39. 5 Steps to Become an Influential Manager Develop reputation as expert Time spent on relationship should be based on work needs Develop network of resource persons who can be called upon for assistance Communicate influence tactics effectively Choose correct combination of influence tactics based on objective and target to be influenced
  40. 40. Stemming Political Tendencies within an Organisation Increase Decrease • Resources • Political Norms • Clear Rules • Political Employees • Shared Information • Peer Pressure • Opportunity for Dialogue
  41. 41. Thank you
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