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Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
Power and influence in organizational relationships
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Power and influence in organizational relationships

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Power and influence plays a major role role in the workplace as well as in the larger society. It impacts policy articulation and implementation in government and has a bearing on the success and …

Power and influence plays a major role role in the workplace as well as in the larger society. It impacts policy articulation and implementation in government and has a bearing on the success and failure of businesses.

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  • 1. Power and Influence in Organizational Relationships Bolaji Okusaga
  • 2. Self -Concept Self-concept and self image • Each individual is unique with own self-concept • View of self affects one’s ability to function as well as health Components of selfknowledge • self-esteem • self-actualization
  • 3. 1. Understanding Self Concept and Relationship Building
  • 4. An internal sense of individuality and wholeness. Who are you? Name, gender, race, religion, occupation, role, etc. Evolution Definition Identity Begins during childhood as parents provide role models Continues during adolescence as teens establish own identity
  • 5. Self-Esteem Emotional – Self Appraisal Practical – Self Worth Continuum – Body Image • The emotional appraisal of self-concept. • How do you regard yourself? • Feel about self? • Sense of worth or value? • This appraisal is an ongoing process so…levels of self-esteem can change. • Body image is dynamic: the body changes through normal growth and development. • Cultural and societal attitudes affect body image
  • 6. Self Actualization What is Your Role? • What is your role? • What do you want your role to be? How Do You Perceive Your Role? • A part of self-concept is the way a person perceives their ability to carry out significant roles • How do you bridge the gap between Ideal role expectations and Realistic possibilities
  • 7. Factors Affecting Self-concept Health status: • illness, injury, loss of control, dependency on others Role stressors: • overload, strained, feelings of inadequacy Developmental transitions • aging Personal “success” or failure history Crisis and/or life events: personal and/or global
  • 8. Self Esteem The value you place on yourself Your perceived worth It is either low or high
  • 9. Self Disclosure Definition • Revealing information about yourself to others that is normally hidden • Think of Oprah Winfrey Application: The JoHari Window • Open Self • Blind Self • Hidden Self • Unknown Self
  • 10. Obansanjo’s int. with BBC HardTalk
  • 11. GEJ’s Int. With Amanpour
  • 12. My Oga at the top
  • 13. JoHari Window: How It Works KNOWN TO ME KNOWN TO OTHERS UNKNOWN TO OTHERS Public Arena Open Hidden Avoided Private UNKNOWN TO ME Blind (spot) Bad Breath Salad Teeth Unknown Unconscious
  • 14. The Benjamin Franklin Effect THE BENJAMIN FRANKLIN EFFECT • People will like you more if you ask them to do you a favour Benjamin Franklin knew how to deal with haters. Born in 1706 as the eighth of 17 children to a Massachusetts soap and candlestick maker, the chances Benjamin would go on to become a gentleman, scholar, scientist, statesman, musician, author, publisher and all-around general bad-ass were astronomically low, yet he did just that and more because he was a master of the game of personal politics.
  • 15. Exploring the Benjamin Franklin Effect How can requesting kindness cause a person to change his or her opinion about you? The things you do often create the things you believe. How can asking for a favour turn a hater into a fan?
  • 16. A process through which people exchange information, feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages: it is face-toface communication. Application Definition Interpersonal Communication The use of language The use of Non-Verbal Cues The layers of meaning that lie within or can be inferred from what was said or unsaid based on the frame of reference of the participants in the communication process
  • 17. About Interpersonal Skills …are sometimes also referred to as people skills or communication skills. Interpersonal skills are how people relate to one another. It involves using skills such as active listening, tone of voice, delegation, and leadership. It is how well you communicate with someone and how well you behave or carry yourself. The term is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations through social communication and interactions.
  • 18. Listening Skills Stop Talking Put the Speaker at Ease Prepare Yourself to Listen Be Patient Empathise Remove Distractions Listen to the Tone Avoid Personal Prejudice Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
  • 19. Guidelines for Interpersonal Behaviour Be properly prepared for meetings, interviews, etc. Show interest in other people, their work and ideas. Accept advice or help and be prepared to offer same. Behave in professional and responsible manner, keep emotions in check. Be helpful, supportive and value everyone you work with. Show willingness to carry out your fair share of work with timeliness and diligence. Be honest, objective and constructive. Avoid negative or destructive behaviour. treat other people the way you wish to be treated.
  • 20. Dimensions of Interpersonal Exchanges BASIC DIMENSIONS  The verbal aspects of such one- to-one exchanges have two basic dimensions: 1. Understanding 2. Agreement STATES OF AGREEMENT 1. Understanding AND Agreement 2. Understanding WITH Disagreement 3. Misunderstanding with Agreement 4. Misunderstanding WITH Disagreement
  • 21. Dimensions of Interpersonal Exchanges Understanding AND Agreement Understanding WITH Disagreement (Yes it’s alright) (Yes but not so) Misunderstanding with Agreement (No but alright) Misunderstanding WITH Disagreement (No and not alright)
  • 22. Communication and Interpersonal Relationships Two people that share communication in any form have an interpersonal relationship People who learn how to develop interpersonal relationships with most everyone they meet certainly experience more success in life than those who don’t. Effective and personal communication stands at the heart of every relationship
  • 23. The Role and the Need for Relationships Need for inclusion • The degree with which we establish and maintain mutual interest Need for control • The need to establish satisfactory levels of influence and power Need for affection • The need to offer love to others, as well as receive love from others
  • 24. Stages in Relationship Building Initiating Experimenting Intensifying Integrating Bonding
  • 25. Stages in Relationship in Disintegration Differentiation Circumscribing Stagnating Termination Avoiding
  • 26. 2. Power and Influence
  • 27. Power Defined Capacity • the capacity of a person, team, or organization to produce effects on others. Potential • People have power they don’t use and may not know they possess • Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person
  • 28. Types of Power Expert Power • Power of knowledge • Here roles can sometimes be reversed between Bosses and subordinates Referent Power • Ability to impact others or effect change based on the strength of relationship between the leader and followers • This power is based more on relationship than status Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power • Status and position backed power • This is usually official • Potential to impact others based on control over the distribution of rewards or desired resources. • The potential to impact others or effect change through the administration of negative sanctions • The court martial is a vivid example
  • 29. Dynamics of Power Positional Versus Personal Legitimate Coercive Reward Control over information Positional Resources Referent Expert Persuasiveness Personal Resources Personal & Positional resources need not be mutually exclusive
  • 30. The Role of Power With power you can… Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble Get a Get approval desirable for Get items on placement and off expenditures for a beyond the agendas talented budget subordinate Get fast access to decision makers Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts
  • 31. Influence Definition The degree of actual change as a result of power Dynamics Can be manipulative, inappropriate or dishonest Knowing about these makes you aware of their use by others
  • 32. Influence Strategies Retribution
  • 33. Application Retribution • Produces immediate effect based on rigid specifications • Creates resistance, resentment, alienation • Stifles initiative and innovation Reciprocity • Produced result without friction • Depends largely on trust • May be time-wasting due to need for boss-subordinate negotiations Reason • Relies on logic and principles to produce results • Demands time based on the need to set-up process for establishing evidence and advance logic
  • 34. Influence Tactics Rational persuasion Personal appeals Coalition tactics Exchange of benefits Inspirational appeals Upwards appeals Pressure tactics Consultation Ingratiation Appeals to authority (legitimating tactics) Yukl, 89; Yukl & Van Fleet 92
  • 35. The Confluence of Power and Influence at Play EXPERT REFERENT LEGITIMATE REWARD COERCIEVE Logical Persuasion Inspirational Appeals Appeals to authority Exchange benefits Pressure Tactics
  • 36. Power and Information Based on legitimate power Relates to formal communication network Common in centralized structures (wheel pattern) Control over information flow
  • 37. Power and Organizational Politics Forming Alliances Cultivating Networks Controlling Information Trading Blames Creating Obligations Organizational Power Plays Managing Impressions
  • 38. Dynamics of Organizational Politics The People aligned with Power benefits Those who know how to cope with organizational uncertainties gain power
  • 39. 5 Steps to Become an Influential Manager Develop reputation as expert Time spent on relationship should be based on work needs Develop network of resource persons who can be called upon for assistance Communicate influence tactics effectively Choose correct combination of influence tactics based on objective and target to be influenced
  • 40. Stemming Political Tendencies within an Organisation Increase Decrease • Resources • Political Norms • Clear Rules • Political Employees • Shared Information • Peer Pressure • Opportunity for Dialogue
  • 41. Thank you

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