RM 8th Feb ppt

2,191 views
1,977 views

Published on

RM- 8th Feb 2011 PPT

1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,191
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
161
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

RM 8th Feb ppt

  1. 1. Lecture 4 Farha Hassan
  2. 2. Define research problem Review previous research findings Review concepts and theories Formulate hypotheses Design research Collect data Analyze data Interpret & Report Steps in Research Process
  3. 3. Define research problem Review previous research findings Review concepts and theories Formulate hypotheses Design research Collect data Analyze data Interpret & Report Steps in Research Process
  4. 4. <ul><li>The researcher must single out the problem he has to study. </li></ul><ul><li>He must decide the general area or subject matter he wants to enquire. </li></ul><ul><li>Two steps are involved in formulating a research problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rephrasing the same into meaningful term from analytical point of view. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Define research problem Review previous research findings Review concepts and theories Formulate hypotheses Design research Collect data Analyze data Interpret & Report Steps in Research Process
  6. 6. <ul><li>The researcher must examine all the available literature to get acquainted with the research problem. </li></ul><ul><li>He may review conceptual and empirical literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier similar studies must be carefully studied. </li></ul><ul><li>A good library would be of great help at this stage. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Define research problem Review previous research findings Review concepts and theories Formulate hypotheses Design research Collect data Analyze data Interpret & Report Steps in Research Process
  8. 8. <ul><li>After extensive literature survey, the researcher must state in clear terms the hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a focal point for research. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be very specific and related to research. </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses attention on the important facets of the problem. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Define research problem Review previous research findings Review concepts and theories Formulate hypotheses Design research Collect data Analyze data Interpret & Report Steps in Research Process
  10. 10. <ul><li>The conceptual structure in which the research would be conducted. </li></ul><ul><li>The function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Research design would state the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The means of obtaining information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time available for research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determination of population and sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling plan </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>This calls for three decisions— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is to be surveyed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many people should be surveyed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How should the respondents be chosen? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Probability sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple random sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified random sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster sample </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non Probability sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgement sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quota sample </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Simple random sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every member of the population has a known and equal chance of selection. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratified random sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as age groups), and random samples are drawn from each group. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Cluster sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as blocks), and the researcher draws a sample of the groups to interview. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Convenience sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher selects the easiest population members from which to obtain information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgement sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher uses his or her judgement to select population members who are good prospects for accurate information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quota sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher finds and interviews a prescribed number of people in each of several categories. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Define research problem Review previous research findings Review concepts and theories Formulate hypotheses Design research Collect data Analyze data Interpret & Report Steps in Research Process
  18. 18. <ul><li>Data for research can be collected in any of the following ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Define research problem Review previous research findings Review concepts and theories Formulate hypotheses Design research Collect data Analyze data Interpret & Report Steps in Research Process
  20. 20. <ul><li>It involves coding, tabulating and drawing out statistical inferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is condensed into manageable groups and tables for managerial interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers and other softwares are used widely for the purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Various statistical tests could be used. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Define research problem Review previous research findings Review concepts and theories Formulate hypotheses Design research Collect data Analyze data Interpret & Report Steps in Research Process
  22. 22. <ul><li>After testing a hypotheses several times, the researcher can arrive at a generalization and build a theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation is a process whereby the researcher explains his findings on the basis of some theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally the researcher has to prepare a report on what has been done by him. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a research design. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.” </li></ul><ul><li>The research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. </li></ul><ul><li>An outline of what to be done from writing the hypothesis to the final analysis of data. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>What is the study about? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the study being made? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will the study be carried out? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of data is required? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can the required data be found? </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>What periods of time will the study include? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be the sample design? </li></ul><ul><li>What techniques of data collection will be used? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be analysed? </li></ul><ul><li>In what style will the report be prepared? </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The Sampling design which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study. </li></ul><ul><li>The Observational design which relates to the conditions under which the observations are to be made. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>The Statistical design which concerns with the question of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analysed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Operational design which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational designs can be carried out. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>A good design is often characterised by adjectives like flexible, appropriate, efficient, economical, etc </li></ul><ul><li>The design which minimises bias and maximises the reliability of the data collected and analysed is considered a good design. </li></ul><ul><li>The design which gives the smallest experimental error is supposed to be the best design in many investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>A design which yields maximal information and provides an opportunity for considering many different aspects of a problem is considered most appropriate and efficient design in respect of many research problems. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights . </li></ul><ul><li>Inbuilt flexibility in research design is needed because the research problem is transformed into one with more precise meaning in exploratory studies </li></ul><ul><li>It may necessitate changes in the research procedure. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>The researcher must be able to define clearly what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods for measuring it. </li></ul><ul><li>There has to be a clear cut definition of ‘population’ he wants to study. </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure to be used must be carefully planned. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The research design must make enough provision for protection against bias. </li></ul><ul><li>The design in such studies must be rigid . </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Formulating the objective of the study (what the study is about and why is it being made?) </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the methods of data collection (what techniques of gathering data will be adopted?) </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting the sample (how much material will be needed?) </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting the data (where can the required data be found) </li></ul><ul><li>Processing and analysing the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting the findings. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Hypothesis-testing research studies ( known as experimental studies) are those where the researcher tests the hypotheses of causal relationships between variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Such studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability, but will permit drawing inferences about causality. </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>H-o: Children do not react to television commercials. </li></ul><ul><li>H-1: Children react to television commercials. </li></ul><ul><li>H-o: Celebrity endorsements do not affect sales. </li></ul><ul><li>H-1: Celebrity endorsements affect the sales. </li></ul><ul><li>H-o: Teenagers are not brand conscious. </li></ul><ul><li>H-1: Teenagers are brand conscious. </li></ul>

×