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  • 1. Lecture: 7 Ms Farha Hassan
  • 2.
    • Qualitative Research
  • 3.
    • Unstructured and longish interview
    • Interaction between individual interviewer and a single participant.
    • 20 minutes to 2 hrs
    • Most questions are open ended
    • Detailed use of visual audio aids
    • Participants are chosen because of their experiences and attitudes.
    • Discussion is rich in personal detail
  • 4.
    • Group discussion on a given subject conducted by a trained moderator
    • Purpose is to create a less than formal information
    • People can exchange views and bring out their opinions, attitudes and feelings about a given situation
    • 6 to 10 persons
    • Half to one hr till nothing left
  • 5.
    • Useful for generating information at the most repressed level.
    • Help the researcher to understand underlying attitudes and behaviours.
    • Indirect method of assessment.
    • Countless techniques which can be used with imagination and flexibility.
  • 6.
    • Sensitive to covert or unconscious aspects of behaviour.
    • Encourages wide variety of responses.
    • Highly multi dimensional.
  • 7.
    • Word associations (cooking oil, noodles)
    • Personification (Mac Donalds, Shoppers Stop)
    • Sentence completion
    • ( I like cross roads because________________)
    • Role playing
    • ( I am brand X, ___________)
  • 8.  
  • 9. x ² = chi-square statistics O i = observed frequency in the i th cell E i = expected frequency on the i th cell
  • 10.  
  • 11. R i = total observed frequency in the i th row C j = total observed frequency in the j th column n = sample size
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • Critical probability in choosing between the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis
    • If the possiblity of the happening of an event is 95%, the significance level is 5%
    • If the possiblity of the happening of an event is 90%, the significance level is 10%....
    • If nothing is mentioned, assume it to be 5%
  • 14.
    • Abbreviated d.f.
    • Number of observations
    • Number of constraints
    • Formula for Degree of Freedom:
    • (r-1) * (c-1)
  • 15.
    • If the calculated value is less than the tabulated value, accept null hypothesis.
    • If the calculated value is more than the tabulated value, reject null hypothesis.
  • 16.
    • Step 1 : Frame Hypothesis
    • Step 2 : Apply formula of Chi square and find the Chi square value.
    • Step 3 : Find out Tabulated value.
    • Step 4 : Accept or reject the null hypothesis.
    • Step 5 : Infer/ Conclude
  • 17. Test the hypothesis and find the Chi square value. Tabulated value for 1 DF at 5 % level is 3.841 EXPECTED OBSERVED MALE 50 45 FEMALE 50 55
  • 18.
    • Ho: Population is evenly distributed
    • Ha: Population is unevenly distributed.
    • Chi square = (45- 50) 2 + (55-50) 2
    • 50 50
    = 1 ( Calculated value) Given: Tabulated value is 3.814 Since calculated value is less than tabulated value, accept the null hypotheses. Thus, we can conclude that the population is evenly distributed.
  • 19. Test whether income and type of school are independent. 77.78 INCOME PUBLIC SCHOOLS GOVT SCHOOLS LOW 494 506 HIGH 162 438
  • 20. Observation Observed value Expected value Chi Square Row 1 P 494 Row 1 G 506 Row 2 P 162 Row 2 G 438
  • 21. A chemical plant processes sea water to collect sodium chloride and magnesium. From scientific analysis, sea water is know to contain sodium chloride, magnesium and other elements in the ratio of 62:4:34. A sample of 200 tons of sea water resulted in 130 tons of sodium chloride and 6 tons of magnesium. Is this data consistent with the significance level of 5%? 16.246 SALTS OBSERVED EXPECTED SODIUM 130 124 MAGNESIUM 6 8 OTHERS 64 68
  • 22.
    • Awareness of Tire Manufacturer’s Brand
    22.161 MEN WOMEN TOTAL AWARE 50 10 60 UNAWARE 15 25 40 TOTAL 65 35 100
  • 23.
    • The sales manager of a showroom feels that the daily demand for a product follows uniform distribution. The observed frequencies are given below. Check whether the data is uniformly distributed.
    5.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Demand 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Observed freq 13 10 7 10 6 9 12 10 14 9
  • 24.
    • A group of 150 college students were asked to indicate their most liked film star from a list of 6 stars A, B, C, D, E and F. Observed frequencies was as follows. Test at 5% whether all actors are equally popular.
    4 Actors A B C D E F Total Freq 24 20 32 25 28 21 150
  • 25.
    • Regulation is the best way to ensure a safe work place.
    Opinion Managers Blue collor W Agree 58 66 Disagree 34 24 No opinion 8 10 Totals 100 100