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    Rm 3 Rm 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Lecture 3 Farha Hassan
      • Definition
      • Application of the scientific method in searching for the truth about marketing phenomena.
      • Marketing Intelligence
      • Marketing Research
      • Ongoing process
      • Usually done in-house
      • Not meant for immediate action
      • General purpose
      • Focus on competition and environment
      • Project based on information gap
      • Mostly outsourced to MR companies
      • Action oriented
      • Very specific answers to questions
      • Focus on consumers, influencers, etc
      • BASIC M.R
      • APPLIED M.R
      • Conducted without a specific decision in mind.
      • Does not address the needs of a specific organization.
      • Does not aim at solving a particular problem.
      • Conducted with a specific decision in mind.
      • Address the need of a particular organization.
      • Aims at solving a particular problem.
      • What do we sell?
        • Tangible/Intangible benefits
      • How do consumers view our company?
        • Favourably/ Unfavourably/ Neutral
      • What does our company/product mean?
        • What does the packaging and promotion mean to customers?
      • What do consumers desire?
        • How can company make life of consumers better?
        • How can it do it in a way that cannot be easily duplicated?
      • Johnson & Johnson Band Aid
      • Allen Solly- Women’s Western Wear
      • Johnson’s Baby Lotion
    • Pricing research Product research Distribution research Promotion research Concept research
    • Pricing research Product research Distribution research Promotion research Concept research
      • During a product launch, there would be several stages, the first stage is the concept development and testing.
      • The idea may come from many sources.
      • Whatever may be the source, it is generally researched further through concept testing before it goes into other stages.
      • Eg
      • Fabric softner.
    • Pricing research Product research Distribution research Promotion research Concept research
      • Includes studies designed to evaluate and develop new products and to learn how to adapt existing product lines.
      • Concept testing exposes potential customers to a new product idea to judge the acceptance.
      • Product testing reveals the product prototype’s strengths and weakness.
      • Brand name evaluation studies investigate whether a name is appropriate for a product.
      • Package testing assesses size, color, shape, ease of use and other attributes of a package.
      • Eg: Cheetos, first brand of American snack food to be made and marketed in China was tested in China with 600 flavours and finally only 2 flavours were launched.
    • Pricing research Product research Distribution research Promotion research Concept research
      • Pricing involves the amount of monetary sacrifice that best represents the value customers perceive in a product.
      • Most organizations conduct pricing research.
      • Pricing research investigates the way people respond to pricing tactics.
      • How do customers respond to price reductions?
      • How much are they willing to pay for some critical product attribute?
      • Do price gaps among National, Regional and Private label brands exist?
      • Do you think the price of “Brand A” of TV is appropriate?
      • Wrong way to ask question.
      • It may require experience of several price related studies before one begins to appreciate the nuance of consumer behavior related to price.
    • Pricing research Product research Distribution research Promotion research Concept research
      • Distribution research is typified by studies aimed at selecting retail sites or warehouse locations.
      • A survey of retailers or wholesalers may be conducted as the actions of one channel member can greatly affect the performance of other channel members.
      • This study gives knowledge about retailers’ and wholesalers’ operations.
      • Research focused on developing and improving the efficiency of marketing channels is extremely important.
      • E.g. 1
      • TV technology has advanced greatly. As a result more and more customers are having home theatres, satellite TV, etc. how will this affect the traditional channels of distribution of motion pictures ???
      • E.g. 2
      • Prescription drugs can be purchased via internet. For the consumer, this marketing channel bypasses the traditional doctors and pharmacists’ visit. Now, for a pharmaceutical firm,
        • Is it wise to take advantage of this channel? By removing the family doctor,
        • Does the drug seem to be less effective?
        • If so, is the brand reputation harmed?
    • Pricing research Product research Distribution research Promotion research Concept research
      • It investigates the effectiveness of advertising, premiums, coupons, sampling, discounts, public relations and other sales promotions.
      • However, most time is spent on “Advertising research”
      • Two major categories in advertising research are:
        • Copy testing
        • Media research
      • It includes research into all aspects of advertising- brand awareness, brand recall, copy recall, recall of slogan or jingle, celebrity endorsement, etc
      • A ‘Copy’ is a name given to text used in an advertisement.
      • The major activity under this category is research into viewership of specific television programmes on various TV channels
      • Specialised agencies like A C Nielsen offer viewership data worldwide.
      • In India, ORG-MARG and IMRB offer this service.
      • They offer peoplemeter data with brand names of TAM and INTAM.
      • Though very useful most of the time, it is not the only input for decision making.
      • Many small businesses run without doing marketing research and very successful too.
      • Many managers base their work on judgement, intuition and perceptions rather than numerical data.
      • Eg: Hot Shot Camera
      • Time taken should be minimum in dynamic world.
      • Any information collected from a respondent should not be misused for any other purpose.
      • Forcing respondents to answer the questions is not professionalism.
      • Confidentiality of replies should be protected.
      • If questions are embarrassing, they can have an option to avoid it.