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  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Complex
    • Situation frequency
      • Pricing problems
    • Dramatic changes
      • Sudden fall in the sales
    • How widespread are the symptoms?
      • Situations with multiple symptoms/widespread symptoms
    • Symptom ambiguity
      • Decreased turnover/lower job satisfaction
  • 5.
    • An automobile company may exhibit symptoms such as increasing complaints about car handling, increased warranty costs, higher labor costs, lower performance rating, etc
      • Production as problem area
    • Mileage problems, unpleasant environment, car appearance, etc
      • Widespread symptoms
  • 6. Situation analysis Identify the symptoms Write managerial decision statements Determine the unit of analysis Determine relevant variables Write research questions
  • 7. Situation analysis Identify the symptoms Write managerial decision statements Determine the unit of analysis Determine relevant variables Write research questions
  • 8.
    • Gathering of background information
    • Gaining awareness of the market place conditions
    • Some exploratory research to be conducted
    • Interviews with key people
  • 9. Situation analysis Identify the symptoms Write managerial decision statements Determine the unit of analysis Determine relevant variables Write research questions
  • 10.
    • Interviews with key decision makers
    • Once symptoms are identified, the researcher must probe to identify possible causes of these changes
    • Probing is a technique that draws deeper explanations from the discussion
    • To know, ‘What has changed?”
    • Identify potential causes of change
      • Changes in documents, financial statements, etc
      • Changes can be identified by tracking news about competitors and customers
  • 11.
    • Eg
    • A firm has a problem with advertising effectiveness, the possible causes may be
      • low brand awareness
      • wrong brand image
      • use of wrong media
      • too small budget
  • 12. Situation analysis Identify the symptoms Write managerial decision statements Determine the unit of analysis Determine relevant variables Write research questions
  • 13.
    • Decision statements capture the objectives in a way that invites multiple solutions
    • Decision statements may be translated into research objectives
    • Researcher should visualise what will need to be measured and what type of study will be needed
    • Note: Each research objective states a potential result
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • To determine how committed customers are to the restaurant
    • To determine how frequently the customers visit one restaurant relative to the competition
    • To find out the profile of customers that spend significantly more than average each time they visit the restaurant
  • 16.
    • A research study will be conducted that
      • Shows how much each of several key variables relates to customer commitment and patronage frequency
      • Provides a description of the type of customer that spends most of the money
  • 17. Situation analysis Identify the symptoms Write managerial decision statements Determine the unit of analysis Determine relevant variables Write research questions
  • 18.
    • The unit of analysis of a study indicates what or who should provide the data and at what levels of aggregation
    • Researchers specify whether an investigation will collect data about individuals, households, organizations, departments, geographical areas or objects
  • 19.
    • In studies of home buying , husband wife is the unit of analysis rather than individual because most purchase decisions are made jointly by them.
  • 20. Situation analysis Identify the symptoms Write managerial decision statements Determine the unit of analysis Determine relevant variables Write research questions
  • 21.
    • What is a Variable?
    • A variable is anything that changes from one instance to another.
    • Variables exhibit differences in value, in magnitude, strength, direction, etc
    • In research, variable is either observed or manipulated.
  • 22.
    • What is a constant?
    • It is converse of variable
    • It is something that does not change
    • Constants are not useful in addressing research questions
    • Since constants don’t change, management is not very interested in them
    • It is important in Causal research
  • 23.
    • Continuous
    • Categorical
    • Dependant
    • Independent
  • 24.
    • It can take on a range of values in numbers
    • Eg: Consumer attitude towards different Airlines is a variable that would generally be captured by numbers, higher numbers indicating more positive attitude. Each attribute of services like seats, food, safety, etc can be scored in this way
  • 25.
    • It is one that indicates membership in some group
    • Eg: People may be categorised as Male or Female.
  • 26.
    • It is an outcome that is predicted or explained by other variables
  • 27.
    • It is expected to influence the dependant variable in some way.
    • Eg:
    • Average customer loyalty may be a dependant variable that is influenced by independent variables like food quality, service quality, ambience, etc
  • 28. Situation analysis Identify the symptoms Write managerial decision statements Determine the unit of analysis Determine relevant variables Write research questions/ objectives
  • 29.
    • At the end of problem definition stage, the researcher should prepare a written statement that clarifies any ambiguity about what the research hopes to accomplish.
  • 30.
    • “ Are consumer perceptions of food quality, price and atmosphere related to customer loyalty?”
  • 31.
    • The idea that the dangerous part of many business problems is neither visible nor understood by managers
  • 32.
    • Situation analysis - The informal gathering of background information to familiarize researchers or managers with the decision area.
  • 33.
    • Symptoms can be confusing
  • 34. Problem Definition Organization Symptoms Based on Symptom True Problem Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association in a major city. Membership has been declining for years. New water park with wave pool and water slides moved into town a few years ago. Neighborhood residents prefer the expensive water park and have negative image of swimming pool. Demographic changes: Children in this 20-year-old neighborhood have grown up. Older residents no longer swim anywhere.
  • 35. TOTI EMUL ESTO
  • 36. TOTI EMUL ESTO
  • 37.
    • Individuals, households, organizations, etc.
    • In many studies, the family rather than the individual is the appropriate unit of analysis.
  • 38.
    • Anything that may assume different numerical values
  • 39.
    • Categorical
    • Continuous
    • Dependent
    • Independent
  • 40.
    • An unproven proposition
    • A possible solution to a problem
    • Guess
  • 41.
    • Small budget affects advertising effectivity.
    • Use of wrong media affects advertising effectivity.
  • 42.
  • 43.