What is erp


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What is erp

  1. 1. What is Enterprise Resource Planning ??Lets take an example. Suppose you are running a small grocery shop named "Janata Grocery", so thetypical operation as a shop owner is you basically buy groceries from some big seller and stock it inyour shop. Now people come to your shop for day-to-day needs and buy stuff from your shop at aslightly higher price than what you originally bought and stocked it in your shop.Ocassionally you may not be carrying items or run out of stock that people ask for so you make a noteof it and promise the person to come back tomorrow and they will get their item. So far so good, nowlets name some entities before we proceed and things get complicated. The big seller from whom youbuy stock is called as Vendor, the people who come to your shop to buy things are known ascustomers, the stock in your shop is known as inventory.So far we have identified few entities that play an active role in your day-to-day operations. As timegoes by, your business expands and now you take orders over the phone and provide service todeliver the items to your customers, so you hire people to help you out in maintaining the inventory,do the delivery part and all the necessary stuff to keep the business running smoothly. The people youhire are known as employees.So in this small shop, you typically manage the bookkeeping activities by hand using a notepad orsomething similar. Now imagine the same setup on a larger scale where you have more than 10,000customers, have more than 1000 vendors, have more than 1000 employees and have a hugewarehouse to maintain your inventory. Do you think you can manage all that information using pen andpaper? Absolutely no way! Your business will come to a sudden stop sign.To facilitate big businesses, companies like Oracle Corporation have created huge software known inthe category of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) as Oracle Applications. Now coming to think of it,Oracle Apps is not one huge software, instead it is a collection of software known as modules thatare integrated and talk to each other.Now what is meant by integrated? First let us identify the modules by entities. For e.g Purchasing andAccount Payables deal with the vendors since you typically purchase from vendors and eventuallyhave to pay the dues. Oracle Purchasing handles all the requisitions and purchase orders to thevendors whereas Oracle Accounts Payables handles all the payments to the vendors.Similarly Oracle Inventory deals with the items you maintain in stock, warehouse etc. Dealing withcustomers is handled collectively with the help of Oracle Receivables and Oracle OrderManagement. Order Management helps you collect all the information that your customer is orderingover the phone or webstore etc whereas Receivables help you collect the money for the orders thatare delivered to the customers.Now who maintains the paychecks, benefits of the 1000 employees? right! it is managed byOracle Human Resources. So you get the idea by now that for each logical function there is aseparate module that helps to execute and maintain that function.So all the individual functions are being taken care but how do I know if I am making profit orloss? Thats where integration comes into play. There is another module known as OracleGeneral Ledger. This module receives information from all the different transaction modules andsummarizes them in order to help you create profit and loss statements, reports for paying Taxesetc.Just to simplify the explanation, when you pay your employees that payment is reported back toGeneral Ledgers as cost i.e money going out, when you purchase inventory items the information istransferred to GL as money going out, and so is the case when you pay your vendors. Similarly whenyou receive items in your inventory it is transferred to GL as money coming in, when your customersends payment it is transfered to GL as money coming in. So all the different transaction modulesreport to GL (General Ledger) as either "money going in" or "money going out", the net result will tellyou if you are making a profit or loss.All the equipment, shops, warehouses, computers can be termed as Assets and they are managed byOracle Fixed Assets. Initially Oracle Applications started as bunch of modules and as time passed by
  2. 2. they added new modules for different and new functions growing out of the need for todays internetworld.So if you come across a module that you are trying to learn and work on, first try to understand whatbusiness need is it trying to fulfill and then try to understand what the immediate modules that itinteracts with. For e.g lets say you come across Oracle Cost Management module, you will learn that ithelps to maintain the costs of items in your inventory and the immediate modules that it interacts withare Oracle Inventory (ofcourse), Oracle Bills of Material, Order Management and so on..There is more to ERP than this layman explanation of a complex beast that does not justify a single bitbut I wished I had this knowledge when I was thrown into Oracle Applications right after I graduatedfrom college. Back then the only piece of software I had known to write was implementing binary trees,infix, prefix, postfix notations in pascal and TSRs (Terminate and Stay resident) using assembly.---------------------Continuing with the simplicity and popularity of the above article, this article will try to explain the GLbasics in simple terms. It assumes you have basic accounting knowledge like debit, credits, expense,accounts etcWhat is General LedgerMost people are familiar with their own bank statement, which shows an opening balance, transactionsthat occurred throughout the period, and a closing balance. That statement is a snapshot of youraccount at a particular point in time. A company keeps an account, like the records the bank keeps ofyour bank account, for every organization or customer that the company does business with.Balance SheetThe balance sheet summarizes accounts and financial activities in three broad categories: assets,which represent all the things that the company owns; liabilities, which show how much money thecompany owes to others; and capital/retained earnings, which show the total cash invested in thebusiness by the owners or shareholders.Income StatementIn addition, accounts are kept for all the revenues and expenses of the company. These accounts aresummarized in an income statement, also called a profit and loss statement, which represents theperformance of a company over time.The first step in capturing your transactions is to set up your chart of accounts. Your chart of accountsdetermines how your accounting information is collected, categorized, and stored for reportingpurposes. In Oracle Financials, all accounts are identified by a unique Accounting key Flexfieldcombination, which is your chart of accounts structure. You assign each account the qualifier of asset,liability, owners equity, revenue, or expense.Periods are identified by names such as FEB-2000 or WEEK1 2-98 and represent non-overlappingconsecutive date ranges. FEB-2000 would include the date ranges O1-FEB-2000 to 29-FEB-2000 andwould be followed by MAR-2000 starting on 01 -MAR-2000. You choose the names, followingwhatever convention you devise, and you assign the date ranges. You can even set up a one-dayperiod for year-end adjustments that begins and ends on the same day.Double-Entry AccountingDouble-entry accounting requires constant symmetry; total debits must equal total credits. Everyaccounting transaction results in one or more debits and credits that always remain in balance. Forexample, a $5000 purchase of office equipment would result in an increase to the asset account aswell as an increase to a liability account.In Oracle Financials, the account number is referred to as the Accounting Flexfield, which is usedthroughout all of Oracle Applications whenever a transaction is entered into the system. TheAccounting Flexfield consists of multiple segments, such as those for company, cost center, andaccount. One full Accounting Flexfield is called a combination. Each journal entry line is tagged with anAccounting Flexfield combination. For expense transactions, the AFF usually identifies who incurredthe cost (for example, which company or department) and what the cost was for (for example, travelexpense). If you want more detailed information, such as which region, cost center, and product
  3. 3. incurred the cost, you can design your AFF structure to include that information as well. Because totaldebits must always equal total credits in every transaction, Oracle General Ledger requires that alljournals balance. If you try to enter an unbalanced journal, Oracle General Ledger will either reject thetransaction or force the transaction to balance by posting the difference to a suspense account.------------------
  4. 4. This is a useful alphabetical list covering most of the Oracle e-Business Suite products.There must be quite a number of products still in research and development and some will never get tosee the light out of the development labs.Oracle Product Codes 1. ABM - Activity Based Management 53. CUF - CRL Financials 2. AD - Applications DBA 54. CUG - Oracle Citizen Interaction Center 3. AHL - Oracle Advanced Service Online 55. CUI - Oracle Network Logistics Inventory 4. AHM - Oracle Hosting Manager 56. CUN - Oracle Network Logistics NATS 5. AK - Oracle Common Modules-AK 57. CUP - Oracle Network Logistics 6. ALR - Oracle Alert Purchasing 7. AMF - Oracle Fulfillment Services 58. CUS - CRL Supply Chain 8. AMS - Oracle Marketing 59. CZ - Oracle Configurator 9. AMV - Oracle MarketView 60. DDD - Oracle CADView-3D 10. AN - Oracle Sales Analysis 61. DOM - Oracle Document Management and 11. AP - Oracle Payables Collaboration 12. AR - Oracle Receivables 62. DT - Oracle DateTrack 13. AS - Oracle Sales 63. EAA - Oracle SEM Exchange 14. ASF - Oracle Field Sales 64. EAM - Oracle Enterprise Asset 15. ASG - Oracle CRM Gateway for Mobile Management Services 65. EC - Oracle e-Commerce Gateway 16. ASL - Oracle Mobile Field Sales Laptop 66. ECX - Oracle XML Gateway 17. ASO - Oracle Order Capture 67. EDR - Oracle E Records 18. ASP - Oracle Field Sales/PalmTM Devices 68. EGO - Oracle Engineering Online 19. AST - TeleSales 69. ENG - Oracle Engineering 20. AU - Application Utilities 70. ENI - Oracle Engineering Intelligence 21. AX - Global Accounting Engine System 22. AZ - Application Implementation 71. EVM - Value Based Management 23. BEN - Oracle Advanced Benefits 72. FEM - Strategic Enterprise Management 24. BIC - Customer Intelligence 73. FF - Oracle Fast Formula 25. BIL - Sales Intelligence 74. FII - Financials Intelligence 26. BIM - Marketing Intelligence 75. FLM - Oracle Flow Manufacturing 27. BIS - Oracle Applications BIS 76. FND - Application Object Library 28. BIV - Oracle Service Intelligence 77. FPT - Oracle Banking Center 29. BIX - Call Center Intelligence 78. FRM - Oracle Report Manager 30. BNE - Oracle Web ADI 79. FTE - Oracle Transportation Hub 31. BOM - Oracle Bills of Material 80. FV - Oracle Federal Financials 32. BSC - Balanced Scorecard 81. GHR - Oracle Federal HR 33. CCT - Oracle Call Center and Telephony 82. GL - Oracle General Ledger 34. CE - Oracle Cash Management 83. GMA - Oracle Process Manufacturing 35. CHV - Oracle Supplier Scheduling Systems 36. CLN - Supply Chain Trading Connector for 84. GMD - Oracle Process Manufacturing RosettaNet Product Development 37. CN - Oracle Sales Compensation 85. GME - Oracle Process Manufacturing 38. CRP - Oracle Capacity Process Execution 39. CS - Oracle Service 86. GMF - Oracle Process Manufacturing 40. CSC - Customer Care Financials 41. CSD - Depot Repair 87. GMI - Oracle Process Manufacturing 42. CSE - Oracle Enterprise Install Base Inventory 43. CSF - Field Service 88. GML - Oracle Process Manufacturing 44. CSI - Install Base Logistics 45. CSL - Oracle Field Service/Laptop 89. GMP - Oracle Process Manufacturing 46. CSM - Oracle Field Service Palm Process Planning 47. CSP - Oracle Spares Management 90. GMS - Oracle Grants Accounting 48. CSR - Oracle Scheduler 91. GR - Oracle Process Regulatory Mgmt 49. CSS - Support 92. HRI - Human Resources Intelligence 50. CST - Oracle Cost Management 93. HXC - Oracle Time and Labor 51. CUA - CRL Financials Assets 94. HXT - Oracle Time and Labor Rules 52. CUE - Oracle Billing Connect
  5. 5. 95. IBA - iMarketing 147. OKX - Oracle Contracts Integration96. IBC - Oracle iContent 148. ONT - Oracle Order Management97. IBE - iStore 149. OPI - Operations Intelligence98. IBP - Bill Presentment & Payment 150. OTA - Oracle Training Administration99. IBU - iSupport 151. OZF - Funds & Budgets100. IBY - iPayment 152. OZP - Trade Planning101. ICX - Oracle Self-Service Web Applications 153. OZS - Oracle iClaims102. IEB - Oracle Interaction Blending 154. PA - Oracle Projects103. IEC - Oracle Campaign Plus 155. PAY - Oracle Payroll104. IEM - Oracle eMail Center 156. PER - Oracle Human Resources105. IEO - Call Center Technology 157. PJI - Oracle Project Intelligence106. IES - Scripting 158. PJM - Oracle Project Manufacturing107. IEU - Oracle Universal Work Queue 159. PMI - Process Mfg Intelligence108. IEX - Oracle Collections 160. PN - Oracle Property Manager109. IGC - Commitment Administration 161. PO - Oracle Purchasing110. IGF - Student Systems Fin Aid 162. POA - Purchasing Intelligence111. IGI - Oracle International Public Sector 163. POM - Oracle Exchange Financials 164. PON - Oracle Sourcing112. IGS - Oracle Student Sytems 165. POS - Internet Supplier Portal113. IGW - Oracle Grants Proposal 166. PQH - Oracle Public Sector HR114. IMC - Oracle Customers Online 167. PQP - Oracle Public Sector Payroll115. IMT - Oracle iMeeting 168. PRP - Oracle Proposals116. INV - Oracle Inventory 169. PSA - Public Sector Applications117. IPA - CRL Financials Projects 170. PSB - Oracle Public Sector Budgeting118. IPD - Oracle Product Development 171. PSP - Oracle Labor Distribution Exchange 172. PV - Partner Relationship Management119. ISC - Supply Chain Intelligence 173. QA - Oracle Quality120. ITG - Oracle Internet Procurement 174. QOT - Oracle Quoting Enterprise Connector 175. QP - Oracle Pricing121. JA - Asia/Pacific Localizations 176. QRM - Oracle Risk Management122. JE - European Localizations 177. RG - Application Report Generator123. JG - Regional Localizations 178. RHX - Oracle Advanced Planning124. JL - Latin America Localizations Foundation125. JTF - CRM Foundation 179. RLA - Oracle Release Management126. JTM - Oracle CRM Mobile Foundation Integration Kit127. JTS - Oracle CRM Self Service 180. RLM - Oracle Release Management Administration 181. SHT - Applications Shared Technology128. ME - Maintenance, Repair & Overhaul 182. SSP - Oracle SSP129. MFG - Oracle Manufacturing 183. SYSADMIN - System Administration130. MRP - Oracle Master Scheduling/MRP 184. VEA - Oracle Automotive131. MSC - Oracle Advanced Supply Chain 185. VEH - Oracle Automotive Integration Kit Planning 186. WIP - Oracle Work in Process132. MSD - Oracle Demand Planning 187. WMS - Oracle Warehouse Management133. MSO - Oracle Constraint Based System Optimization 188. WPS - Oracle Manufacturing Scheduling134. MSR - Oracle Risk Optimization 189. WSH - Oracle Shipping135. MWA - Mobile Applications 190. WSM - Shop Floor Management136. ODQ - Oracle Data Query 191. XDP - Oracle Provisioning137. OE - Oracle Order Entry 192. XLA - Oracle Common Accounting138. OFA - Oracle Assets Modules139. OKB - Oracle Contracts for Subscriptions 193. XNB - Oracle eBusiness Billing140. OKC - Oracle Contracts Core 194. XNC - Oracle Sales for Communications141. OKE - Oracle Project Contracts 195. XNI - Oracle Install Base Intelligence142. OKI - Oracle Contracts Intelligence 196. XNM - Marketing for Communications143. OKL - Oracle Lease Management 197. XNP - Oracle Number Portability144. OKO - Oracle Contracts for Sales 198. XNS - Oracle Service for Communications145. OKR - Oracle Contracts for Rights 199. XTR - Oracle Treasury146. OKS - Oracle Contracts Service Module 200. ZFA - Oracle Financial Analyzer
  6. 6. 201. ZSA - Oracle Sales Analyze
  7. 7. What happens when you login to Apps?Firstly and surely there is a URL for oracle applications that is structured possibly in belowformat, although it can vary from version of apps.http://machinename:portnumber/OA_HTML/US/ICXINDEX.htmhttp://machinename:portnumber /oa_servlets/AppsLoginWhen you join an Oracle Apps development team for an employer, you will first be given URLof the development environment.In any Oracle Apps implementation project (assuming it has gone live), there are minimum ofthree environments, each with different URLs and different database instances.These are:----------------Development environmentTesting environmentProduction environmentYou will most probably, be given an url, username and password of the developmentenvironment.What happens when you login--------------------------------------A. Your login gets authenticated against a table named fnd_user for your username andpassword. The screen below is where username and password defined. This screen is calleduser definition screen. Only system administrators have access to this screen.B. As you can see above, this username xxpassi is attached to two responsibilities (this will bediscussed in details in latter training lesson). It is this assignment to the responsibility thatcontrols what a logged in person can do and cant do. In layman’s words, a responsibility is agroup of functions an user is authorized to perform.C. When you successfully login you will see below screens.This screen below will prompt you to change your password, to a value different than thatassigned by System Administrator.
  8. 8. Click on either of the above Responsibility Names, will initiate Oracle Apps( Note: You might beprompted to install jinitiator…..just keep clicking OK…OK for all Jinitiator messages).Effectively, what I mean to say is that you do not need to download jinitiator from anywhere;Oracle will do this automatically (provided your DBA’s got this cofig’ed) for you during your firstlogon attempt from the PC. Once your jInitiator gets installed
  9. 9. Hurray, we have logged into apps.Some notes on advanced info :Oracle internally uses a login named GUEST with a password “oracle”, Some people regardthis as a security threat, but it isn’t. Your DBA’s can change the “guest” password from itsdefault value after installation.Oracle uses a DB User account named applsyspub to which it first connects during validationof LOGIN. This user account has very restricted privileges and has access to below objects(primarily for authentication purposes):-FND_APPLICATIONFND_UNSUCCESSFUL_LOGINSFND_SESSIONSFND_PRODUCT_INSTALLATIONSFND_PRODUCT_GROUPSFND_MESSAGESFND_LANGUAGES_TLFND_APPLICATION_TLFND_APPLICATION_VLFND_LANGUAGES_VLFND_SIGNONFND_PUB_MESSAGEFND_WEBFILEPUBFND_DISCONNECTEDFND_MESSAGEFND_SECURITY_PKGFND_LOOKUPS