Tcrs Climate Change Presentation Regional Consultation Tanzania


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LWF WS TCRS Tanzania Powerpoint Presentation on Climate Change
Regional Consultation,
Eastern & Central Africa,
8th-12th June 2009

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Tcrs Climate Change Presentation Regional Consultation Tanzania

  1. 1. Tanganyika Christian Refugee Service- LWF/DWS. Tanzania: Profile Tanzania is in East Africa on the Indian Ocean. To the north are Uganda and Kenya; to the west, Burundi, Rwanda, and Congo; and to the south, Mozambique, Zambia, and Malawi. Its area is three times that of New Mexico.
  2. 2. Profile cont.. <ul><li>Mount Kilimanjaro in the north, 19,340 ft (5,895 m), is the highest point on the continent. The island of Zanzibar is separated from the mainland by a 22-mile channel. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tanzania Profile. <ul><li>Land area: 342,100 sq mi (886,039 sq km); total area: 364,898 sq mi (945,087 sq km) 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Population ( july2007 est.): 40,213,160 (growth rate: 1.8%); birth rate: 37.3/1000; infant mortality rate: 94.5/1000; life expectancy: 46.1; density per sq mi: 111 </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: Swahili, English. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Profile cont.. <ul><li>mainland: Christian 30%,Islam 35%,Indigineous 35%: </li></ul><ul><li>Zanzibar: more than 99% Islam, Literacy rate:78% (2003 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic summary : GDP/PPP(2007 est.) $48.94 billion: per capita $1,300: Real growth rate:7.3%, Un employment: High </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reaching out to the refugees, Displaced and Marginalized.
  6. 6. Where are we? <ul><li>7districts </li></ul><ul><li>30wards </li></ul><ul><li>111villages </li></ul><ul><li>2,038village leaders trained so far. </li></ul><ul><li>10,483 Direct marginalized beneficiaries </li></ul><ul><li>1,824,717 Total beneficiaries. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Where are we cont..
  8. 8. Climate change in Tanzania (some facts) <ul><li>331 hectares per day,121,000 hectares per yr are deforested for charcoal </li></ul><ul><li>Many areas have already been depleted of its forests. </li></ul><ul><li>1million tones of charcoal is consumed in TZ per yr. </li></ul><ul><li>28,000 bags of charcoal are consumed in Dar-Es Salaam alone. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Some facts cont. <ul><li>Mt. Kilimanjaro snow has melted by 80% since 1912 to date. </li></ul><ul><li>Two islands have been completely immersed in Bagamoyo in Indian ocean.( we are afraid of Zanzibar: Unguja, Pemba and Mafia Islands). </li></ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts </li></ul><ul><li>use of chemical fertilizers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Some facts cont. <ul><li>Irregular and unpredictable weather </li></ul><ul><li>The soil has become barren due to use of chemical fertilizers, and chemicals from green houses (flower business in Arusha and Moshi). </li></ul><ul><li>The coastal strip has been destroyed eg Ocean road in Dar,if the trend continues it will mean abandoning the roads and starting new ones! Shifting the City? </li></ul>
  11. 11. What are we seeing? <ul><li>Dying of rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Shrinkage and loss of wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread mortality of flora and fauna. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of food on the move (in rivers) </li></ul><ul><li>and siltation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What are we seeing? <ul><li>Changes in life styles e.g. a family of two people owning more than two cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Rampant use of mobile phones and other electronic devices, and careless disposal batteries, tube lights etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of plastic bags and their disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Log exportation </li></ul><ul><li>small scale and large scale Mining </li></ul>
  13. 13. What are we seeing <ul><li>New diseases has emerged and old ones intensified e.g. at the slopes of mt Kilimanjaro there was no mosquitoes but nowadays Malaria is no 1 killer. </li></ul><ul><li>Old women homicide on allegations of “witch craft”. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Climate Change and “witch killing&quot; <ul><li>Frequent severe drought, </li></ul><ul><li>flooding and subsequent hunger; Apart from recurring hunger and </li></ul><ul><li>environmental devastation, the area is prone to further facets of a </li></ul><ul><li>larger socio-economic and cultural phenomenon related to climate </li></ul><ul><li>change. This area is characterized by grinding poverty, violence </li></ul>
  15. 15. Climate Change and “witch killing” <ul><li>against 'witches', high levels of infant mortality especially during periods of extreme weather. This state of </li></ul><ul><li>affairs has been so for years and is likely to continue until </li></ul><ul><li>education and subsequent living standards improve. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Climate Change and “Witch Killing” cont.. <ul><li>The phenomenon of killing alleged witches has, since the late 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>gripped Shinyanga and other Sukumaland areas to the extent that </li></ul><ul><li>witch killings have become the order of the day. The phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>is complex, perplexing and intriguing. It has baffled the state for </li></ul><ul><li>decades despite a number of interventions and commissions of </li></ul><ul><li>inquiry. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Climate Change and “Witch Killing” cont.. <ul><li>In spite of the government’s attempt to come to grips with </li></ul><ul><li>the problem the witchcraft-associated murders of older people, </li></ul><ul><li>particularly women, continues relentlessly as the scourge continue </li></ul><ul><li>to threaten social stability throughout Sukumaland, creating a </li></ul><ul><li>climate of fear and uncertainty. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Climate Change and “Witch Killing” cont… <ul><li>In fact even in such cases when </li></ul><ul><li>victims escape death, they are forced to run away from their homes </li></ul><ul><li>to save their lives. The problem has become so serious that old </li></ul><ul><li>women in the Sukuma countryside are becoming an endangered </li></ul><ul><li>species. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Climate Change and “Witch killing” cont.. <ul><li>While researchers have launched cultural studies linking poverty </li></ul><ul><li>and violence, others have used standard economic tools -to </li></ul><ul><li>produce novel evidence of the role poverty plays in causing violent </li></ul><ul><li>crime. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Vicious Cycle of Climate Change Catastrophes (VCCCC). <ul><li>Deforestation (for fuel, farming)-Drought (Rivers dry up) and floods- Hunger and Poverty- No drinking water (people drink water from ponds, very much susceptible to bacteria)- Water borne diseases (Malaria, diarrhea, typhoid)-Infants dying- Cultural superstition (has been bewitched by red eyed old women-kill them </li></ul>
  21. 21. Climate Change and “Witch killing” cont…. <ul><li>A measure of the variations in local rainfall for some villages in </li></ul><ul><li>the Shinyanga region, from 1992 to 2002, reveals some identified </li></ul><ul><li>impacts or &quot;income shocks&quot; of drought and flood on the region's </li></ul><ul><li>murder rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Witch murders have been found to be concentrated in years where </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The region experienced floods or drought, both of which are </li></ul><ul><li>associated with poor harvests and near-famine conditions in the </li></ul><ul><li>area. Moreover, witch murders were twice as high in the six-month </li></ul><ul><li>hungry season, which stretches from February to July, as they were </li></ul><ul><li>during the rest of the year. There was a sharp drop in killings right </li></ul><ul><li>after the harvest ended in July or August. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Climate Change and “Witch Killing” cont… <ul><li>Witch murders have been found to be concentrated in years where </li></ul><ul><li>the region experienced floods or drought, both of which are </li></ul><ul><li>associated with poor harvests and near-famine conditions in the </li></ul><ul><li>area. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Climate Change and &quot;Witch Killing” cont…. <ul><li>Moreover, witch murders were twice as high in the six-month </li></ul><ul><li>hungry season, which stretches from February to July, as they were </li></ul><ul><li>during the rest of the year. There was a sharp drop in killings right </li></ul><ul><li>after the harvest ended in July or August. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Some facts from Kishapu: <ul><li>In average people walk 5 kms to the nearest seasonal water source. </li></ul><ul><li>A bucket of water (20 lts) costs 500Tshs (base line). </li></ul><ul><li>Students are supposed to bring water to school for cleaning and those who fail to fetch don’t attend. </li></ul><ul><li>Students come to school exhausted due to queuing at night in search for water, and walking long distances. </li></ul><ul><li>Most schools don’t have toilets so grown up ladies don’t attend </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance of girls from std v and above is alarming (over 35% don’t attend regularly (school report). </li></ul><ul><li>Newly appointed teachers don’t report back when they go to town to collect their first salary. (base line) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Some facts from Kishapu cont. (Water borne related diseases). <ul><li>Cholera cases 1.5% (Base line). </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea diseases 5.7% (Base line). </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria cases 47% at the project inception. </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoid cases were 5.2% (Base line). </li></ul><ul><li>Skin infections were 2.4% (base line). </li></ul><ul><li>Eye cases were 3.4% at project inception </li></ul><ul><li>Schistosomiasis cases were 2.4 % at project inception. </li></ul><ul><li>Land degradation and deforestation. (see photos in our gallery). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Mitigation strategies <ul><li>Originally, the plan for TCRS was to undertake some specific </li></ul><ul><li>interventions to address the climate change problem in Kishapu. </li></ul><ul><li>This was mainly in the area of Integrated Rainwater Management </li></ul><ul><li>(IRM) through: Rainwater harvesting (RWH), involving the </li></ul><ul><li>construction of rooftop systems and </li></ul>
  29. 29. Mitigation Strategies cont… <ul><li>sand dams; Strengthening of </li></ul><ul><li>local capacity to manage water for agriculture through farmer </li></ul><ul><li>training; Improved sanitation through the construction of VIP </li></ul><ul><li>latrines; Conflict transformation and peace building through </li></ul><ul><li>equitable use of available water resources </li></ul>
  30. 30. Adaptations: Adoption of Appreciative Inquiry model <ul><li>The 4D-Cycle: </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery (what gives life to us as children of God)- Dream (What is our role)- Design (what can we do? How should we be involved?)- Delivery (Delivering message of hope to the poor, marginalized and oppressed). </li></ul><ul><li>Q’s How were forests and water managed in the past? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Appreciating the community cont…. <ul><li>What were the roles of men and women in conserving and sustaining the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it that we can take with us that can sustain our work? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Adaptations and Mitigations cont… <ul><li>Formation of water and Forest committees (5F, 5M) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Animators (Volunteers, 1F, 1M) per village </li></ul>
  33. 33. Toilets before intervention <ul><li>Used by boys </li></ul>
  34. 34. Toilets before Intervention Cont. <ul><li>Used by girls </li></ul>
  35. 36. Major project accomplishments <ul><li>Ten rwh tanks in 6 Villages constructed. A tank in Ng’hwamanota. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Major project accomplishment cont. <ul><li>A completed tank in Ngofila primary school. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Major accompl. Cont. <ul><li>A sub surface tank in Ng’hwamanota </li></ul>
  38. 39. Toilets after intervention <ul><li>Used by girls and boys </li></ul>
  39. 40. Major accomplishments (Gallery). <ul><li>Tree seedlings distribution </li></ul>
  40. 41. Overgrazed and wind eroded land. <ul><li>bare land </li></ul>
  41. 42. Overgrazed and wind eroded land. <ul><li>“ This area was a thick forest when I was young”, says Mr. Jilala (82yrs) of Kalitu village </li></ul>
  42. 43. Young girls on their way home, after collecting water 4km away from a seasonal river
  43. 44. Ngofila hill which used to be a place for rituals, now looks bare.
  44. 45. A grandma waiting for her grand daughter who have gone to fetch water some 5kms away.
  45. 46. Soil erosion at Mwamanota Village.
  46. 47. A tired young girl left behind by friends after walking a long distance..
  47. 48. Overgrazed land
  48. 49. All trees cut for firewood/ farming, the place has been turned into a semi desert.
  49. 50. A seasonal river in Idushi
  50. 51. TCRS and the community starting to restore hope (A tank in Kalitu)
  51. 52. Hope cont. A giant 120,000 lts sub surface tank in Inolelo pr. school
  52. 53. Excellent networking and relationship, the DWE inspecting a giant 120,000lt tank, (note a smile from his face)
  53. 54. DWE charting with Inolelo pupils in front their newly built tank. “we are very happy we will not be bothered to bring water from home” they narrated.
  54. 55. A sand dam during construction in Idushi/ Mwamanota river.
  55. 56. A sand dam during construction in Mwaweja/ Miyuguyu river
  56. 57. New toilets in Idushi primary school
  57. 58. Sanitation cont. <ul><li>A standard three girl washing utensils and place them at the drying cage. </li></ul>
  58. 59. After all those interventions, what are we starting to see? Impact. <ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><li>Good participation of communities in development work in trench digging, collection of stones, on and offloading stones, sand, cement and collection of other locally available materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability and transparency among village and ward leaders is observed to increase e.g. Village action plans are displayed in the office of VEO for the first time. Time table for village meetings for discussing different development issues are now available. “TCRS trainings have really changed our leaders!” said Ng’oboko. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Impact cont. <ul><li>Trained local artisans are now used by other people to build tanks in peoples homes, e.g. they are building a tank in Ngofila for a villager, with minimal supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization of water borne diseases like typhoid and diarrhea, and no cholera case has been reported to date in any of the project villages. </li></ul>
  60. 61. Impact cont… <ul><li>Increase in school attendance for both boys and girls, e.g Mwamanota 90% vs 83% (base line), Idushi 87% vs 80% (base line), Ngofila (82% vs 79%). </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are now spending 8hrs in schools vs 5hrs (base line), the 3hrs were spent for searching water. (source: H/T Mwamanota pr. School) </li></ul><ul><li>Local community empowerment has resulted in increase in number of attendance in village meetings, participation in decision making, and contribution of ideas during meetings by both men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>For the first time some water committees are headed by women. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the number of houses roofed with corrugated iron sheets for rain water harvesting. </li></ul>
  61. 62. Impact cont… <ul><li>In 2008, there was drought and hunger in the area, number of children died were 6 vs 13 (2006) in 12 villages, 2 old red -eyed women were killed Vs 5 in 2006, (we keep monitoring this trend as we go along). </li></ul>
  62. 63. Challenges <ul><li>The growing acceptance and need to cover the whole district, Viz a Viz funding constaints. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment reconstruction, especially planting and watering of trees. Where do they get the water? </li></ul><ul><li>Time frame for the project. Transformation of the mind through training and Empowerment is a slow and time consuming exercise which can not be fully achieved in three calendar years! Given the historical background of handouts by the govt. other orgs, and culture of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges latent or open within the churches where we work, how churchy are we? Our relations within and outside </li></ul>
  63. 64. Challenges cont… <ul><li>As an associate program of LWF how does the church help us, instead of the church expecting a lot of support for the church, especially that we don’t spend our partners money for evangelism. </li></ul>
  64. 65. What needs to be done? <ul><li>Trainings and Empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness creation. </li></ul><ul><li>The church to break the silence and come forward and speak on the dangers of Climate change and what needs to be done, after humans having greedly tempered with Creation. </li></ul><ul><li>Documenting best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of best practices, so people can see what has worked well and where. </li></ul>
  65. 66. <ul><li>Sustainable life style development initiatives (solid waste disposals etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of improved stoves </li></ul><ul><li>Application of SODIS (Solar water Disinfection system). </li></ul>