Lutheran World Federation World Service  Eritrea Program <ul><li>Regional Consultation Meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania ...
General Information about Eritrea <ul><li>Area: 124,000 Sq.km </li></ul><ul><li>Location: East  Africa </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Most Common Disasters  seen in Eritrea <ul><li>Drought </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Ser...
Drought <ul><li>is considered as the main threat to Eritrea, climatic changes increase the frequency </li></ul>Lutheran Wo...
<ul><ul><li>Widespread agricultural failure </li></ul></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program Food Security in Eritrea <ul><li>Eritrea can only produce about ...
Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program Food Security in Eritrea Contd. <ul><li>An estimated 598,000 hec...
Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><ul><li>Failure of Bahri rains affecting most of the seconda...
What do people say <ul><li>“ We used to plow our land starting in March but now, unless it rains, the soil is too hard to ...
Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program Cereal price trends in ERN/100 kg  (1USD = 15ERN) 2004 - 2008   ...
Commodity Prices Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><li>The prices of essential commodities, es...
Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program Income and Poverty Issues <ul><li>Food and housing accounts for ...
Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><ul><li>Acute malnutrition among under-five children is high...
Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><ul><li>Movement of people to comparatively better area (fro...
Conflict <ul><ul><li>The border war with Ethiopia ( 1998-2000)  caused heavy economic and social losses and continues to b...
<ul><li>Coordinating agency of ACT Eritrea Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Active Member of the IASC group </li></ul><ul><li>Membe...
Dam Construction/Rehabilitation Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
Irrigation Development Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
Soil and Water  Conservation Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
School Construction / Rehabilitation Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
Provision of  Clean Drinking Water Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
Shelter Construction Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
Restocking Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
Distribution of  Donkey Drawn Carts Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
Challenges <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>policies of the government with regard to emergency assistance. Since 2006,  ...
In Responding to Emergencies <ul><li>Lack of access to information (UN and NGOs are not allowed to make assessments) </li>...
<ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
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Eritrea Emergency Response Presentation Trends And Challenges Regional Consultation Dar Es Salaam

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LWF WS Eritrea Powerpoint Presentation on Emergency Response - Trends & Challenges,
Regional Consultation,
Eastern & Central Africa,
8th-12th June 2009
Dar-es-Salaam,Tanzania

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Eritrea Emergency Response Presentation Trends And Challenges Regional Consultation Dar Es Salaam

  1. 1. Lutheran World Federation World Service Eritrea Program <ul><li>Regional Consultation Meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>June 8-12, 2009 </li></ul>Presentation on Emergency response - Trends and Challeng es
  2. 2. General Information about Eritrea <ul><li>Area: 124,000 Sq.km </li></ul><ul><li>Location: East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Pop.: 3.6 million (est.) </li></ul><ul><li>65% live below the poverty line </li></ul><ul><li>80% are farmers relying on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>GNI per capita is USD 190 </li></ul><ul><li>Adult literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Female: 49% </li></ul><ul><li>Male: 71% </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy 57 years </li></ul><ul><li>Infant mortality 48 per 1000 live births </li></ul><ul><li>HDI: 167/179 </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  3. 3. Most Common Disasters seen in Eritrea <ul><li>Drought </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><li>Others: </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Pest infestations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Drought <ul><li>is considered as the main threat to Eritrea, climatic changes increase the frequency </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><li>Effects include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water resources are drying up in many of the drought-prone areas, people and livestock are vulnerable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is high shortage of water in urban centres including the capital Asmara. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Widespread agricultural failure </li></ul></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  6. 6. Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program Food Security in Eritrea <ul><li>Eritrea can only produce about 60% of its cereal requirement at most. </li></ul><ul><li>The annual cereal requirement is about 659,000 Mt for about 3.6 million pop. </li></ul><ul><li>On average about 12-20% increase in production was registered every year since 2004. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program Food Security in Eritrea Contd. <ul><li>An estimated 598,000 hectares was cultivated for 2008/2009 season </li></ul><ul><li>The preliminary crop estimate for the 2008/2009 season is 30-35% of total cereal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Taking the lower figure, total production of cereals this season is estimated at 200,000 metric tons </li></ul><ul><li>Shortfall for total cereal requirements is estimated at 400,000 metric tons which will have to be imported as commercial imports or food aid. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><ul><li>Failure of Bahri rains affecting most of the secondary crops which make up 20% of the country’s cereal needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below Average Azmera rains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late onset of Kremti rains and poor distribution, and alternating dry spells during the cropping season. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of quality seed and fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage by pests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak draft animals affected by drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of appropriate production techniques such as water conservation and conservation agriculture </li></ul></ul>Key Constraints for Cereal Production
  9. 9. What do people say <ul><li>“ We used to plow our land starting in March but now, unless it rains, the soil is too hard to plow. In the past, the seeds stayed in the soil until the rain started but now they die before the rain comes. We get less milk from our cows and goats because of the scarcity of fodder. We used to get wild fruits from the trees but now the few trees remaining do not bear fruit. Our parents and grandparents used to consume milk, butter, honey, different fruits and vegetables but not today.” </li></ul><ul><li>Quote from </li></ul><ul><li>God, Creation and Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>LWF – A communion of Churches </li></ul><ul><li>Geneva, 2009 </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  10. 10. Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program Cereal price trends in ERN/100 kg (1USD = 15ERN) 2004 - 2008 Year Wheat Wheat flour Sorghum Barley Millet Feb - 04 510 700 810 - 1,200 Feb - 05 567 1,000 825 - 1,000 Feb - 06 856 1,388 1,000 - 800 Feb - 07 1,350 1,500 900 700 1,050 Feb - 08 2,200 3,000 1,300 1,600 950 Asm Sept 2008 3000 3400 2000 5000 3000 6100 Masw Sept 2008 3500 N/A 2500 N/A 2500 N/A
  11. 11. Commodity Prices Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><li>The prices of essential commodities, especially food, remain high despite global decrease in food prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat prices have risen by 136% since February 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat flour has risen by 113% since February 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Barley prices have risen by about 321% since February 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Sorghum prices have risen by about 192% since February 2008 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program Income and Poverty Issues <ul><li>Food and housing accounts for the biggest proportion of household expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Food alone accounts for 50% of household expenditure and 42% of household incomes </li></ul><ul><li>Women-headed households who constituted 28% of the total sample population had an average family size of 3.9 and had an average income of ERN306 per month </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Human Development Report and FAO puts the number of people who are vulnerable at 75% of the population while the Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) of 2003 puts this figure at 65%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This translates to about 2.7 million people in good years and this number is likely to rise in drought years. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><ul><li>Acute malnutrition among under-five children is high, particularly in Gash Barka and Anseba regions which are above the WHO threshold of 15%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The prevalence of total malnutrition is alarmingly high, and increase in prevalence has been observed. The highest observed are in Anseba (56%) and Maekel (70%). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp increases in the admission rates in community based therapeutic feeding centers. Admission rates in February 2009 were two to six fold higher than in 2008. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNICEF through the MoH is planning for blanket supplementary feeding nationwide for 334,000 under-five children , costs for 6 months USD 15 million. ( but …….) </li></ul></ul>Nutrition Issues
  14. 14. Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program <ul><ul><li>Movement of people to comparatively better area (from Anseba and Debub to Gash Barka) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on improving food production through improved seed mainly maize and potatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for increased fertilizer use in irrigated lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the area under irrigation by building over 200 dams and diversions structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There will not be appeal for food aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement of the army in harvesting and storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales of crops and livestock restricted to sales to the government only and at the Gvt. fixed price…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly food allocations through Kebele system </li></ul></ul>Government Response
  15. 15. Conflict <ul><ul><li>The border war with Ethiopia ( 1998-2000) caused heavy economic and social losses and continues to be the most serious cause of food insecurity because : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the “no war no peace” situation most of the able bodied persons are engaged in the military </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural and industrial enterprises, small scale industries and social infrastructures and facilities including educational and health services were destroyed/damaged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement of about 1.1 million people from Gash Barka and Debub regions, which contribute some 70% of Eritrea’s total grain production and are host to about 47% of the total population were heavily affected by the war. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(at present except small numbers the majority of the IDPs have returned to their place of origin) </li></ul></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  16. 16. <ul><li>Coordinating agency of ACT Eritrea Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Active Member of the IASC group </li></ul><ul><li>Member in the Cluster Approach </li></ul><ul><li>( WASH, Food Security ) However the clusters are </li></ul><ul><li>“ dormant” as the Government has not come out with Appeals and hence the International Donor Community can not be involved in any responses to the situation. </li></ul>LWF/WS-ER Program Contributions
  17. 17. Dam Construction/Rehabilitation Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  18. 18. Irrigation Development Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  19. 19. Soil and Water Conservation Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  20. 20. School Construction / Rehabilitation Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  21. 21. Provision of Clean Drinking Water Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  22. 22. Shelter Construction Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  23. 23. Restocking Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  24. 24. Distribution of Donkey Drawn Carts Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  25. 25. Challenges <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>policies of the government with regard to emergency assistance. Since 2006, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no food aid is allowed due to government policy of “self reliance” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not possible to carryout any kind of surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government is not issuing appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN agencies facing difficulty in communicating with concerned government bodies- Government not represented in IASC meetings and Clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WFP has closed its operations. It has only a liaison office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>no existing government structures and mechanisms dealing with disaster risk management </li></ul><ul><li>low level of public awareness in disaster mitigation </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  26. 26. In Responding to Emergencies <ul><li>Lack of access to information (UN and NGOs are not allowed to make assessments) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited donor support for the efforts on relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ACT CO Geneva considers the Eritrean situation as “not emergency” and has stopped accepting our appeals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LWF is not always legible to apply for EU call for proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only two ACT member organizations remaining – NCA and LWF (CRS and Oxfam invited as observers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High expectation from the government and community </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
  27. 27. <ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>Lutheran World Federation/World Service - Eritrea Program
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