The air barrier is a synthetic material wrapped around the house to protect the
house from air and rain getting into the wall assembly. But ,it still allows water
vapor through the exterior.
Attic Ventilation (1 of 2)
Soffit Vent is needed as an intake ventilation installed under the eaves, or at
the roof edge.
Ridge vent it needed to allow the warm and humid air to escape from the
Attic Ventilation (2 of 2)
Gable vent is needed to allow hot air out from either side of a gabled
A roof turbine is needed to replace the hot air in the attic with cooler air
brought in from the outside.
Backhoe: A piece of
excavating equipment with a
digging bucket and a two-part
articulated arm. It is used to
excavate dirt and rubble from
a construction site.
The width of the bucket on
this backhoe is only two feet
Batter boards are horizontal boards attached with stakes used to mark out the
boundary of construction and establish the levels and building lines.
Brick Arches (1 of 2)
Brick Arch #2:
Brick Arch #1: H-Pointed Arch
Brick Arches (2 of 2)
Centering is the structure that is built to
support an arch or vault during its
Arch With Keystone construction. Normally made of wood.
Bricks Bonds (1 of 2)
Brick Bond #1:
Brick Bonds (2 of 2)
Brick Bond #2:
English Cross Soldiers Rowlocks
One course of
between rows of Headers
Brick #2 (When individual)-
Brick #1- 3’’ x 2 ¼ ’’ x 5-7/8’’
3 ½ ’’ x 2 ¼ ’’ x 8’’
Closest to a Modular Brick
A bulldozer is known as a crawl type of equipment with a large metal plate on the
front known as the ‘blade’. It is used to push things in large amounts. On a
construction site a bulldozer may push things such as soil, sand, rubble, or
anything else that needs to be moved. It typically moves whatever has been
excavated from the site.
Cladding (1 of 2)
Brick Clad Structure
EFIS Clad Structure
Stone Clad Structure (Random Rubble) Wood Board Clad Structure
Cladding (2 of 2)
A wood shingle is roof covering consisting of a number of wood
pieces sawn off.
A wood shake is similar to a wood shingle but it is formed from
already split wood and are generally thicker. It typically looks more
rustic and Historic
This is a shingle because it
Code Requirements (1 of 2)
-A min. clear opening of When Open:
5.7 square ft Width=
-If on ground floor,
Min. of 5 square ft Height=
-Min. clear opening
height of 24” Area=
-Min. clear opening
width of 20” Still Height AFF=
-Bottom of clear opening
no more than 44” AFF
This window does NOT meet the IBC requirements of an
egress window. The width and area are too small and the
still height is too short.
Code Requirements (2 of 2)
IBC REQUIREMENTS: These stairs meet the max IBC
Risers -Min. of 4’’ high requirements for the risers
- Max. of 7’’ high and the min. for the treads.
Treads - Min. of 11’’
A control joint is an expansion joint
in masonry to allow movement due
to expansion and contraction.
This joint is isolating the building’s
wall from the slab of the sidewalk.
Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU)
A CMU is a large rectangular
brick used in construction.
They are typically made of
cast concrete, Portland
cement and aggregates.
(Usually sand or gravel)
CMUs are used for load
bearing walls, reinforced
brick, or for a building’s
In my right hand is
CMU sizes (Nominal)
an 8’’ CMU.
All CMUs have an 8 inch
In my left hand is
a 16 inch length.
a 4’’ CMU.
The typical widths are: 4
, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches
Doors (2 of 2)
crossbar in a
Side Light: A window at the side of a door.
Power Pole with Transformer:
An overhead service conductor
Transfers electrical energy from one circuit
that runs from the transformer
to another. It allows alternating current
and power pole to the building’s
service entrance conductors
Electrical panel, containing circuit breakers, which is the distribution
point for the entering electric service
Electrical outlet with 2 plugs to provide electrical
energy to interior or exterior for plug-in
Measures the amount of electrical energy
the resident or business produced.
Framing Elements (1 of 4)
# 5 Sole Plate
(above subflooring) # 4 Subflooring
# 3 Floor Joist
# 6 Stud
(stud) # 7 Top Plate
#1 Anchor Bolt #2 Sill Plate
Framing Elements (2 of 4)
# 8 Ceiling Joist
# 9 Rafter
Framing Elements (4 of 4 )
# 12 Stringer
# 11 Sheathing
Front End Loader
A front end loader is an earth moving
machine with a hydraulic scoop in
front for lifting and moving earth and
It is different from a bulldozer
because it is able to lift things in the
air to move them rather than just
It is different than a backhoe
because it can not move loads as
easily as a backhoe can. Yet, it can
Gypsum Board is an interior wall covering made of the mineral gypsum
and paper. Often known as plaster board or sheetrock.
Advantage: Rapid response Disadvantage: Difficult to zone
Compressor/Condenser: Air Handling Unit:
Raises the temperature of refrigerant Moves air through the duct work. Does
vapor and increases its pressure by not condition it, just propels it.
Insulation (1 of 2)
Batt or Blanket: Loose Fill:
Suited for standard stud and joist Good for irregular
spacing, which is relatively free shaped areas around
from obstructions obstructions
Insulation (2 of 2)
Ridge Board: Good for adding insulation to
High insulating value for being so thin. finished areas or irregular shaped
Lintel is a horizontal block that spans between two supports
The diameter is
½’’ thick making it
The Deformation of
this example of
rebar would be to
secure the framing
of the structure to
Steep Roof Drainage (1 of 2)
Gutter: A narrow
channel (metal or
plastic) to collect
rainwater from the
roof of the building
to divert it from the
Downspout: Water collected by
the gutter is sent through the
downspout to discharge the
Steep Roof Drainage (2 of 2)
Splashblock: A pad placed at the end of the downspout usually pointed
downhill to carry the water away from the façade of the structure.
Steep Roof Materials
Clay Tile Roof
Asphalt saturated used beneath roofing to
provide additional protection for the deck.
Steep Roof Materials (2 of )
Metal Panel Roof
- Galvanized Steel
A small roofing material used with other
similar shingles overlapping one another in
rows to protect a roof.
Steep Roof Terms
A beam laid along
Area where two
the edge where 2
sloping sides of a
roof meet at the
intersect on a roof
creating a quot;Vquot;
surface that Eave:
extends from a The roof edge from the
vertical fascia to the structure’s
edge of a gable
surface. outside the wall.
Coursed Rubble Random Ashlar
Vapor retarder is a substance that prevents
the transmission of water vapor.
It is mostly placed to where it would keep
things warmer in the winter. Hints the
phrase, “Warm in winter”.
Liquid applied waterproofing
Waterproofing is the treatment applied to a
structure’s surface to prevent water from
entering from hydrostatic pressure.
Weep holes are small openings left in the outer wall of
the masonry as an outlet for water inside the building to
Welded Wire Fabric (WWF)
This Welded Wire Fabric
is 6’ x 8’
Windows (1 of 2)
Window #1: Casement (turn operation) Window #2: Double-Hung
- Side-mounted on hinges - Classic appearance
- Operated by crank going outward - Upper section is outside sash
- ‘Scoop-in’ breezes - Lower section is inside sash