HISTORY OF IMIGRATION TO MINNESOTA Boak O. Jake E.
History of Immigration to Minnesota• The very first people to migrate to Minnesota consisted of the Germans, The Norwegians and the Swedish.• Starting with the German Immigrants, the Germans began migrating to the United States when the colonies still belonged to Britain. They came to the colonies like many other Immigrant groups so seek religious freedom.• Germans settled in various places in the state of Minnesota but the most concentrated was located in the southern region of the state. For example the town of New Ulm is a city that was settled by Germans and still shares rich German culture with the state today.
Swedish• Besides the factor of religious freedom that attracted so many European’s to the colonies, the Swedish came to America for other reasons as well.• One reason that we found why the Swedish came here is because the lack of available land in Europe.• Another interesting reason we found that was a push factor for migrating to the States was that at the time, the Swedish government made it mandatory that military service was required that you train 30 days of the year. Since it was all young men that this effected, agriculture jobs became more difficult and families lost money.• The pull factor of the Swedish coming to Minnesota was the rich and affordable farm land that was available and the high wages that accompanied them.
Norwegians• The major influence of emigration from Norway to the United states was heavy promotion by emigration agents, newspapers, writers and early settlers. In 1862 American consuls in Norway were urged to promote the employment opportunities that America had to offer. One of the biggest contributors to get Norwegians to come to America was the rail road company who targeted the churches in Norway as a Marketing device.• Norwegian emigration to Minnesota was not very heavy until after the civil war. This is because following the war, The Dakota were expelled from Minnesota which opened up much more farm land and also opened the doors for many more Europeans.
Ethnic Back Grounds• In the 2009 report “Economic Impact of Immigrants In Minnesota” we found a useful pie graph that gave basic foreign born population percents. These percents however were as of 2007.• In 2007 the largest group of foreign born immigrants was 38% (Asian back ground)• 25% (Latin American)• 19% (African)• 14% (European)• 4% was made up by “other”
Asian Immigration to Minnesota• Minnesota’s Asian population nearly doubled in the 1990’s, growing close to 142,000 by 2000. According to our information about three-quarters of the individuals were immigrants born outside of the United States.• Among the Asian descendent people the came to the United States, the largest group were the Hmong.• Other countries included China, India and Korea.• The vast majority of Hmong people however were third or second generation citizens.• The reason the Hmong first came to Minnesota was on the basis of being a refugee. During the Vietnam war, Hmong villagers and farmers were recruited by the United States to help fight the war against communism in Laos.• More than 60,000 Hmong individuals live in Minnesota. At least half of those individuals live in St. Paul. Making it the largest urban population of Hmong in the world.
Latin Americans In Minnesota• Latinos have been living in Minnesota for generations. The first record of Latino residents dates back to 1860. Since the 1990 Census the state’s Latino population has more than tripled. Increasing from about 54,000 to more than 175,00 people in 2004.• However the majority of Minnesota Latinos are not immigrants. 60% are native born U.S. citizens. More than 11,000 others are naturalized citizens• Most of the Latino population in Minnesota trace their ancestry to Mexico. Other countries include Cuba, Puerto Rico and other central and south American Countries. Many of the most recent Immigrants are from Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador and Guatemala.• According to the 2000 census, Latinos were almost evenly divided between the core cities, Minneapolis and St. Paul.
Why the Latinos Came to Minnesota• Like most Immigrants, Latinos came to the United States in search of a better life for themselves and their families. Minnesota however offers more opportunities for work and education than their home countries.• Another huge reason that is pretty consistent with most Latino Immigrants anywhere in the United States is to support their family members still living in their country of origin.
Africans In Minnesota• In 1990, fewer than 5,000 Minnesota residents had been born in Africa. Ten years later, that figure has increased to more than 34,000• By 2002 nearly 9,000 additional immigrants arrived in Minnesota directly from various African nations.• * 13% of Minnesota’s foreign born residents in the 2000 census were from Africa (higher percentage than any other state in the country)• Most of these individuals have come to The unites states as refugees fleeing civil wars in Liberia, Somalia and Sudan.
Why Africans Came to Minnesota• In 1960 Somalia gained its independence. After this the next three decades consisted of blood civil wars. Famine, food shortages, droughts forced more than a million Somalis to seek refuge in neighboring countries.• Most Somalis who now live in Minnesota came to the United states as refugees, about one third of Minnesota’s Somali residents came directly from refugee camps.• Also the availability of unskilled jobs that don’t require English fluency or literacy was another large factor of attracting Africans to Minnesota.
Economic Impact• Immigrant Owned businesses generated 331 million dollars in net income to the state of Minnesota alone in 2000.*Hispanic owned firms in the state have grown 350% since 1990.*If immigrants were removed from the labor force, Minnesota would loose over 24,000 permanent jobs and 1.2 in personal income.(Economic Impact by Each Immigrant group)
Latino Economic Impact• Latinos are generating new services and tax dollars for Minnesota through entrepreneurial and economic development which all results in expanding Minnesota’s workforce.• A great example of Latino economic impact can be used by looking at East Lake street in Minneapolis. This street used to be a downward spiraling business corridor. A Latino cooperative shopping and cultural center has put tons of money in renovating the street and now more than 200 Latino businesses are located on the strip.• On another note, more than 1,000 Mexican American businesses alone operate in Minnesota generating an estimated 200 million in sales.
Asian Economic Impact• The website that I used the most suggested that since Asian culture families are quite large and close-knit that this often provides a cooperative path to economic stability and achievement and advancement.• Focusing on Hmong families in St. Paul now, I found that Hmong people, after building up equity, the family can spread out and extended their financial base. This approach has resulted in relatively high homeownership rates for Hmong Minnesotans and is significantly higher than other immigrant groups.• Revenue generated from Hmong companies in Minnesota is estimated at more than 100 Million
African Economic Impact• Since the resettlement of Somali refugees in Minnesota that began as recently as the mid 1990’s, the economic impact of this population is growing on a smaller scale than that of any other established immigrant group.• Somali influence on Minnesota’s economy primarily includes filling positions that don’t require strong English skills. Providing businesses and services to other Somali immigrants and a variety of entrepreneurial efforts.• Like Latinos a majority of Somali businesses can be found on lake street and according to the web site I found the information off of, they account for 120 stores on the strip.