BH Event Space: Use What You Have Video Prod w/Color Balance (2 Hour …


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BH Event Space: Use What You Have Video Prod w/Color Balance (2 Hour …

  1. 1. Use What You Have and (Still) Produce GreatVideo to Increase Sales on the Web & Beyond 2-Hour Version with New Color Balance Section B & H Event Space Thursday, September 27, 2012 4 PM – 6 PM New York City Presented by Donald Schwartz Technology Writer/Photographer Twitter: Ishkahbibel 1
  2. 2. The Road Ahead• The Big Difference Between Your Eyes & Ears and a Camera• What Tools You Need To Focus Attention – Seeing The Light• Why The Right Exposure & Correct Color Balance Is So Important• How To Become A Master At Composing What Goes Within The Frame• The Pitfalls Of Bad Sound Image: Jennifer Schwartz 2
  3. 3. The Video/Still Camera vs. Your Eye Eye Features Camera FeaturesAuto White Balance – doesn’t see shadows as Auto white balance included but not accurate –blue or fluorescent lights as green confused by direction (where) of light and mixed lighting sources. Can’t identify primary light source without help.Auto Exposure – wide contrast range covering Auto exposure included but confused by highhighlights and shadows with quick adjustment. contrast. Doesn’t know its own limitations. Makes choices based on brightest areas.Auto Focus – face recognition built in. Multiple Face recognition easily confused. Camerafocus points built in. (Your choice) operator must direct focus to the correct subject. Limited focus distance. 3
  4. 4. When The Camera Controls Exposure Click here to view video 4
  5. 5. Success Formula: Learn To Love Manual Control (Who’s More Capable, You Or Your Camera?)• When an all-auto camera reacts to changes in light levels, light sources, wide audio swings, everything it does is obvious and distracting. 5
  6. 6. Start Small, Turn Off One Auto Function At A Time 6
  7. 7. Focus Attention – Get Audiences To Pay Attention To What You Want Them To SeeAchieved By:• Lighting – foreground & background separation – create contrast – makes image appear sharper.• Think principal subject – brighter than other pictorial elements.• Create dimensionality by using light and shadow. Shadow defines depth. 7
  8. 8. Focus Attention – Get Audiences To Pay Attention To What You Want Them To See• Technique: Start with 3-point lighting consisting of key (main), fill (fills in detail & lightens shadow), back or separation light. Images: Copyright 2006 Jeremy Birn Used by permission of author 8
  9. 9. Focus Attention – Get Audiences To Pay Attention To What You Want Them To See• Technique: Have no lights? • Apply angle of incidence. Angle of Bounce or reflect available light incidence equals angle of using foam core, show card, or reflectance. Also works for finding cine foil. unwanted reflections. Photo credit: California Sunbounce 9
  10. 10. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Lighting Characteristics• Color• Hard or Soft• Sun is a hard light, a direct light - well defined shadows• Bounced lights are soft - less shadows and good wrap• The bigger the light source, the softer the light• Distance & Light 1. If you move light close to your subject light will fall off very rapidly; further away will fall off more slowly. When you pull back you can actually light more space. 2. Inverse Square Law - means of calculating fall off 10
  11. 11. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Shadows• Can Define Subjects (add 3rd dimension)• Create Pattern• Can Also Distract• Video or Photography Distractions: – Two cross shadow under chin – Moving shadow against wall 11
  12. 12. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light ShadowsDefine Subject Create Pattern Distraction Images: Donald Schwartz Models L- R: Sally & Lady Camelia 11
  13. 13. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Color Balance – White Balance Color Balance – White Balance• A Video Camera sees light differently from your eyes.• Light color is measured in degrees Kelvin which corresponds to different colors.• The Basics: – Daylight is blue – Tungsten is red/yellow – Fluorescents are green I Win 13
  14. 14. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light The Effect Of Incorrect Color Balance 14
  15. 15. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Tools For Obtaining The Correct Color Balance 15
  16. 16. Photo credit: Donald SchwartzModels: Lynette Scire & Steve Ferrari 16
  17. 17. Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 17
  18. 18. Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 18
  19. 19. Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 19
  20. 20. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Different Color Balance Settings Under Daylight • Lighting Conditions: Daylight – Late Afternoon • Lighting Conditions: Daylight – Open Shade • Starting Point: White Balance with Gray Card 20
  21. 21. Daylight Late Afternoon Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 21
  22. 22. Daylight Late Afternoon Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 22
  23. 23. Daylight Late Afternoon Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 23
  24. 24. Daylight Late Afternoon Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 24
  25. 25. Daylight Open ShadePhoto credit: Donald Schwartz 25
  26. 26. Daylight Open Shade Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 26
  27. 27. Daylight Open Shade – Flash with Orange Filter (Tungsten Equivalent)Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 27
  28. 28. Daylight Open Shade Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 28
  29. 29. Daylight Open Shade Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 29
  30. 30. Daylight Open Shade Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 30
  31. 31. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Your Video Camera’s Color Balancing Tools Image Courtesy: Canon 31
  32. 32. Everything You Wanted To Know About LightThe Sure Thing For Color Balance – Custom (Manual) Color Balance To Predominant Source Use White Card, Gray Card or Custom Globe 32
  33. 33. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Gels – Changing The Color Of A Light Source• CTO – Roscosun 3407 – converts Daylight (source) to Tungsten• CTB – Full Blue 3202 – converts Tungsten (source) to Daylight• Tough Plus Green 3304 – adds green to Daylight (source)• Tough Minus Green 3308 – converts Fluorescent to Sunlight• Rosco 241 – converts Tungsten source to Fluorescent 33
  34. 34. Exposure What Does It Mean To You? Why is It Important to You?Answer:The amount of light required for the camera’s sensorto capture the widest range of bright highlights anddark areas without over or under exposing the image. 34
  35. 35. Exposure How Your Camera Interprets A Scene Why Understand Gray Scale or Zone?• Your video camera is color blind.• Exposure is set in relation to Middle Gray (Zone V) – 18% reflectance.• Zones are a method of quantifying shades.• Determining how a color corresponds to a shade of gray produces more consistent results. Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 35
  36. 36. Exposure Black Tank Real World ViewCourtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography) 36
  37. 37. ExposureBlack Tank Auto Exposure – Middle Gray ViewCourtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography) 37
  38. 38. Exposure White Wall Real World ViewCourtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography) 38
  39. 39. Exposure White Wall Auto Exposure – Middle GrayCourtesy Tim Cooper Photography (Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography) 39
  40. 40. ExposureWhen It Comes To Exposure, Your Camera Stills Sees In Black & White Light Absorption and Reflection Images: Donald Schwartz 40
  41. 41. ExposureKnow Your Skin Tones Image: iStock 41
  42. 42. ExposureKnow Your Skin Tones Related to Middle Gray +1 18% Gray (average reflectance) -1 Image: iStock 42
  43. 43. Exposure Setting Exposure Using In-Camera Controls• Zebra Stripes - skin tones and peak white (images: 70 IRE & 100 IRE)• Waveform Monitor - range from black to peak white (image)• Gray Card - mid-tones Gray Card – Cowboy Studio Waveform Monitor IRE Pictures courtesy of The DV Show WFM courtesy: CyberCollege® and InternetCampus® 43
  44. 44. Exposure By The Numbers (Advanced)• ISO – Chip sensitivity to light frequently called “speed”• F-stops refer to the size of the lens opening called “aperture”• Shutter Speed – how fast the shutter letting in the light opens and closes exposing the chip• Video cameras do not have a mechanical shutter. When referring to speed, we mean how fast the video camera samples information from a chip. If you select 60th of a second - (standard) shutter speed - this means sampling all the information in a 60th of a second. Source: 44
  45. 45. ExposureVideo Camera Exposure By The Numbers Image Courtesy of Canon 45
  46. 46. Exposure A Work Around for Auto Exposure Shooting a Subject in Front of a WindowWork Around:• Move subject away from window• Cover window• Add front light Click here to view video Photo credit: Donald Schwartz 46
  47. 47. Focus Audience Attention• DOP – Depth of Field – What’s in focus and what is not.• The distance between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus - a function of lens aperture, ISO, shutter speed.• Not available on cameras with small sensors – but... Image: Donald Schwartz 47
  48. 48. Focus Audience AttentionDOP – Depth of Field – Isolates, Separates, Calls Attention To Image: Donald Schwartz 48
  49. 49. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Or the face doesn’t have to be in the middle of the frameRule of Thirds – divide your frame into a 9 section grid. Image: Donald Schwartz 49
  50. 50. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Changing A Lens Focal Length Alters Perspective Wide – 24mm Normal – 50mm Telephoto – 105mm (Compression)• When you change perspective you change the relationship between the background and the foreground Drawings: Jennifer Schwartz 50
  51. 51. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Tactics• Why not zoom in? Because it changes perspective and draws attention to itself.• Start wider than normal and walk in to bring your audience with you. 51
  52. 52. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Long Lens CompressionAppears Actual Distance 85 mm - lens 125 sec – shutter speed 125 ISO Images: Donald Schwartz 52
  53. 53. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Wide Angle Lens – Expands Distance24 mm lens125 ISO Images: Donald Schwartz 53
  54. 54. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part I Eye Line & Camera AngleUp DownAngle Angle Images: Donald Schwartz 54
  55. 55. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part II Solving the 2D Conundrum – Creating 3D• Using frames within frames, vanishing point and visual triangles.• Think: what frames do you see every day? Clue: what do you look out of – a window?• What in this image leads your eye to the horizon? Images: Donald Schwartz 55
  56. 56. Focus Audience Attention Compositional Mastery: Part II Solving the 2D Conundrum – Creating 3D Vanishing Point Triangulation• Frame within frame • Vanishing Point• Create scale • Triangulation• Use of color – set design or color balance Images: Donald Schwartz 56
  57. 57. Audio Mastery Microphones vs. Ears Ear Features Microphone FeaturesWide dynamic range from a whisper to Limited to microphone specificationsa thunder clap. and audio amplification.Seamless level adjustment. Requires monitoring to avoid distortion on the high (loud) end and noise on the low (quiet) end.Directional sound awareness. Depends on each microphone’s acceptance pattern. Each microphone’s coverage area varies. 57
  58. 58. Audio Mastery Microphones – Two Basic TypesOmni Directional: pickup sound from every direction equallyBetter at resisting wind noise or mechanical handlingLess susceptible to popping “p,” “b” or “t”Directional Microphones: Sounds best from the front. Tends to reject soundthat comes from other directions• Directional Types: cardioid, subcardioid, hypercardioid, bi-directional 58
  59. 59. Audio Mastery Collecting Sound Objectives• Suppress unwanted noise• Reduce effects of reverberation• Increase gain before distortion – crank up the good sound 59
  60. 60. Audio Mastery Visualizing Microphone Pickup Patterns Patterns, called polar patterns, should be taken as the floor plan of a microphone’s response; where the microphone hears the best. Microphone PatternsAT8004L Audio-Technica Omnidirectional Audio-Technica AT831 R - Audio Technica-AT875 Short Condenser MicrophoneDynamic Microphone Cardioid Condenser Microphone 60
  61. 61. Audio Mastery Sound Recording – Best Practices• Recording level should be as close to zero on your meter as possible without increasing background noises.• Get microphone or camera as close to subject as possible.• Metering: Level should be as close to zero as possible with increased background noise.• When setting level have subject speak normally. The subject should not move backwards or forwards during the test.• Don’t use AGC (auto gain control).• Record at least a minute of ambient sound (called room tone) with no one talking. 61
  62. 62. Camera In MotionWhy Does The Camera Bounce When I Walk? Click here to view video Animation courtesy of Darmont - 62
  63. 63. Camera In Motion A Moving Camera • Use a camera stabilization system – it separates your gait from the camera. Example: Merlin Merlin Stabilization Click here to view video SystemAdditional Benefits: A moving camera creates motionwhere there is none. Enables multiple angles and diverseshot compositions (wide angle to close up) without editing.Allows crossing the line (the 180 degree rule). Courtesy: The Tiffin Company 63
  64. 64. Videographer’s Best PracticesPanning The 180 Degree Rule • If you think it’s too slow, make it • You have crossed the line. slower. • Quick and dirty solution for • Apply pressure before you need to interviews: shoot over right shoulder and lessen before you stop. and for reverse, reaction shot, over • Use a tripod. left shoulder.Avoid Dead Eye • Cause: too much top light. Image courtesy of Steven d. Katz Michael Weise Productions in conjunction with Focal Press 64
  65. 65. Lighting Supplemental 65
  66. 66. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Light Creators• The Sun• LED – Litepanels Hilio• Fluorescent – Riffa 55 Kit – Want high CRI – Efficient, short throw Litepanels Hilio™ Chimera TL Lightbank Kit w/o Grid Kit• Tungsten – More heat, less light – Lowel D Light & Tota• HMI - generate light equivalent to sun light color temp Lowel D Light & Tota 66
  67. 67. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Light Controls and Shaping• Diffusion in front of lighting instrument: softens light and limits intensity. Changes character of light. Suggestions: Rosco Opal Tough Spun 3010, Tough Silk 3011, Tough ½ White Diffusion (also called Lee 216).• A single lighting instrument with two intensities: Use ½ scrim at one or 2 stop control.• Lessening light intensity on reflective surfaces: nets with one or two stop control.• Removing light from where you dont want it to be: flags or black show cards in frames. 67
  68. 68. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Lighting Control Tools Altman Barn Doors Westcott Fast Flags & Nets Internal & External Scrims Altman Fresnel Doors, IK Scrims: Courtesy of Altman, Fast Flags: Courtesy ofNote: Nets & Scrims: two light intensities from one Westcottinstrument 68
  69. 69. Everything You Wanted To Know About Light Light Rigging Tools – Your Personal AssistantAvenger C Stand Kit & Set Technicians Handbook 69
  70. 70. One Light Setup Direct Spill 70
  71. 71. Audio Supplemental 71
  72. 72. Audio Mastery Understand The LanguageDynamic MicrophonesCondenser MicrophonesOmni-directional, DirectionalMicrophone Acceptance & Rejection PatternsPhantom PowerImpedance – Low & HighBalanced & Unbalanced MicrophonesSensitivity – measured in db (decibels)Microphone Level & Line LevelFrequency - measured in Hz (Hertz)GainSignal to Noise 72
  73. 73. Audio Mastery The EssentialsMicrophone Level - audio that comes directly from a microphone.• Diagnosis: can barely hear it.Line Level – amplified audio that comes from a mixer, audio system.• Diagnosis: distorted audio or pinned needle.Phantom Power –• Provides power to use the microphone at the camera input or from a mixer.• Unlike Dynamic, Condenser microphones require a power source. If you dont power from an external source must boost in line. Will require some kind of battery.Balanced/Unbalanced Audio Connectors –• Balanced audio connectors are less prone to RF(Radio Frequency), hum and buzz.• Unbalanced audio connectors can be ¼ inch or 3.5 mm and are more prone to RF, hum and buzz. XLR ¼ inch 3.5 mm 73
  74. 74. Audio Mastery Work Arounds Egg Crates or Shipping Foam Matthews Sound Blankets - Moving Blankets Courtesy of Matthews Auralex Styrofoam Wedgies Comprehensive EXF Mini - Courtesy of ComprehensiveHosa XVM XLR Female to 3.5mm mini male -Courtesy of Hosa Beachtek DXA-2J next to Beachtek DXA-5D Courtesy of Beachtek 74
  75. 75. Improving How You Look To Your Audience Talk to The Camera: Three Views of the Teleprompter Courtesy of Second Screen Academy Auralex Styrofoam WedgiesInterior Teleprompter Teleprompter with cowling Teleprompter displaying text 75
  76. 76. Tools to Turn Your iPhone into a Controllable Video Capture DeviceFilmic PRO – Courtesy of Filmic PRO Adaptor for audio – Courtesy of Sescom vReveal – Courtesy of vReveal Plus portable digital recorder and Plural Eyes by Singular SoftwareWide Angle Lens – Courtesy of Photojojo Miniature Shotgun Microphone – Courtesy of Vericorder Technology 76
  77. 77. Camcorder AlternativeConsumer to Prosumer Cameras • Allows you to visually see audio and light levels (via Zebra).35mm Cameras Capturing Video Pros: • Enable depth of field with large sensor. • Use of great glass lenses. • Exceptional ISO/light sensitivity. Cons: • Limited recording time due to sensor over-heating. Improving. • Poor sound quality. • Requires mounting rig for shoulder or mounting on a tripod. • Rolling shutter effect (going away). Photo courtesy of 77
  78. 78. Picking Up SteamPanasonic AG-AF 1004/3 – type MOS Sensor AVCCAM CamcorderPros:• More cost efficient than using hybrid 35mm camera add-ons• Use of existing 35mm camera lenses = good glass• Real Depth of Field• No constraints on video recording time• No requirement to sync audio• Use of normal rigging for tripods Image courtesy of Panasonic Inc.• Focus Assist Function – sharpen detail in view finder• Zebra & Color Bar Displays – Zebra for assessing highlights and/or peak white. Color bars for editing match camera output.• XLR balanced audio inputs vs. 1/8 inch minis• Audio monitoringCons:• No 35mm sensor so have crop factor• Only Panasonic lenses allow for power zoom, aperture and focus – all other adapted lenses are manual. 78
  79. 79. Picking Up SteamSony NEX FS100UKPros:• More cost efficient than using hybrid 35mm DSLR camera add- ons• Exmor Super35 CMOS Sensor• Real Depth of Field• Embedded TimecodeCons: Sony NEX FS100UK• All manual control lensing• Control Access & Design• Some difficulty associated with using prime lenses other than NEX lens 79
  80. 80. Video Promotion for Small Businesses, Artists, Consultants• When showing your product, animate it.• With a location, walk in and around as if you were a viewer.• With paintings and photographs, move camera across the painting or photo – think Ken Burns.• Use lighting to create dimensionality for sculpture or installations.• Create a mood using music, sound effects. For example: bells, foot steps, thunder.• Create a back story and cut back and forth between you talking directly to the camera and your work.• What can you say about your product or service? If you can show it with footage and stills, do it.• You can talk about process, materials, specialized tools, why you applied the paint the way you did.• You can talk about influences, inspiration, why you are passionate about what you do. 80
  81. 81. Resources & SourcesWeb Video: Making It Great, Getting It NoticedBy: Jennie Bourne; Dave BursteinPublisher: Peachpit PressPub. Date: August 05, 2008Print ISBN-10: 0-321-55296-2101 Quick and Easy Secrets to Create Winning PhotographsBy: Matthew BambergPublisher: Course Technology PTRPub. Date: April 14, 2009Print ISBN-10: 1-59863-902-1Film Directing - Shot by ShotVisualizing from Concept to ScreenBy: Steven d. KatzPublisher: Michael Weise Productions & Focal PressPublication Date: June 1991ISBN #: 0-941188-10-8Stoppees’ Guide to Photography & Light: What Digital Photographers, Illustrators, and Creative Professionals Must KnowBy: Brian & Janet StoppeePublisher: Focal PressPub. Date: October 22, 2008eISBN-10: 0-08-092798-XHome Recording for BeginnersBy: Geoffrey FrancisPublisher: Course Technology PTRPub. Date: January 01, 2009Print ISBN-10: 1-59863-881-5Digital Lighting & Rendering, Second EditionBy: Jeremy BirnPublisher: New RidersPub. Date: April 27, 2006Print ISBN-10: 0-321-31631-2Info on Walk Cycle: on Light Reflection Tools: California Sunbounce: on Camera Motion Control: Tiffin: 81
  82. 82. Resources & Sources Perfect Exposure for Digital Photography The Zone System of Metering & Shooting (DVD) By: Tim Cooper ISBN 9780981602905 The Lighting Technicians Handbook By: Harry C. Box Publisher: Focal Press 82
  83. 83. Donald Schwartz Imagelink Twitter: Ishkahbibel 83