BlueScape Get the Air Permit for Energy Projects Webinar 9-10-13


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This webinar by James Westbrook at BlueScape describes the air permitting process for energy projects, from early planning and technical feasibility review to application submittal and permit negotiation. The webinar presents tips to avoid delays and move quickly, save money, and address issues and hurdles that can impact the project. Issues such as emission limits and BACT emission controls, offsets, Title V permitting, and modeling impacts are discussed. The presenter provides tips on how to conduct the permitting process to be successful, and maximize operational flexibility. Mr. Westbrook can be reached at 858-774-2009 for more information. For a video presentation go to Also see

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BlueScape Get the Air Permit for Energy Projects Webinar 9-10-13

  1. 1. Get the Permit! Air Permitting for Energy Project Developers September 10, 2013 James A. Westbrook 858-774-2009 mobile
  2. 2. Agenda   •  Energy  Project  Permi2ng  Objec5ves   •  The  5  Air  Permi2ng  Process  Steps   •  Permit  planning  -­‐  common  issues  and   hurdles   •  What  Can  Go  Wrong   •  Permi2ng  Examples  from  Energy  Projects   •  Summary  
  3. 3. If  you  are  involved  with  energy  projects  …   what  kind?*   Energy  Project  Type   %   Cogenera5on  –  gas  engines,  boilers,   turbines   20%   Diesel  Engines   16%   U5lity  Scale  Power  Plants   18%   Refinery,  Oil  &  Gas  Projects   22%   Other   24%   *As  of  Sep  7,  2013  
  4. 4. About  the  Presenter   •  25  years  experience  with  air  permits  on  energy   projects   •  Power  genera5on,  industrial  cogen,  LNG  facili5es,   transmission  lines,  u5li5es,  refinery,  oil  &  gas   processing   •  Na5onal  Experience  –  CA  to  East  Coast   •  Solve  tough  air  permi2ng  issues  and  get  the  permit:   -­‐  Develop  permi2ng  strategy,  rapidly  obtain  permits   -­‐  Reduce  impacts  on  opera5onal  flexibility   -­‐  Excel  in  technical  analysis,  emission  controls  and  modeling   -­‐  Develop  workable  monitoring,  recordkeeping  and  repor5ng   -­‐  Established  agency  rela5onships,  lead  nego5a5ons    
  5. 5. Air  Permi2ng  is  like  Ra_ing  …..  
  6. 6. What  are  your  Permi2ng  Objec5ves?   •  Get  the  permit,  move  project  development  forward   –  Quick,  smooth,  hassle-­‐free  process   •  Save  money  on  equipment  and  emission  controls   •  Avoid  mistakes  in  equipment  selec5on   •  Minimize  regulatory  limita5ons  and  constraints   •  Maximize  opera5onal  flexibility   •  Get  ahead  of  changing,  stricter  requirements   •  Allow  for  future  plant  expansion  if  needed     An  air  permit  is  a  cri-cal  piece  of  business  insurance  !!  
  7. 7. The  Permi2ng  Team   Host Facility Project Developers Permitting ConsultantEnergy Equipment Vendor Reviewing Agency Attorneys Air Pollution Equipment Vendor Public Relations Monitoring Equipment Vendor
  8. 8. Air  Permi2ng  Process  -­‐  Summary  
  9. 9. Development  Timeline   Pre-­‐ Project   Planning   Feasibility   Analysis   Applica5on   Permit   Review  &   Nego5a5on   Permit   Opera5ons   Project   Start   30%  Design   80%   Design   Construc5on     Start   Opera5on  Start   3  months   6  months   12  months   24  months   Project   Development   Schedule   Air  Permi:ng   Schedule   0  
  10. 10. Pre-­‐Project  Planning  
  11. 11. Pre-­‐Project  Planning   •  Start  early  at  the  drawing  board   •  Hire  an  energy  project  permi2ng  expert,  sit  at   design  table   •  Review  the  Project  “lay  of  the  land”   -­‐  Region,  aiainment  or  non-­‐aiainment  area   -­‐  Agencies  involved,  local,  state  and  federal  -­‐  stringency   -­‐  Exis5ng  facility  air  permit  status,  major  or  minor  source   -­‐  Equipment  ownership   -­‐  Other  approvals  dependent  on  the  air  permit  issuance  
  12. 12. Pre-­‐Project  Planning  (con’t)   •  Determine  the  kind  of  project   -­‐  New,  modified,  replacement   -­‐  Opera5onal  mode  -­‐  baseload,  peaking,  backup  or  prime   -­‐  Applicable  rules,  exemp5ons,  permits  by  rule,  and  trigger   thresholds   •  Design  Review  Issues   –  Equipment,  fuels  and  expected  emission  controls   –  Emission  limita5ons  and  other  constraints   –  Recent  projects  and  agency  requirements   –  Project  op5ons  and  alterna5ves   –  Manufacturer  guarantees   •  Develop  a  Permi2ng  Strategy  and  Workplan  
  13. 13. Rules  &  Emission  Limits  Drive  Design   •  Best  Available  Control  Technology  (BACT)   •  Local  or  state  prohibitory  or  source-­‐specific   standards,  exemp5ons   •  EPA  New  Source  Performance  Standards  (NSPS)   •  EPA  Na5onal  Emission  Standards  for  Hazardous   Air  Pollutants  (NESHAP  of  MACT  controls)   •  Limits  forced  by  Air  Quality  Impact  Analysis    
  14. 14. Feasibility  Analysis  
  15. 15. Feasibility  Analysis   •  Technical  Issues  review  –  “fatal-­‐flaw”  analysis   •  Data  development  –  projects,  vendors,  geography     •  Issues  List:   –  Best  Available  Control  Technology  (BACT),  by  unit   –  Prohibitory  Rules  –  exemp5ons,  limits,  monitoring,  recordkeeping  and   repor5ng  requirements   –  Startup  and  Shutdown  Emissions,  Varying  Condi5ons   –  Emission  Offsets,  by  facility  /  project   –  Title  V  and  PSD  permi2ng,  by  facility  /  project   –  Air  Quality  Impacts  by  project   •  Ambient  Standards   •  Health  Risk  Assessment   –  Poten5al  to  develop  Emission  Credits  for  sale   •  Community  Support  and  Involvement   •  How  feasible  is  this  project,  what  must  happen?  
  16. 16. BACT  for  NOx  Emissions   Equipment  Type   Applica=on   Size   BACT  for  NOx   Gas  Engine,  NG   Cogen   1,000  hp   0.1  -­‐  0.15  g/bhp-­‐hr   Gas  Turbine,  NG   Cogen   5.0  MWe   2.5  –  5.0  ppmv  @  15%  O2   Gas  Turbine,  NG   U5lity   100  MWe   1.0  –  2.5  ppmv  @15%  O2   Boiler,  NG   Process  Heat   100   MMBtu/hr   0.01  –  0.04  lb/MMBtu   Diesel  Engine   Backup   2,000  hp   6.4  g/kW-­‐hr*  (EPA  Tier  2)   Diesel  Engine   Prime   2,000  hp   0.67  g/kW-­‐hr*  (EPA  Tier  4)   *NOx  +  NMHC  
  17. 17. Emission  Offsets,  Title  V  and  PSD   •  Emissions  Offsets  –  Nonaiainment  Areas   •  Federal  Opera5ng  Permits  (Title  V)  –  major   sources  of  criteria  pollutants   –  Process  to  add  or  modify  units  different  for  major   sources   •  Preven5on  of  Significant  Deteriora5on    (PSD)     –  major  source  new  source  review  in  aiainment  areas  
  18. 18. Air  Quality  Impact  Analysis   •  Na5onal  and  state  ambient  air  quality   standards   –  NO2,  PM10,  PM2.5,  SO2,  CO  and  VOC  (ozone)   •  Health  Risk  Assessment  for  Air  Toxics   –  Cancer  risk:  1  in  one  million  to  10  in  one  million   cases   –  Noncancer  chronic  or  acute  risk   •  Agency  will  run  an  independent  analysis   •  Must  show  compliance  to  get  the  permit  
  19. 19. Applica5on  
  20. 20. Applica5on  Process   •  Pre-­‐applica5on  Mee5ng  with  Agency   –  Hear  what  they  want,  tell  ‘em  what  you  want   •  Find  out  about  and  file  for  Expedited  Permi2ng   •  Complete  Applica5on  Package   –  Fees   –  Cover  Leier   –  Forms  –  general,  equipment-­‐specific   –  Technical  Report  –  emissions,  BACT,  applicable  rules   –  Air  Quality  Impact  Analysis   –  Equipment  Specifica5ons   –  Manufacturer  Guarantees   –  Site  plans  and  area  maps   •  Applica5on  Mee5ng   •  Agency  Completeness  Determina5on  Period   •  Agency  Applica5on  Review  Period    
  21. 21. Permit  Review  &   Nego5a5on  
  22. 22. Permit  Review  and  Nego5a5on   •  A  dra_  “Authority  to  Construct”  (ATC)  permit   will  be  issued   •  Carefully  review  and  meet  with  the  agency   –  Much  can  be  nego5ated  to  allow  flexibility   •  Public  Review  and  Comment  period,  if   applicable  –  add  30-­‐45  days   •  Final  permit  issuance  for  construc5on   •  1-­‐2  years  to  complete  project  construc5on   •  Do  I  need  the  ATC  permit  before  I  can  start  any   construc5on?    
  23. 23. Permit  Opera5ons  
  24. 24. Permit  Opera5ons   •  Start  opera5ons  and  show  compliance   –  With  the  permit  and  applicable  rules  and  regula5ons   •  Monitoring,  recordkeeping,  and  repor5ng   procedures  –  in  place,  track,  track!   •  No5fica5ons  and  protocols  to  agency   •  Emissions  source  tes5ng   •  Agency  ini5al  inspec5on  –  show  all  permit   condi5ons  are  met   •  Upon  compliance,  permit  to  operate  (PTO)   •  Addi5onal  permit  fees  for  the  PTO    
  25. 25. What  Can  Go  Wrong?   Problem   How  to  Avoid   Construc5on  delay  without  air  permit   Start  the  applica5on  process  early   Last  minute  or  frequent  design  changes   Strategize  submiial  5ming   Changing  regulatory  requirements  or  BACT   Watch  for  and  plan  for  these  changes   Expensive  equipment  or  emission  control   required   Review  equipment,  design,  opera5onal   alterna5ves   Can’t  meet  emission  limits  a_er  opera5on   Beier  engineering  design   Onerous  permit  monitoring  condi5ons   Nego5ate  appropriate  condi5ons   Triggering  emission  offsets  or  Title  V   Structure  emission  limits  or  opera5ng   condi5ons  to  avoid  triggers   Exceeding  ambient  health  standards   Refined  air  dispersion  modeling   Permit  does  not  match  what  will  actually  be   installed   Contact  agency  to  revise  and  reissue  the  permit   before  installa5on   Viola5on  of  permit  or  rule  condi5ons   Manufacture  guarantees,  design,  good   opera5ons  management   All  of  the  above  and  more   Hire  an  experience  permi2ng  lead  consultant!  
  26. 26. Example  Permi2ng  Cases   •  Project  1:  580  MMBtu/hr  Hydrogen  Plant  replacement  at  a   Refinery   –  Issue  1:  Developer  did  not  know  emission  offsets  may  be  needed   –  Issue  2:  CO  emissions  at  startup  exceeding  2,000  ppmv   –  Issue  3:  Tight  scheduling     •  Project  2:  Commercial  Cogen  Facility,  200  kW  gas  engine   –  Issue  1:  Permit  Moratorium  requiring  market  emission  offsets   –  Issue  2:  First  implementa5on  of  a  output  based  standard  lb/MW-­‐hr,   VOC  emissions   –  Issue  3:  Permit  cancelled  for  non-­‐fee  payment   •  Project  3:  Diesel  Backup  Project,  2  x  2  MW  engines   –  Issue:  Health  Risk  Assessment  not  passing  cancer  risk  threshold  for   mul5ple  engines,  filters  required  
  27. 27. Summary  -­‐  Air  Permi2ng  for  Energy  Projects   •  Hire  an  experienced  air  permi2ng  guide  to  navigate  the   process   •  Start  early,  strategic  planning  will  make  a  difference   –  Understand  your  energy  project  defini5on  and  alterna5ves  that   can  be  considered   –  Know  air  permi2ng  will  impact  project  design,  spend  money   •  Plan  for  the  what  can  go  wrong,  you  will  be  more  prepared   •  Understand  the  5  permi2ng  steps,  don’t  skip  the  feasibility   review  step   •  Work  closely  with  agency  staff  through  the  applica5on  stage     –  understand  requirements,  nego5ate  permit  condi5ons   •  Be  sure  you  are  in  compliance  with  all  condi5ons  at  start  and   during  opera5on   •  Go  get  the  Permit!  
  28. 28. Contact  Informa5on   James  Westbrook   BlueScape  Environmental   Mobile:  858-­‐774-­‐2009   Connect  with  me  on  Linkedin!     The  webinar  presenta.on  will  be  posted  on  Slideshare   (search  for  BlueScape)