Semantics To The Bookmarks: A Review of Social Semantic Bookmarking Systems


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presentation of the paper "Semantics to the Bookmarks: A Review of Social Semantic Bookmarking Systems" at I-SEMANTICS 2009 conference, Graz, Austria, Sep 2 2009

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Semantics To The Bookmarks: A Review of Social Semantic Bookmarking Systems

  1. 1. Semantics to the Bookmarks: A Review of Social Semantic Bookmarking Systems Simone Braun, Claudiu Schora, Valentin Zacharias
  2. 2. This Presentation • Goal: An overview of the state of the art in Social Semantic Bookmarking • Part 1: Introducing Social Semantic Bookmarking • Part 2: Social Semantic Bookmarking Systems • Part 3: Some Important Differentiating Dimensions
  3. 3. Part 1: Introducing Social Semantic Bookmarking • Part 1.1: Social Bookmarking Systems • Part 1.2: Semantic Annotation Systems • Part 1.3: Social Semantic Bookmarking
  4. 4. Social Bookmarking, Definition • Bookmark: Manually created reference to (internet) content deemed interesting • (Linguistic) Tag: Arbitrary keyword assigned to an entity (e.g. bookmark) to aid in management and retrieval • Social Bookmarking Site: Website facilitating discovery of interesting content & persons through shared tags and bookmarks
  5. 5. Social Bookmarking – Advantages & Disadvantages • Advantages: Lightweight, easy to use, adaptable, no setup, proven – used by millions of users. • Disadvantages: – Lack of precision due to (Mis-)Spelling, Polysemy, Homonymy – Lack of recall due to Multilingualism, Synonymy, Basic Level Phenomena
  6. 6. Semantic Annotation, Definition • Annotation: An addition made to an entity to aid management, retrieval etc. • Semantic Annotation: OntoMat An annotation done using a term described with some background knowledge – (usually contained in an ontology) – e.g. its relation to other terms
  7. 7. Semantic Annotation – Advantages & Disadvantages • Advantages: – Better Retrieval due to explicitly represented concept relations  improving query and browse functionality – Better Use Of Annotation due to standardized languages and machine understandable annotations  allow for better interoperability between systems
  8. 8. Semantic Annotation – Advantages & Disadvantages • Disadvantages: – High Cost: Ontologies are usually created by highly paid knowledge engineers that also first need to learn about the domain – Low Appropriateness due to the technical, personal and temporal separation between creation and use of ontology heavyweight process large upfront investment high time lack between concept emergence and inclusion in ontology errors due to limited domain understanding of knowledge engineers
  9. 9. Social Bookmarking vs. Semantic Annotation • Social Bookmarking lacks semantic precision and recall • Semantic Annotation stumbles because of the separation between creation and use of the semantic model • Social Semantic Bookmarking combines the advantages of both while avoiding the problems
  10. 10. Social Semantic Bookmarking Combines these paradigms • by allowing lightweight and social organization of bookmarks • with tags extended by semantic definitions and descriptions • that also evolve (collaboratively) within the same system
  11. 11. Part 2: Social Semantic Bookmarking Systems • BibSonomy • ZigTag • SOBOLEO • Faviki • Fuzzzy • gnizr • GroupMe • Annotea • Twine
  12. 12. BibSonomy • System for the management of internet resources and publication entries, tailored towards academics • Created by the University Kassel • Extends the tag model with relations between tags Try it at: No Installation
  13. 13. SOBOLEO • SOBOLEO: SOcial BOokmarking and Lightweight Engineering of Ontologies • Social Semantic Bookmarking System created by FZI • Allows simple tags but also concepts with multiple labels, relations etc. • Supports a community of practice in the joint structuring of Try it at: a domain. No Registration, No Installation
  14. 14. Fuzzzy • Manages bookmarks of internet resources, ISBN numbers, media files and geographic locations • Developed at the University of Oslo • Allows a large number of relations between tags • Unique in that it allows voting on all aspects of the semantic model to facilitate gardening Try it at: No Installation
  15. 15. GroupMe! • Bookmarking of web resources with ‘tag groups’ as additional structure • Created by the University of Hannover • Additional focus on making bookmarks of multimedia resources more easily accessible Try it at: No Installation
  16. 16. Twine • Organizing and sharing of bookmarks of web pages, images, videos, products and books • Commercial product developed by Radar Networks • Main ordering principle “Twine” – kind of user interest group. Tags related through use in same Twine • Extensive use of automatic classification to reduce tagging effort Try it at: No Installation
  17. 17. ZigTag • Organizes bookmarks of internet resources • Commercially run by a small Canadian company • Allows the users to choose from a given list of tags (‘ZigTags’) with a specific meaning • Sets ‘ZigTags’ automatically into Try it at: relation No Installation
  18. 18. Faviki • Manages bookmarks of internet resources • Developed by Serbian Web designer Vuc Milicic • Unique in that it relies on Wikipedia articles as tags • Uses DBpedia to support multilinguality Try it at: No Installation
  19. 19. Part 3: (Some) Important Differentiating Dimensions • Part 3.1: Tag Relations • Part 3.2: Semantic Consistency • Part 3.3: Use of Semantics • Part 3.4: Export & Interoperability
  20. 20. Tag Relations • All analyzed systems provide support for relations between tags • Only SOBOLEO, Fuzzzy and BibSonomy allow explicitly user created relations • For Twine and GroupMe! tag relations are indirectly affected by users creating collections
  21. 21. Semantic Consistency • Structure is local, i.e. only usable by the user that created it (BibSonomy) • Global structure is maintained collectively according to Wiki principle (SOBOLEO, Fuzzzy) • Global structure is only indirectly computed from user actions (GroupMe!, Twine) • Global structure is imported or only edited by administrators (ZigTag, Faviki)
  22. 22. Use of Semantics • Additional semantics is mainly used to support tag-based navigation • As far as we know, no inferencing engine is used • Integrating semantics into keyword based search is an area of current active development (e.g. Faviki, SOBOLEO, Twine)
  23. 23. Export & Interoperability • Data Exchange and Interoperability main promise of Semantic (Web) Technologies • All systems support some kind of export functionality, but varied and incompatible formats (BURST, SWRC, XTM, DCMI, SKOS, SCOT ..) • Promise of interoperability currently not realized, but active area with CommonTag as format that could make interoperability possible
  24. 24. Summary • Social Semantic Bookmarking Systems combine Social Bookmarking and Semantic Annotation – by allowing lightweight, flexible annotation – but also more complex and formal description of tags – wich evolve (collaboratively) within the same system
  25. 25. Summary • At least seven such systems are actively developed: BibSonomy, SOBOLEO, Fuzzzy, GroupMe!, Twine, ZigTag and Faviki • Import differentiating dimension and areas of current development are: – kind of relations – edit scopes – the use of the semantics – export formats
  26. 26. Thank you for your Attention ! • Simone Braun ( • Claudiu Schora ( • Valentin Zacharias ( SOBOLEO demo at 3:40 pm at MATURE project booth or try SOBOLEO at: No Registration, No Installation