Participants divided into working groups for each issue/objective
Groups record their work on flip charts and worksheets throughout:
- Keep them safe
- Remember label each sheet with Session and group
As a courtesy to your colleagues, please:
Arrive on time for each session Ask questions if anything isn't clear Be quiet and listen when others are speaking, respecting each other and their views Contribute fully, speak loud and clear
SESSION 1. Welcome to Advocacy and Advocacy Planning
What is advocacy?
Advocacy is a process not an event
It happens at all levels – local, national, regional and international.
It is about achieving specific outcomes
However, there are different views about what type of outcomes advocacy should focus on, and who should do the advocacy
Individuals and organisations tend to see advocacy as primarily focused on either:
Change in institutional policy & practice
Change in public attitudes & behaviour
Change in the political process or system
Increased power and influence for the poor and marginalised
Or a combination of some or all of the above
Advocacy Research Policy Analysis Lobbying Alliance Building Planning & Coordination Publicity Activism SESSION 1.1
Child rights advocacy
Action taken directly to change the policies, positions and programmes of governments, institutions or organisations at all levels from community to international.
A social change process to ensure children have the right to grow up in a safe and secure family, free from poverty and exploitation.
Why are we doing this advocacy?
To change people’s lives.
Therefore our aim or goal is a statement of how a particular group of people’s lives will be changed if our advocacy is successful.
An advocacy strategy has to answer the following questions
What change do we want to bring about?
- What is going wrong? Evidence?
- What must change? Alternative?
Who can make the change?
Who has the power?
Who are our allies and opponents?
How can you make them change?
- How are we going to win?
- How will we see if the change has happened?
The Advocacy Cycle Organisational Context SESSION 1.3 1 Identify issue 2 Analyse problem 3 Draft objectives 5 Capacity assessment 4 Situation analysis 6 Finalise objectives 7 Devise advocacy plan 8 Implement advocacy plan 9 Monitor & evaluate 10 Revise advocacy plan
SESSION 2. Analysing the issue
What is an advocacy issue?
When a situational analysis shows:
Problems in the existing policy
Lack of implementation or enforcement of policy
Problem where political leaders need to take action
Problem due to lack of civil society involvement with decision-making
When the content or implementation of a policy, or the way in which policy decisions are made, could be changed to help make a dramatic impact on children’s lives. SESSION 2.1
Potential advocacy issues arise from
Obstacles to the achievement of organisational vision/mission
Views of children and partner organisations
Own programme experience
Opportunities in the external policy and media environment
Views of staff, volunteers & supporters
Criteria to prioritise issues
Relevant to organisation’s priorities?
Relevant to programme work?
Clear position, position alternative?
Chance of success?
Impact on children?
Potential for alliances?
Adequate staff and resources?
A good advocacy issue Must be focused on a clear policy solution Must be based on a good policy analysis SESSION 2.1
Problem Tree Core Problem Effects Causes SESSION 2.2
Problem Tree SESSION 2.2 Core Problem Direct Cause Indirect Cause Further Effect Direct Effect Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Indirect Cause Direct Cause Direct Effect Direct Effect Further Effect Further Effect Further Effect Further Effect Further Effect
Solution Tree SESSION 2.2 Aim or Goal Objective Objective Further Benefit Direct Benefit Objective Objective Objective Objective Objective Objective Objective Direct Benefit Direct Benefit Further Benefit Further Benefit Further Benefit Further Benefit Further Benefit
Advocacy issue checklist
How relevant is it to EveryChild’s focus on separation?
How relevant is it to your programme work?
Is documentation and research available?
Do you have a clear position and a positive alternative?
Is there a chance of success?
How many children will benefit from the solution?
What are the risk factors to people/or to your programs?
Can you build strategic alliances?
What strategic opportunities are there for influencing?
Do you have adequate resources and staff?
SESSION 3. Setting Objectives
Advocacy goal and objectives
You advocacy goal is the long term result of your advocacy effort. It is your vision for change.
You advocacy objective is the specific change that you can bring about that contributes to reaching your goal.
SMART advocacy objectives
Based on your long term advocacy goal, develop a few objectives that are on the road to the goal.
Objectives should be SMART:
You advocacy objectives
The policy actor/decision maker
The policy action or decision
The timeline for change/degree of change
Each advocacy objective should identify: SESSION 3.1
Write the outcome not your activity.
For example, don’t write:
“ To lobby the government to reform childcare”
“ To educate the public about the extent of child poverty”
“ The government to reform childcare”
“ The public to understand the extent of child poverty”
SESSION 4. Situational analysis and organisational capacity assessment
We need to look at :
In order to assess the likelihood of achieving change we need to understand the external environment. Is our issue high up the political agenda? Are there economic consequences? How might our advocacy be affected by community attitudes? SESSION 4.1 OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
Organisational Advocacy Capacity
People with skills, knowledge & commitment
Appropriate funds, facilities & equipment
Reputation, relationships & support
Clear, focused & coherent
Based on external reality
Matched to internal resources
Integrated, coordinated & decisive
Summarising your capacity assessment
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES SESSION 4.2
Organisational Analysis SESSION 4.3
Internal to the organisation External to the organisation Positive factors Negative factors
For every policy change objective, there is be an associated “Decision Maker”.
He or she may not have sole authority, but they are responsible for that policy and will be the gate-keeper for any changes.
“Decision Makers” should be distinguished from “Decision Approvers” and “Decision Advisers”
Influencing your target
Can you get direct access to your target?
If not, who can?
Will your target be persuaded by your argument alone?
If not, what else is needed?
Is your target under pressure from anyone else?
Simple Influence Map SESSION 5.1 Minister of Health National Media International Donors NGOs Local Government Family Social Workers etc
Who are Stakeholders?
Stakeholders can be individuals, types of people or organisations who:
Are affected by the issue
Can influence the issue
Why are they important?
Some are natural or potential allies
Some are natural or potential opponents
Some are undecided
All can be subject to influence
Re-drafting objectives after identifying who our advocacy targets are Your objectives may need changing once you know who you wish to influence. For example: “ Children are involved in planning and carrying out actions for their interests.” May need to change to: “ Parents and community groups involve children in planning and carrying out actions for their interests.” SESSION 5.1
Analyse the Stakeholders
We need to identify the most important stakeholders for our campaign
We want to put our attention and resources where it will have most effect
We don’t want to spread ourselves too thin
What do we need to know?
How much do they agree or disagree with us?
How important do they think the issue is?
How much influence do they have over the issue?
Example of stakeholder analysis AA = Very Anti, A = Anti, N = Neutral, P = Pro, PP = Very Pro L = Low, M = Medium, H = High SESSION 5.1 Target Minister of ? Targets Influencers L H PP Village committees H L N The media H M A Influencers Influence Importance Attitude
What makes people change? INTEREST Personal self-interest and/or social or professional obligation to change. + EVIDENCE Clear evidence that change is desirable in relation to interests + RELATIONSHIP Persuaded by someone they respect + SOLUTION Know what change is desirable and know how to do it SESSION 5.2
Co-operative (as as insider)
Confrontational (as an outsider)
Persuasive (from inside and outside)
From what you know about your targets, and from what has worked in the past, decided on style: SESSION 5.2
Co-operative advocacy tactics As an insider you develop relationships with your targets and gain their trust. Advantages: Get to know targets position and understand the processes they are involved with Disadvantages: May have to compromise values, exclude stakeholders, be misrepresented by your target. Example: Service delivery - receiving funding from local government to pilot services SESSION 5.2
Confrontational advocacy tactics As a complete outsider you must try and force your issue onto the agenda. Advantages: Higher profile and greater freedom of action Disadvantages: Can be counter productive if target feels under attack and can damage relationships. Risk of loss of funding, being marginalised and seen as radical. Example: Mass mobilisation through public activism/demonstrations and media campaigns. SESSION 5.2
Persuasive advocacy tactics As a critical insider you present evidence that you hope will persuade your targets to recognise the merits of your arguments. Advantages: This approach can provide more opportunities for working with others and is often seen as more neutral, less aggressive Disadvantages: You can be perceived as “sitting on the fence”. Example: Simultaneous insider, outsider tactics such as publishing research in partnership with government, whilst organising children to lobby community leaders and local officials. SESSION 5.2
SESSION 6. Developing messages for advocacy
Move to action
Any planned communication activity should seek to achieve the following goals: SESSION 6.1
What messages do you need?
To set out agreed analysis of problem and solutions
To summarise your position and the change you want to bring about
Then use this to develop..
Messages tailored for different audiences
Issues can be framed in different ways: What works best for your audience?
One minute message
To use any opportunity to get your message across
Summary and critical facts
1-2 pages if possible
All relevant aspects of the issue based on your knowledge of the problem, your objectives and targets
Include statement of the problem, evidence and examples of the actions you desire
Can be signed off by your allies
Core message SESSION 6.1 What action needs to be taken/by whom? Who is responsible? Who/What needs to change? Outline a human example? What is the evidence for the solution? What is the evidence? How will it benefit people? How does it affect people? What is the solution? What is the problem? The Solution The Problem
Frame your message for different audiences
You need to know
Why should they listen?
Why should they take action?
What actions do you want them to take?
Then tailor your core message
What you say – ideas arguments
How you say it – language, style, format
Who says it – appropriate messengers
When, where and how you deliver it
Test for clarity Accessible language Have you chosen language your audience can understand, avoiding jargon, technical terms Clear request for action Will the audience know what to do if they agree with you? For example – call someone, vote a certain way, convince others to support you proposal. SESSION 6.2
Possible channels of communication
The one minute message
Call to action
SESSION 7. Identifying advocacy opportunities and action planning
Who has power at different stages of the process?
How can you involve children in advocacy?
Plan strategically to build on key social or political events related to your advocacy issue during the decision making period SESSION 7.1
Examples of advocacy opportunities
International awareness days such as Int’ Children’s Day
Consultations on major policy reviews
Official visits by political leaders and other VIPs
Reporting on the UNCRC
Relevant social or political events might include: SESSION 7.1
What makes a good advocacy opportunity
Timing is right in decision making process
Decision makers have vested interest in outcome
Chances to network and meet influential people
There are opportunities for media attention to alert public
Opportunity for children to present their views
The agenda is not too crowded
Concentrate your efforts where: SESSION 7.1
Devise Advocacy Plan
Activities could include:
Produce Position Paper/Policy Brief
Publish Research & Analysis
Form Networks and Alliances
Communicate with Target Audiences
Lobby Decision Makers & Advisers
Engage with Opinion Formers & Influentials
Mobilise Beneficiaries or Supporters
SESSION 8. Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring & Evaluation of advocacy – why do it?
To steer – to identify how your plans need to be modified to achieve aims and objectives
To learn – so that your experience helps you to be more effective next time
To be accountable – to funders, managers, colleagues, partners, beneficiaries
Track progress of your advocacy
Identify and deal with problems as they arise
Respond quickly to changes in the advocacy environment
Help decision making
Look at advocacy process (tracks activities)
Look at advocacy progress (tracks objectives)
Making progress towards impact SESSION 8.1 Outputs Outcomes Impact on Policy & Practice children Impact Inputs
Advocacy milestones show progress
Advocacy milestones on the way to achieving your objective
Example: “produce and distribute report on violence against children at high level meeting..”
Outcomes from specific events can be your milestones
Determine if your strategy is successful
Draw lessons from experience in order to improve quality of future advocacy work
Demonstrate the results and impact to donors, supporters, other stakeholders
Generate financial and political support for your advocacy activities
Evaluate progress towards objectives
Go back to situational analysis consider what success will look like
What will the effects of achieving your objectives be?
Identify short, mid and long term indicators that relate to these effects
Analyse expected and unexpected outcomes
Your exact choice of indicators of change will of course depend on your advocacy objectives. Here are some examples:
Changes in the lives of children and young people
Changes in policy and practice affecting children and young people
Changes in children’s and young people’s participation and active citizenship
Changes in equity and non-discrimination of children and young people
Changes in communities' attitudes towards children's rights
Setting Indicators SESSION 8.2
Evaluate other advocacy outcomes
How has advocacy work affected relationship with targets?
How has it affected relationship with different audiences?
How has it effected broader perception of the issue?
Different approaches to evaluation, quantitative, qualitative
Depends on what is possible to measure
Use baseline research to compare before and after?
Or use qualitative methods to assess change and cause of change.
The Advocacy Cycle Organisational Context 1 Identify issue 2 Analyse problem 3 Draft objectives 5 Capacity assessment 4 Situation analysis 6 Finalise objectives 7 Devise advocacy plan 8 Implement advocacy plan 9 Monitor & evaluate 10 Revise advocacy plan