Dr. Dan Aja Luncheon Talk: Tips on Pet Nutrition and Pet Food Labels
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Dr. Dan Aja Luncheon Talk: Tips on Pet Nutrition and Pet Food Labels

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Dr. Dan Aja's luncheon talk at BlogPaws 2012: Pet Nutrition, Pet Food Labels

Dr. Dan Aja's luncheon talk at BlogPaws 2012: Pet Nutrition, Pet Food Labels

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  • Introduction of myself Pet owners and veterinary health care teams look at packaging to get information on the food, and to determine the product’s suitability for a particular pet. The information can be very confusing and may or may not communicate what a person wants to know. Did you know the package label is a legal document? It is because the label is a regulated source of information. We will cover the key elements of the label, which include the Guaranteed Analysis, Ingredient list and Nutritional Adequacy Statement.
  • We are a mission-driven company dedicated to enriching and lengthening the special relationship between people and their pets.
  • Started veterinary practice in 1926 Opened nation’s second animal hospital in 1928 Pioneer in nutritional therapies for animals Hill’s was founded by a veterinarian in New Jersey, Mark L. Morris, Sr., who developed his first canine diet in 1939 for a client, a blind man named Morris Frank, whose guide dog, Buddy, was suffering from kidney failure. Dr. Morris speculated that manipulating the dog’s diet could slow the progression of the kidney disease, and he began formulating and testing diets, with the help of his wife, in their home kitchen. They canned the food the old-fashioned way, in Ball jars. Mr. Frank and Buddy were touring the country, promoting and demonstrating Seeing Eye dogs, so Dr. Morris mailed the jars of food to Mr. Frank on his tour. After seeing some success with the diet, and having the jars break in transit, Dr. Morris bought a hand-operated canning machine and his staff canned the food. Dr. Morris began studying various canine and feline diseases and formulating diets that would complement disease treatment. Throughout the 1940s, he developed diets for canine gastrointestinal disorders and obesity (it’s not new!). Eventually, Dr. Morris contracted a commercial cannery, the Hill Packing Company in Topeka, and licensed the company to produce his pet food formulas. He also gave the diet that he formulated for Buddy a formal name, Canine k/d. In 1948, Dr. Morris established a charity for small animals that would later become known as the Morris Animal Foundation. The Foundation funds independent research into small animal disease to this day. Dr. Morris also established a research laboratory in Topeka in 1951. In the 1950s, Hill Packing Company established canneries in six more states, and Dr. Morris continued to develop diets for treating sick animals. Eventually, Dr. Morris was joined in veterinary practice and then veterinary nutrition research and diet development by his son, Dr. Mark Morris, Jr. Their products were marketed under the name Hill’s Pet Nutrition. In 1968, Dr. Morris Jr. created the Science Diet line of pet foods for healthy pets. Dr. Morris Jr. also coauthored the first publication of Small Animal Nutrition, a clinical nutrition textbook, in 1983. The text has been updated many times and is used in veterinary colleges worldwide. The Colgate-Palmolive Company bought Hill’s Pet Nutrition in 1976. Dr. Morris Sr. passed away in 1993 at the age of 92. Hill’s Pet Nutrition reached $1 billion in net sales in 2000. When Dr. Morris Jr. passed away in 2007 at the age of 72, he was still actively involved with Hill’s, and his presence is still strongly felt at the Hill’s Pet Nutrition Center.
  • (From Raritan Ration B to today) Hill’s is known for developing pet foods that help sick pets get better and healthy ones stay that way. Prescription Diet k/d launched in 1948; Science Diet launched in 1967. Today, we have more than 60 therapeutic pet foods and more than 50 life stage and special needs pet foods.
  • Michelle Maskaly and her blog is My Tail Hurts from Waging so Much
  • What are vital assessments Temperature Pulse or Heart Rate Respiration or Breathing Pain And …. NUTRITION!!
  • Presently PNA is composed of the following voting members: American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) American College of Veterinary Nutrition (ACVN) National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America (NAVTA) Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA) American Society of Veterinary Medical Association Executives (ASVMAE)   Educational Supporters Hill’s P & G Pet Nestle Purina   Mission To promote the importance of nutrition as an integral and essential component of providing optimal health care for healthy, sick, and injured pets   Objectives Raise awareness and assist veterinarians, veterinary technicians, veterinary students, veterinary technician students and other members of veterinary healthcare teams implement the AAHA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines for Dogs and Cats and the WSAVA Global Nutritional Guidelines for primary patient care at every visit. Create awareness with pet owners that veterinarians and veterinary technicians are the best source of information for advice and recommendations regarding pet nutrition. Develop non-branded educational materials and tools for veterinary healthcare teams to facilitate the integration of nutritional assessments and dietary recommendations for every patient at every visit. Develop non-branded educational materials for pet owners that provide credible nutritional information and dispel nutritional myths or inaccuracies while emphasizing the important role of the veterinarian and veterinary healthcare team. Collaborate with organizations, shelters and pet health stakeholders that share a commitment to accomplishing the Consortium’s mission.     5th Vital Assessment_In Clinic November 2010
  • A pet food label is a legal document. Pet foods sold in the US must conform to Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and state pet food labeling requirements. AAFCO is comprised of a representative from each US state and 1 from Canada. They are usually employees of the State Dept. of Agriculture and involved in the livestock industry; unfortunately dogs and cats are not really top of mind. AAFCO: Sets the standards for pet foods sold in the US (and most of the world) Defines ingredients and terms for all animal feeds, not just dogs and cats. If a particular ingredient isn’t listed in the AAFCO manual, it can’t be in animal feed. Standardizes feeding trials (only for dogs & cats) Establishes minimums and some maximums for key nutrients Background Information 38 canine minimums, 11 canine maximums (27 canine nutrients have NO maximums) 46 feline minimums, 4 maximums (42 feline nutrients have NO maximums) Establishes min/max based on National Research Council publications that contain nutrient values 25 years old! (1973, 1981, 1983, and 1985; NRC published again in 2006, but AAFCO has yet to update its manual) For this reason Hill’s prefers to use Key Nutritional Factors (a much more precise target) as developed by the authors of Small Animal Clinical Nutrition 5th edition. KNF’s further restrict the ranges for various nutrients based on much newer scientific information. Determines nutrient guidelines for the different life stages (gestation/lactation, growth, adult; no senior or large breed) It’s very important to understand that AAFCO does NOT regulate websites, literature, or any materials OTHER than the package (also no in-store signage or what is said by in-store demonstrators, sales reps, etc.) The implications are that a manufacturer may make claims on a website or in literature that may NOT be legally made on the package. We’ll come back to this a couple of time later in the session.
  • Let’s start by reviewing the principal display panel. You can see that the information on the Principal Display Panel is often targeted at pet owner appeal There can be a lot, or very little, information, including text and/or graphics, on the front panel. This panel contains information about the product identify, including the Manufacturer’s Name (Pet Rite), the Brand Name (BestFriend) and the Product Name (Chicken and Egg Flavor); the Designator, which indicates which species the food is intended for, in this case, Dog Food; the Net Weight Display (64 oz.); the Nutrition Statement (complete and balanced) and a burst or flag to let the pet owner know the food is New and Improved! By law, the principal display panel must include: Product name - Chicken and Egg Flavor The product name is the first part of the label noticed by the consumer, and can be a key factor in the consumer's decision to buy the product. For that reason, manufacturers often use fanciful names or other techniques to emphasize a particular aspect. Since many consumers purchase a product based on the presence of a specific ingredient, many product names incorporate the name of an ingredient to highlight its inclusion in the product. Designator – Dog Food Net wt. display - 22 oz. or 623 grams The net quantity statement tells you how much product is in the container. When you look at pet foods from the larger companies, you can be assured that they usually make the food themselves. Many of the smaller companies don’t own manufacturing plants, so they contract others to manufacture their food. Contact information, such as telephone, email or address of the manufacturer is not legally required; it can be very difficult to obtain any specific information about the food without it! Many pet foods are labeled as "premium," and some now are "super premium" and even "ultra premium." Other products are touted as "gourmet" items. Products labeled as premium or gourmet are not required to contain any different or higher quality ingredients, nor are they held up to any higher nutritional standards than are any other complete and balanced products.
  • You can see that the information on the Principal Display Panel is often targeted at pet owner appeal and it can be very confusing to interpret the names, the indications, the benefits, etc. Now let’s turn our attention to the back of the label , the Information Panel . The information panel usually contains important information around the product and by law must include the following: Feeding Guidelines Ingredient statement All ingredients are required to be listed in order of predominance by weight. The weights of ingredients are determined as they are added in the formulation, including their inherent water content. [...] Ingredients must be listed by their "common or usual" name. "Listed in order of predominance by weight" refers to the weight before processing. This is important to know when you are comparing products with different moisture content. More important though, manufacturers can use this rule to make their product look better than it actually is by using little tricks like ingredient splitting or use of better quality ingredients that still retain a lot of water. Guaranteed Analysis At minimum, a pet food label must state guarantees for the minimum percentages of crude protein and crude fat, and the maximum percentages of crude fiber and moisture. The "crude" term refers to the specific method of testing the product, not to the quality of the nutrient itself. Some manufacturers include guarantees for other nutrients as well. AAFCO Statement/Nutritional Adequacy Statement A "complete and balanced" pet food must be substantiated for nutritional adequacy by one of two means. The first method is for the pet food to contain ingredients formulated to provide levels of nutrients that meet an established profile. Presently, the AAFCO Dog or Cat Food Nutrient Profiles are used. Products substantiated by this method should include the words, "(Name of product) is formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by the AAFCO (Dog/Cat) Food Nutrient Profiles." This means the product contains the proper amount of protein, calcium, and other recognized essential nutrients needed to meet the needs of the healthy animal. The alternative means of substantiating nutritional adequacy is for the product to be tested following the AAFCO Feeding Trial Protocols. This means that the product, or "lead" member of a "family" of products, has been fed to dogs or cats under strict guidelines and found to provide proper nutrition. These products should bear the nutritional adequacy statement "Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that (name of product) provides complete and balanced nutrition." Manufacturer’s name The "manufactured by..." statement identifies the party responsible for the quality and safety of the product and its location. If the label says "manufactured for..." or "distributed by..., or Imported by… " the food was manufactured by an outside manufacturer , but the name on the label still designates the responsible party. Not all labels include a street address along with the city, State, and zip code, but by law, it should be listed in either a city directory or a telephone directory. Many manufacturers also include a toll-free number on the label for consumer inquiries. If a consumer has a question or complaint about the product, he or she should not hesitate to use this information to contact the responsible party
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels vet 2009 (30 min.) The nutritional adequacy statement (also known as the AAFCO statement) on the information panel is often more detailed than the brief statements found on the principal display (the principal display panel is usually on the front). The basis of the nutrition claim is documented on the pet food label by one of two methods: Formulation method: This method is less expensive, and results are determined more quickly because actual feeding or digestibility trials are not required. There is no guarantee of pet acceptance or nutrient bioavailability when utilizing this method. The pet food product must meet the nutrient requirements for the specific life stage established by an AAFCO recognized nutrient profile. This is accomplished by a laboratory analysis Simply a laboratory nutrient profile analysis Doesn’t require feeding or digestibility trials Less expensive, less time consuming Doesn’t account for acceptability of food or nutrient bioavailability This method is recognized on a label by a statement such as “Meets or exceeds the minimal nutritional levels established by AAFCO” or “Formulated to meet the AAFCO dog nutrient profile for…” AAFCO nutrient profiles are published for two categories: 1) growth and reproduction and 2) adult maintenance.
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels vet 2009 (30 min.) When pet food manufacturers do not conduct feeding trials to test the nutrition in their products, your pet at home becomes the test animal Feeding Trial Method (cost over $15K) Manufacturer must perform an AAFCO-protocol feeding trial using the food as the sole source of nutrition. Preferred method (Gold Standard). Documents how an animal performs when fed a specific food Feeding trials can result in adequacy claims for 4 categories including: 1) gestation and lactation (14 weeks), 2) growth (10 weeks), 3) maintenance (8 animals for 26 weeks), and 4) complete for all life stages. A food that has successfully completed a sequential growth and gestation/lactation trial can make a claim for all life stages. Foods that are formulated for all life stages must ensure they meet the most nutritionally demanding life stage which is growth & reproduction. Therefore ‘all life stage’ diets are designed for puppies or pregnant bitches. The required wording for labels that have passed these tests is: “Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that ________ provides complete and balanced nutrition for (lifestage).”
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels vet 2009 (30 min.) What is lifestage nutrition? Life stage nutrition is the practice of feeding pets specific foods designed to meet their needs at a specific age or during a specific physiologic state such as pregnancy. By feeding to meet the needs of pets at varying life stages, owners can be sure they are providing their pet with optimum nutrition. Pet food manufacturers first started formulating life stage pet foods in the early to mid 1970s, when a puppy diet was formulated. Life stage diets became more widely available on the market from the 1980s onwards. Feeding the optimum nutrients for a specific life stage is aimed at supporting healthy longevity of all pets. The first life stage is puppy. Puppy foods have higher levels of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorous, sodium, and chloride, in comparison to adult foods, to support a young dog’s rapid growth and development. Once a puppy has reached about 80 percent of its adult size, its growth rate slows and it can be switched to an adult food. Most veterinarians recommend that puppies eat puppy food until they are around twelve months of age, but talk to your vet to determine what is best in your dog’s individual situation. Large breed dogs are at high risk for developmental orthopedic diseases (e.g., hip dysplasia), and feeding a food that maintains a relatively slow and steady growth rate can help prevent these potentially devastating conditions. In comparison to "regular" puppy formulations, large breed puppy foods have a lower energy content, slightly lower levels of calcium and phosphorous, and a very carefully balanced calcium: phosphorous ratio to maintain a healthy rate of growth. Don’t worry; dogs fed a large breed puppy food when they are growing still end up at their expected size, it just takes them a little longer to get there. Adult foods are the appropriate choice for most adult dogs. If your dog is pregnant or nursing or has other lifestyle or health conditions that change his or her nutritional needs, consult with your veterinarian. There is no hard and fast rule as to when to make the switch to a "mature adult" food, but many veterinarians recommend that small dogs make the change at eight years of age, medium-sized dogs at around seven years, large breeds at six years, and giant breeds at about five years of age. The differences between an adult and senior food within the same product line are oftentimes not very great. They may contain lower levels of fat to help prevent obesity, increased levels of anti-oxidants, or moderate levels of protein aimed at maintaining muscle mass while not overworking the kidneys.
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels vet 2009 (30 min.) Just as we’ve discussed, nutritional needs change throughout the pet’s life. Puppies need puppy food, adults need adult food and seniors/mature adults need a food formulated for their lifestage.. Feeding a diet that is appropriate for a dog’s life stage, that is made from superior ingredients, and that provides balanced nutrition can go a long way towards keeping him strong and healthy. Puppies and Kittens  Puppies and kittens go through a nursing and growing period. They become adult at roughly 1 year of age. (This depends on the breed and species – giant breed dogs can take up to 18 months or longer to mature whereas kittens can be fully grown by 9 months.)  Puppies and kittens get most of what they need during the nursing period from the bitch or queen, providing her nutrition is also adequate.  For growing puppies and kittens, food should be higher in calories and protein, and puppies for example need roughly twice as much energy as an adult dog of equivalent size.  Although many nutrients are needed in higher quantities, some nutrients may need to be carefully controlled. For instance, large breed puppies are susceptible to bone problems if too many calories and/or too much calcium is given during this growth phase, so owners should always be aware of the risk of adding supplements to a carefully formulated puppy food.  Other nutrients such as the fatty acid DHA, which helps develop the brain and eye, and L carnitine which supports muscle and bone growth, have recently received more attention in growth nutrition.  Food for growing animals should also be highly digestible, but energy dense, to avoid digestive upset and prevent the need for large meals. Adult cats and dogs:  Optimum nutrition during adulthood is aimed at promoting quality of life and in maintaining health.  Obesity is the major nutrition related problem facing the adult cat and dog population today, and this is particularly a problem after neutering, but there are diets available designed specifically to help reduce the risk of weight gain in adult animals. Senior cats and dogs:  By about 7 years and older, dogs and cats start to experience a decline in the function of certain organs, including the immune system. The kidneys, heart and digestive tract may also show reduced functioning or increased sensitivity. Older animals may be less active and their sense of smell or taste can also be affected.  There are foods available for older dogs and cats which have an adjusted nutritional composition. Nutrients such as antioxidants, which support immune function, may be used and special attention is paid to making the food palatable, highly digestible and easy to chew.  Particular attention should be paid to appetite and body weight, as this may reduce as a dog gets very old. Always consult a vet if worried about changes in a dog’s weight. M any companies do not follow the lifestage concept for all their wellness products.
  • You can see that the information on the Principal Display Panel is often targeted at pet owner appeal and it can be very confusing to interpret the names, the indications, the benefits, etc. Now let’s turn our attention to the back of the label , the Information Panel . The information panel usually contains important information around the product and by law must include the following: Feeding Guidelines Ingredient statement All ingredients are required to be listed in order of predominance by weight. The weights of ingredients are determined as they are added in the formulation, including their inherent water content. [...] Ingredients must be listed by their "common or usual" name. "Listed in order of predominance by weight" refers to the weight before processing. This is important to know when you are comparing products with different moisture content. More important though, manufacturers can use this rule to make their product look better than it actually is by using little tricks like ingredient splitting or use of better quality ingredients that still retain a lot of water. Guaranteed Analysis At minimum, a pet food label must state guarantees for the minimum percentages of crude protein and crude fat, and the maximum percentages of crude fiber and moisture. The "crude" term refers to the specific method of testing the product, not to the quality of the nutrient itself. Some manufacturers include guarantees for other nutrients as well. AAFCO Statement/Nutritional Adequacy Statement A "complete and balanced" pet food must be substantiated for nutritional adequacy by one of two means. The first method is for the pet food to contain ingredients formulated to provide levels of nutrients that meet an established profile. Presently, the AAFCO Dog or Cat Food Nutrient Profiles are used. Products substantiated by this method should include the words, "(Name of product) is formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by the AAFCO (Dog/Cat) Food Nutrient Profiles." This means the product contains the proper amount of protein, calcium, and other recognized essential nutrients needed to meet the needs of the healthy animal. The alternative means of substantiating nutritional adequacy is for the product to be tested following the AAFCO Feeding Trial Protocols. This means that the product, or "lead" member of a "family" of products, has been fed to dogs or cats under strict guidelines and found to provide proper nutrition. These products should bear the nutritional adequacy statement "Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that (name of product) provides complete and balanced nutrition." Manufacturer’s name The "manufactured by..." statement identifies the party responsible for the quality and safety of the product and its location. If the label says "manufactured for..." or "distributed by..., or Imported by… " the food was manufactured by an outside manufacturer , but the name on the label still designates the responsible party. Not all labels include a street address along with the city, State, and zip code, but by law, it should be listed in either a city directory or a telephone directory. Many manufacturers also include a toll-free number on the label for consumer inquiries. If a consumer has a question or complaint about the product, he or she should not hesitate to use this information to contact the responsible party
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels vet 2009 (30 min.) The GA includes crude protein (minimum), crude fat (minimum), crude fiber (maximum), and moisture (maximum). Additional guarantees are optional and may be included by the manufacturer. The guaranteed analysis is a general idea of the nutrient content of a food but is of little value in comparing foods because specific nutrient contents are not given and values are listed on an “as is” basis. While crude protein is an accurate index of protein quantity, it does not indicate protein quality . Crude fat may be used to estimate energy density of the food. Crude fiber is an estimate of the indigestible portion of the food; it usually underestimates the true level of fiber in the product. Foods that contain higher levels of fiber are generally lower in calories (Science Diet Light, Prescription Diet r/d, Prescription Diet w/d). The moisture content represents the water content in the food; it cannot exceed a maximum of 78% in the U.S. Foods that are > 78% moisture must use a different name such as “in gravy,” “in sauce,” or “in aspic.” The dry matter contains all nutrients (except water) and subtle changes in moisture content may result in marked differences in dry matter, which subsequently affects amounts of nutrients in a food. Because of this, it is not recommended to compare 2 products that have different levels of moisture. The GA example on this slide is for Science Diet Adult Lamb Meal & Rice dry.
  • Determining the ‘best’ food based on the Guaranteed Analysis Carefully look at these 3 foods. Which of these foods, A, B or C would you select for a healthy 12 year-old dog? How did you make your decision?
  • You can see that the information on the Principal Display Panel is often targeted at pet owner appeal and it can be very confusing to interpret the names, the indications, the benefits, etc. Now let’s turn our attention to the back of the label , the Information Panel . The information panel usually contains important information around the product and by law must include the following: Feeding Guidelines Ingredient statement All ingredients are required to be listed in order of predominance by weight. The weights of ingredients are determined as they are added in the formulation, including their inherent water content. [...] Ingredients must be listed by their "common or usual" name. "Listed in order of predominance by weight" refers to the weight before processing. This is important to know when you are comparing products with different moisture content. More important though, manufacturers can use this rule to make their product look better than it actually is by using little tricks like ingredient splitting or use of better quality ingredients that still retain a lot of water. Guaranteed Analysis At minimum, a pet food label must state guarantees for the minimum percentages of crude protein and crude fat, and the maximum percentages of crude fiber and moisture. The "crude" term refers to the specific method of testing the product, not to the quality of the nutrient itself. Some manufacturers include guarantees for other nutrients as well. AAFCO Statement/Nutritional Adequacy Statement A "complete and balanced" pet food must be substantiated for nutritional adequacy by one of two means. The first method is for the pet food to contain ingredients formulated to provide levels of nutrients that meet an established profile. Presently, the AAFCO Dog or Cat Food Nutrient Profiles are used. Products substantiated by this method should include the words, "(Name of product) is formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by the AAFCO (Dog/Cat) Food Nutrient Profiles." This means the product contains the proper amount of protein, calcium, and other recognized essential nutrients needed to meet the needs of the healthy animal. The alternative means of substantiating nutritional adequacy is for the product to be tested following the AAFCO Feeding Trial Protocols. This means that the product, or "lead" member of a "family" of products, has been fed to dogs or cats under strict guidelines and found to provide proper nutrition. These products should bear the nutritional adequacy statement "Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that (name of product) provides complete and balanced nutrition." Manufacturer’s name The "manufactured by..." statement identifies the party responsible for the quality and safety of the product and its location. If the label says "manufactured for..." or "distributed by..., or Imported by… " the food was manufactured by an outside manufacturer , but the name on the label still designates the responsible party. Not all labels include a street address along with the city, State, and zip code, but by law, it should be listed in either a city directory or a telephone directory. Many manufacturers also include a toll-free number on the label for consumer inquiries. If a consumer has a question or complaint about the product, he or she should not hesitate to use this information to contact the responsible party
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels vet 2009 (30 min.) The ingredient statement must be shown on the label and includes a list of ingredients (which must conform to AAFCO names), in descending order by weight. Ingredients are listed on an “as is” basis, which makes interpretation of ingredient lists difficult since many key ingredients are added with different moisture contents. Because meats contain more moisture, they may be listed first on the ingredient list, although the primary component of the food might be a mixture of grains. Additionally, the ingredient statement does not provide information about the quality of ingredients. Like packaged food for people, pet food must list ingredients by weight, starting with the heaviest. But if the first ingredient is a type of meat, keep in mind that meat is about 75% water, according to the FDA. Without that water weight, the meat probably would fall lower on the ingredient list. Meat meals, such as chicken meal or meat and bone meal, are different; most of the water and fat have been removed, which concentrates the animal protein. Ingredient splitting is fairly common in the pet food industry. Many competitors use this tactic and Hill’s, in fact, also does this in some of the Science Diet pet foods. By splitting an ingredient into several different forms, it allows a meat source to appear first or earlier on the ingredient panel. Obviously, meat can appear first due to its higher moisture content than other ingredients. As you talk about ingredient splitting and meat first, click and to make the circles around the grains appear, and then a line below the lamb meal by pressing the down button several times. The ingredient panel that appears on this slide is from Nutro Lamb Meal & Rice Adult Dog Food.
  • This slide builds several times. Let’s look at nutrients and ingredients more closely. What are the functions of the ingredients in pet foods? So, what is a nutrient and what is an ingredient? A nutrient is any food constituent that supports life and is a metabolically useful component of food. There are 6 nutrients dogs and cats need. Click to show the food pyramid. The base of the food pyramid is water, which is the nutrient we need in the largest quantity. Carbohydrates are next, followed by protein, fat, minerals and vitamins. Each of these appear in the order in which they are needed by the body. Minerals and vitamins appear last and at the top of the pyramid, because we need less of them in comparison to water and the energy-producing nutrients. In pet foods, minerals and vitamins usually appear towards the end of the ingredient list. Do our pets have a nutritional need for nutrients or ingredients? Pets need nutrients – and nutrients are delivered by ingredients. Example: Do dogs or cats have a nutritional need for lamb and rice? Unless they have an adverse reaction to certain ingredients, there would be no reason a dog or cat would have a nutritional need specifically for lamb and rice or any other specific ingredient. It’s the nutrients the pet needs, and ingredients are the vehicles that provide those nutrients.
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels vet 2009 (30 min.) Do our pets have a nutritional need for nutrients or ingredients? They need nutrients. Ingredients are merely the vehicle which provides the nutrients What determines the level of nutrients a pet needs? Age – a 2 month-old growing puppy has different needs than a healthy adult dog Activity level – a Jack Russell Terrier has much different nutritional needs than a Basset Hound Environment – a Golden Retriever in Wisconsin in January has different needs than a Golden Retriever living in Florida or Arizona in January (if pet living outside) Health status – a cat with liver disease would have very different nutritional needs than a healthy cat Reproductive status – a pregnant or lactating cat or dog would have increased nutritional needs compared to an adult female cat or dog that has had an ovariohysterectomy (spay) Contrary to what many might believe, nutritional excesses are just as harmful as nutritional deficiencies. Additionally, in people and in pets, we see many more health conditions caused by nutritional excesses than by nutritional deficiencies. This is why lifestage nutrition is so important. Feeding our pets a food for their specific lifestage helps to avoid nutritional excess in their diet.
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels_in-store_2009 (60 min.) What can excess fat lead to? What do we associate excess protein with? The conditions in green font are leading causes of non-accidental death in dogs and cats, according to the 1998 Morris Animal Foundation Survey.
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels_in-store_2009 (60 min.) This slide builds like the previous slide. What conditions do we associate with excess phosphorus? Repeat the same steps and discuss the implications of excess calcium, magnesium and sodium. Now we are going to transition away from nutrients vs. ingredients to lifestage nutrition.
  • AAFCO has defined 3 product forms for pet foods based on moisture level of the food. Moisture Level Product Form < 20% = Dry 20 % to 65% = Semi-moist 65 % to 78% = Wet The maximum moisture declared on a wet pet food shall not exceed 78%. If the moisture level is above 78%, the product must be labeled as a stew, gravy, sauce, broth, aspic, juice, or milk replacer. Percentage rules also apply to product names and moisture content of foods. Dry food moisture content is 12% maximum. Most dry food contains between 8 and 12% moisture. Semi-moist food moisture content is maximum 33%. Anything between 12% and 33% would be categorized as semi-moist. Semi-moist foods are not very common these days. The “Bit” part of Kibbles and Bits is semi-moist. Canned food can contain a maximum moisture content of 78%. Canned food can contain >79% moisture if the words stew, gravy, broth, juice, “in aspic”, “in jelly” are used. In these cases, the pet owner may feel like they are feeding more food.
  •   According to regulations, a pet food name that says “with” chicken or “with” beef may contain as little as 3% of that ingredient  
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels_in-store_2009 (60 min.) When the product name is modified, the product must meet specific criteria. These are called product name modifiers. Labels have different types of flavor designations. For example, a label that says “Beef for Dogs” needs to have at least 95% of the dry ingredients as beef. “ Dinner”, “Entrée”, “Formula,” “Recipe” or “Platter” need to have at least 25% of the dry ingredients as the named ingredient. “ With” designations must be at least 3% of the featured ingredient. A “Flavor” designation is <3% and must be “recognizable by the pet” – how is it “recognizable by the pet”? This is similar to some of the product name modifiers that are seen in human foods. Grape Juice (like Welch’s 100% grape juice) is 100% grape juice, whereas Grape Drink (like Welch’s Grape Drink) contains only 10% grape juice.
  • Initial assessments of pet foods is done by looking at the product name which usually describes the food. In the United States, the product name is subject to AAFCO regulations about composition of ingredients and understanding the ‘percentage rules’ will help you assess the food. Qualifiers refers to anything associated with the product name. Use of only one ingredient word in a product name, in this case Buffalo, mandates (by AAFCO) that the food contains at least 95% of the dry matter as that ingredient. This is typically seen in a few canned products.
  •   According to regulations, a pet food name that says “with” chicken or “with” beef may contain as little as 3% of that ingredient  
  • Use of a qualifier following the ingredient name, requires that the named ingredient be at least 25% of what is in the bag or can, excluding water sufficient for processing. CLICK to show various qualifiers. Examples of qualifiers include the terms recipe, formula, entrée, stew, dinner, etc. If the product name contains 2 ingredients, such as the Life4K9 lamb & barley recipe seen on this slide, there must be at least 25% lamb and barley combined.
  •   According to regulations, a pet food name that says “with” chicken or “with” beef may contain as little as 3% of that ingredient  
  • The qualifier ‘with’ highlights minor ingredients. If the word “with” is part of the name, there must be at least 3% of the dry ingredients in the can or bag. All of the ingredients combined (used after “with”) have to be at least 3%. Take a look at the canned product called “Mixed Grill with Chicken and Beef” – what is this communicating to the pet owner? If chicken and beef are 3-24% of the ingredients, what else is in the Mixed Grill? Answer: Could be a variety of other ingredients, grains, etc. Doesn’t mean the product is bad, just trying to help your audience understand the various interpretations and what’s being communicated to the pet owner. A product such as the Selects Indoor Flaked Ocean Whitefish Dinner With Rice and Garden Greens has two qualifiers – Dinner and With . So there must be at least 25% of Ocean Whitefish and at least 3% of rice and garden greens combined.
  •   According to regulations, a pet food name that says “with” chicken or “with” beef may contain as little as 3% of that ingredient  
  • According to AAFCO, use of the term ‘flavor’ is permitted if the ingredient used with flavor is listed anywhere on the ingredient list. . In the example on the slide, there may be very little of this ingredient in the food. It might even be listed as t-bone steak flavor towards the end of the ingredient list. The source of the flavor or the ingredient used in the flavor statement must be present somewhere in the list of ingredients. A flavor qualifier usually indicates that the ingredient is less than 3% of the total product and in some cases may be less than 1% of the total product and still appear in the product name as a flavor.
  •   According to regulations, a pet food name that says “with” chicken or “with” beef may contain as little as 3% of that ingredient  
  • Many pet foods are labeled as "premium," and some now are "super premium" and even "ultra premium." Other products are touted as "gourmet" items. Products labeled as premium or gourmet are not required to contain any different or higher quality ingredients, nor are they held up to any higher nutritional standards than are any other complete and balanced products.
  • There are four confusing terms commonly used on pet food labels because of the appeal to pet owners. Some of them are legally defined and others are purely marketing terminology, without any valid definition under law. This is a build with the ‘answer’ appearing sequentially. This can be used as an interactive slide. For each term, you can ask participants if it is legally defined for use on pet food labels, and them reveal the answer and definition. There are slides following this that explain each term so don’t spend much time on this slide. Organic : The term "organic" was legally defined for human foods by the USDA. Pet food companies can currently use the term "organic" if they follow the same rules as applied to human foods. Foods that are "100% organic" or “95% organic" can carry the USDA organic seal on the package. This seal is shown here.. Natural : According to the American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO), the term “natural” requires a pet food to consist of only natural ingredients without chemical alterations, except for added vitamins and minerals. NOTE: The terms “natural” and “organic” are not interchangeable terms. Holistic : The term ‘holistic’ has no legal definition. There is no regulation defining what the word holistic means with regard to pet foods. This means any pet food could call itself “holistic.” Human Grade : The term "human grade" was determined to be misleading by AAFCO. The use of "human grade" or "human quality" is not allowed in pet food marketing unless the food is made in a human food approved plant. Consider the fact that a pet food label is actually a legal document which is regulated by AAFCO. Where some of the misperceptions originate with respect to pet food and the term “human grade” is in material that is NOT regulated by AAFCO, such as a manufacturer’s printed literature, the internet, point of sale material, etc.
  • Various state governments enacted varied rules and laws around use of the term ‘organic’ up through 2002, when the USDA created a set of rules originally applied to human foods. After some discussion, USDA issued permission to apply the rules to pet foods. Anything labeled organic must follow USDA rules. The USDA divides organic foods into four basic sets, from 100% organic to less than 70% organic. Use of the term ‘organic’ means that at least 95% of content is organic by weight (excluding water and salt), and it may carry the USDA Organic Seal. The term ‘made with organics” means that at least 70% of the content is organic. The front product panel may display the phrase “Made with Organics” followed by up to 3 specific ingredients. The packaging may not display USDA Organic seal. If it says “made with organic ______,” it means less than 70% of content is organic. The packaging may list only those ingredients that are organic on the ingredient panel with no mention of organic on the main panel. The packaging may not display USDA Organic seal. You might see use of various seals instead of the USDA Organic seal, which likely means they are probably trade associations and do not meet the USDA regulations to be able to carry the USDA Organic Seal (less than 70% organics). Certified organic means that the food has been grown and handled according to strict organic standards which are enforced by independent third-party state or private organizations. Certification includes inspections of farm fields and processing facilities, detailed record keeping and periodic testing of soil, water and produce to ensure that growers and processors are meeting Oregon Tilth’s strict standards.
  • Natural is another term often found on pet food labels. The mushroom picture is to remind you that just because something is natural, it doesn’t mean it is safe or healthy. We all know that mushrooms are natural, but some species can be deadly. AAFCO defined ‘natural’ in 2000. Just like with organic foods, there is no nutritional advantage known to dogs and cats being fed a natural food. This a consumer choice, not a nutritional need . AAFCO defines ‘natural’ as a pet food that consists of only natural ingredients “without chemical alterations”. A good example is Vitamin E. Vitamin E will never be natural. Most of the vitamin E manufactured in the world is derived from soybeans. After the oil and meat has been extracted, what is left is very high in vitamins E, but to extract the vitamin E a chemical process using sulfur is required. Thus vitamin E cannot be considered “Natural” under AAFCO rules because it has been exposed to chemical synthesis process. The capsules shown on the bottom of the slide are Vitamin E capsules. For use of both terms, organic and natural, most food will be listed as Organic/Natural with added vitamins and minerals because it is extremely difficult to source natural and organic vitamins and minerals.
  • So we’ve talked about pet food labels as legal documents and sources of nutritional information…..what about pet food labels as marketing devices? I am excited to share with you today that Hill’s is introducing a new Science Diet ® holistic food for dogs. You can see a mock up of the packaging on the slide. Give participants a moment to take in the information on the slide. What did we spend to create this product? About 10 minutes of my time….playing around on Photo Shop! In fact, all of our foods, in their present formulas, could be legally labeled as “holistic” because holistic, on a pet food label, is not defined by any law. We’ll help you understand this more with the next slide.
  • A number of pet food companies make claims that their products are ‘human quality’ or ‘table grade’, but these are not actually legally defined terms and only a product that is actually produced in a plant that produces human foods, may legally be labeled ‘human grade’. Pet owners should also beware of pet food manufacturers that that use ‘human grade’ (or related terms) liberally on their web sites and other marketing materials – but don’t actually state it on the bag. Short-staffed and under-funded labeling inspectors generally only have time to investigate claims made on packaging and don’t usually review the online and printed marketing pitch when they investigate (or license) a product. Definitions Human-Grade or Food-Grade refers to the quality of a finished product. The term applies to a product that is legally suitable and approved for consumption by a person (“edible”). Feed-Grade applies to a product that is not suitable for consumption by people and is only legally allowed to be fed to animals (“inedible”) because of the ingredients it contains or the way it (or its ingredients) have been processed. Various ingredients used in many poor-quality pet foods are not fit for human consumption at all, and may include by-products, chemicals, fillers and parts from ’4D’ meats (animals which are dying, diseased, disabled or deceased). These ingredients do not have ‘edible’ because they are produced in a manner that makes them unfit for human consumption or are otherwise contaminated and unsafe for people to consume. A good example is rendered meat. Meat rendering plants are defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as, “Meat rendering plants process animal by-product materials for the production of tallow, grease, and high-protein meat and bone meal….. Independent plants obtain animal by-product materials, including grease, blood, feathers, offal, and entire animal carcasses, from the following sources: butcher shops, supermarkets, restaurants, fast-food chains, poultry processors, slaughterhouses, farms, ranches, feedlots, and animal shelters.” The term “Made with Human-grade Ingredients” does not mean that a finished product is actually, legally, human grade either. An ingredient (let’s say, a carrot) may start off being  fit for human consumption, but once that carrot has been shipped to a pet food plant and processed in accordance with regulations for feed-grade products, the ‘human-grade’ term can no longer legally be used. By definition, that carrot is now feed-grade. With today’s technology, the internet is a rich source of information….information that’s not always accurate or truthful! The example on this slide is just one example of a website that uses the term “human grade.” Dozens of pet food manufacturers (56 at latest count) claim on web sites, in brochures, in display signs, and statements made by in store demo personnel, that the pet foods they manufacture are made from “human grade” ingredients. AAFCO has determined this is “false and misleading”…. So how do they get away with it? CLICK to reveal final graphic. Remember that AAFCO only governs the pet food label. AAFCO does not govern internet websites, in-store demo people, TV advertisements, literature and POP etc. The implications are that a manufacturer may make claims on a website or in literature that may NOT be legally made on the package.
  • Now let’s talk about ‘human grade.’ The proper term is actually ‘human edible,’ a term stringently governed and enforced by the FDA and USDA. Some pet food marketers use the term human ‘grade’ to avoid prosecution by the USDA and FDA for misbranding a human food. They recognize that most consumers do not recognize the difference between human edible and human grade. Here’s an example: Consider the chain of inspection governed by the USDA. Cattle arrive at a slaughterhouse that is under USDA inspection. Beef carcasses are transported to a packing house which is under USDA inspection. Finished cuts of beef travel to a supermarket or grocery distributor which are both under USDA inspection. If you purchase a steak, while still in the grocery store you are within the inspection chain of the USDA. But once you buy the steak and leave the premises, you have left the chain of inspection governed by the USDA and that steak is no longer ‘human edible’ under the law. Under the rules established by the FDA and USDA, no food can be termed human edible if it leaves the ‘chain of inspection’ governed by the USDA At the moment pet food ingredients depart the human food supply chain in transit to a pet food manufacturing facility, they have left the USDA’s human food ‘chain of inspection.’ In 2004, recognizing that consumer confusion existed around claims of pet food being “human grade” (not human edible), AAFCO issued a notice to all pet food manufacturers. March 2004 Section IV – Pet Food Label Claims – Page 66 Section E. Claims that a product contains or is made from ingredients that are “human grade”, “human quality”, “ people foods”, “ingredients you (the purchaser) would eat”, “food (s) that you the (the purchaser) would feed your family” or similar claims are false and misleading.
  • Introduce this section Are there any specific ingredients you might have questions or get questioned about?
  • Do you ever hear anything about corn? Specifically, what do you hear? Corn is just a filler – A filler would be an ingredient that supplies no nutrients. Corn supplies many essential nutrients Corn causes allergies / hot spots – Corn is not a common allergen in dogs or cats. Corn causes dogs to itch – Corn is a rich source of fatty acids which contribute to healthy skin and coat. Corn is a hot grain and isn’t digestible – Corn that has been ground and cooked (as the corn used in Hill’s pet foods) is safely and easily digested, so pets can easily absorb the important nutrients it provides. As you can see, corn is a great nutritional package because of the nutrients it provides. Corn also supplies some of nature’s antioxidants, which have been shown to reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, arthritis, strokes, cataracts, and slow the aging process.
  • Let’s talk more about corn. How will you address the misperception that corn is not digestible? Many people relate the digestibility of corn to their experiences with eating corn on the cob, which is whole corn. Whole corn is NOT very digestible, however corn that has been ground and cooked (as is the corn used in Hill’s pet foods) is safely and easily digested, so pets can easily absorb the important nutrients it provides. Corn is a highly digestible carbohydrate source and is more digestible than rice or wheat. In fact, the protein in corn is over 85% digestible, as seen in this graph comparing corn in digestibility (on a % dry matter basis) to other grains commonly used in pet foods.
  • So how will you address the misperception that corn causes allergies, hot spots and pets to itch? Have participants jot down their responses Corn is a rich source of fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic acids which help to nourish the skin and coat. These essential fatty acids also serve important roles in the immune system and central nervous system. This graph supports the fact that corn is a rich source of fatty acids. Values are shown on a % dry matter basis. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) also serve important roles in the immune system and central nervous system. Notice how much higher corn is in fatty acids as compared to rice. Corn is not a common allergen in dogs or cats. It makes up less than 2% of the reported allergies in dogs. We’ll talk more about food allergies in the next slide.
  • Adverse reactions to foods affect less than 10% of all dogs and cats. According to the veterinary literature, corn is a very rare allergen in dogs and has not been reported as an allergen in cats. The most common food allergens reported in dogs are beef, dairy and wheat; these comprise over ⅔ of the food allergies in dogs. These top 3, plus wheat, lamb, chicken, chicken egg and soy together comprise 93% of the food allergies in dogs. For cats, beef, dairy and fish together comprise 80% of the food allergies in cats. Studies show that corn causes no more food allergies than any other grain.
  • Do you ever get questions about by-products? To start with, let’s define what a by-product is. It is “something that is produced in the making of something else.” By-products are common ingredients in both human foods and pet foods. Consumers often have many negative misperceptions regarding by-products in pet food. What they don’t realize is that many ingredients we find in human foods are also by-products, such as Vitamin E and Jell-O. Liver is also a by-product. With extremely rare exceptions, all pet foods contain by-products. There are obviously different levels of quality of by-products. Pet food manufacturers may use more expensive highly digestible by-product ingredients to ensure they meet their strict standards. Hill’s only selects and uses by-products that add great nutritional value and palatability.
  • Let’s talk about the facts about by-products. Review bullets with participants. Be sure to emphasize the information in the red box. There are many grades of meat meals. The by-products that Hill’s selects for use in pet foods allow us to add nutrient-rich organ meats, while avoiding excess minerals from bones that are found in less-expensive meat meals. Hill’s sources only high-quality ingredients, and our by-product meal is no different. If it was made up of “beaks and bones,” it would drive up the calcium and magnesium levels. When you compare Hill’s to other brands, you’ll see we have healthy, low levels of calcium and magnesium in our foods.
  • Stacy Mantle of PetsWeekly created the attached tool for reading labels. She used the info she received at the PNC tour in March. She just asked that we credit her blog PetsWeekly.
  • TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SUBCHAPTER A--GENERAL PART 7 -- ENFORCEMENT POLICY Subpart C--Recalls (Including Product Corrections)--Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities Sec. 7.40 Recall policy.   (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products that are in violation of laws administered by the Food and Drug Administration. Recall is a voluntary action that takes place because manufacturers and distributors carry out their responsibility to protect the public health and well-being from products that present a risk of injury or gross deception or are otherwise defective. This section and 7.41 through 7.59 recognize the voluntary nature of recall by providing guidance so that responsible firms may effectively discharge their recall responsibilities. These sections also recognize that recall is an alternative to a Food and Drug Administration-initiated court action for removing or correcting violate, distributed products by setting forth specific recall procedures for the Food and Drug Administration to monitor recalls and assess the adequacy of a firm's efforts in recall. (b) Recall may be undertaken voluntarily and at any time by manufacturers and distributors, or at the request of the Food and Drug Administration. A request by the Food and Drug Administration that a firm recall a product is reserved for urgent situations and is to be directed to the firm that has primary responsibility for the manufacture and marketing of the product that is to be recalled. (c) Recall is generally more appropriate and affords better protection for consumers than seizure, when many lots of product have been widely distributed. Seizure, multiple seizure, or other court action is indicated when a firm refuses to undertake a recall requested by the Food and Drug Administration, or where the agency has reason to believe that a recall would not be effective, determines that a recall is ineffective, or discovers that a violation is continuing. [43 FR 26218, June 16, 1978, as amended at 65 FR 56476, Sept. 19, 2000
  • Given the recent salmonella outbreaks and pet food recalls, I want to reiterate our strong commitment to safety and quality. In “Our Promise” to consumers, we emphasize our rigorous safety procedures and commitment to highest quality. Just consider some of the specific measures we have established: Since 2007, we have invested millions of dollars in our facilities, manufacturing practices and formulas to reduce the risk of food safety issues. In fact, we perform over 1,000 tests for salmonella at our manufacturing plants every month. Simply put, Hill’s is committed to ensuring safety in every ingredient, every batch, every time.
  • Understanding Pet Food Labels_in-store_2009 (60 min.) Think about this….. What is the one thing that all pet owners have in common that they do on a daily basis that impacts the health of their pet(s)? They feed them, correct? So it’s very important that we feed them something that is going to help keep them healthy and live longer. Since dogs and cats have a condensed life span compared to humans, nutritional deficiencies and excesses can have a greater impact on that shorter life. Providing superior nutrition may help to delay the onset of some diet-related diseases and possibly prevent some as well. The Hill’s Mission Statement before: “to help enrich and lengthen the special relationships between people and their pets.” It really is a statement Hill’s lives by and we do this by providing the best, leading-edge pet nutrition technology, products, and expertise to pet owners, veterinary professionals and other key pet nutrition influencers worldwide.

Dr. Dan Aja Luncheon Talk: Tips on Pet Nutrition and Pet Food Labels Dr. Dan Aja Luncheon Talk: Tips on Pet Nutrition and Pet Food Labels Presentation Transcript

  • Pet Nutrition, Pet Food Labels BlogPaws 2012 Daniel S. Aja, DVM 1
  • To help enrich and lengthen the special relationshipsbetween people and their pets. 2
  • Hill’s Heritage
  • Continuing Development of New Nutritional Therapeutic & Wellness Products> 60 therapeutic pet foods> 50 life stage and special needs pet foods 4
  • Is NutritionImportant?
  • www.everypeteverytime.com The American Animal Hospital Association recommends a nutritional assessment and specific dietary recommendation for every pet on each veterinary visit. Good nutrition enhances pets’ quality and quantity of life, and is integral to optimal animal care.
  • 7Nutrition ASSESSMENT THE 5TH VITAL ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... .....................
  • Let’s Talk Pet Food Labels This organization sets the nutritional standards for animal foods sold in the United States and Canada8
  • Pet Food Label-Display & Information Panels
  • Pet Food Label Display Panel g) oz. (1814 Net wt. 6410
  • Pet Food Label Information Panel 11
  • Nutritional Adequacy Statement (AAFCO Statement) Can be one of two methods: Formulation Method • Requires food formulated to meet AAFCO Dog or Cat Nutrient Profiles • Growth and Reproduction • Adult maintenance • Less expensive, less time consuming • Doesn’t require feeding or digestibility trials – No guarantee of pet’s acceptability or nutrient bioavailability LABEL EXAMPLE: Acme Brand Adult Chicken Formula Cat Food is formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by the AAFCO Cat Food Nutrient Profiles for maintenance.
  • Nutritional Adequacy Statement (AAFCO Statement) Animal Feeding Trial Method • Preferred method (Gold Standard) • Manufacturer must perform an AAFCO-protocol feeding trial using the food as the sole source of nutrition • Gestation and Lactation* • Growth* • Adult Maintenance • All Lifestages** • Documents how an animal performs when fed a specific foodLABEL EXAMPLE: Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that Science Diet Adult Small Bites provides complete and balanced nutrition for maintenance of adult cats.
  • What is Lifestage Nutrition?The practice of feeding foods designed to meet an animal’s optimal nutritional needs at a specific age or physiologic state
  • Lifestage Nutrition• Nutritional needs change throughout the pet’s life• Lifestage concept – Pet receives ideal balance of nutrients during each stage of life – Avoids nutritional excesses and deficiencies
  • Information Panel16
  • Guaranteed Analysis• Required information – lists only minimums and maximums – Crude protein (minimum) – Crude fat (minimum) – Crude fiber (maximum) – Moisture (maximum)• General idea of nutrient content• No indication of quality
  • Canned dog food 12 year-old healthy dog18
  • Guaranteed Analysis Product “A” “B” “C” Crude Protein, min % 6.0 6.0 5.0 Crude Fat, min % 4.0 5.0 2.2 Crude Fiber, max % 6.3 2.5 2.5 Moisture, max % 78 78 78Product “A” is old shoes, oil, coal, and waterProduct “B” is Old Yeller® Dog Food for growth & maintenanceProduct “C” is a “Premium” Adult Light Food Guaranteed analysis does not help you understand the nutritional value or quality of the product. 19
  • Information Panel20
  • Ingredient StatementLamb, Ground Rice, Rice Flour, Rice Bran, Whole Brown Rice, Lamb Meal, Potato Protein, Poultry Fat (preserved withmixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), Rice Protein Concentrate, Natural Flavors, Pea Protein, Soybean Oil(preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), Sunflower Oil (preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source ofVitamin E), Potassium Chloride, Monocalcium Phosphate, L-Lysine, Salt, Choline Chloride, Egg Product, Dried BeetPulp, Dried Kelp, Taurine, Vitamin E Supplement, Zinc Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate,(source ofVitamin C), Copper Proteinate, Biotin, Niacin Supplement, Garlic Flavor, Potassium Iodide, Manganous Oxide, CalciumPantothenate, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement (source of Vitamin B2), ThiamineMononitrate (source of Vitamin B1), Pyridozxine Hydrochloride (source of Vitamin B6), Menadione Sodium BisulfiteComplex (source of Vitamin K activity), Folic Acid, Vitamin D3 Supplement.• Listed in descending order by weight• Meat first – can appear first due to higher moisture content than other dry ingredients• Ingredient splitting – several different forms of same ingredient listed separately
  • Nutrients vs. Ingredients • Nutrient Do dogs and cats need nutrients or ingredients? Vitamins – Any food vehicles that that supports – Ingredients are constituent provide nutrientslife Minerals – A metabolically useful component of Fat food • may be essential or non-essential Protein – 6 Basic Categories Carbohydrates Water
  • Nutrients vs. Ingredients• Nutrient needs vary according: – Age – Activity / Lifestyle / Special Needs – Environment – Health status – Reproductive status• Nutritional excesses – As harmful as, and more common than nutritional deficiencies – Lifestage nutrition aids in avoiding nutritional excesses
  • Nutrients of Concern Obesity Diabetes Excess Joint disease Fat Heart disease Respiratory disease Anesthetic risk Liver disease Excess Kidney disease ProteinLeading Causes of Non-Accidental Death in Dogs and Cats, Morris Animal Foundation Survey, 1998.
  • Nutrients of Concern Kidney disease Skeletal disease Excess Urinary bladder stonesPhosphorus Skeletal disease Urinary bladder stones Excess Skin conditions Calcium FLUTD Excess Urinary bladder stonesMagnesium Heart disease Hypertension Excess Kidney disease Sodium Leading Causes of Non-Accidental Death in Dogs and Cats, Morris Animal Foundation Survey, 1998.
  • AAFCO Food Forms (based on moisture levels) Dry Food < 20% Moisture Semi-Moist Food 20-65% Moisture Wet 65-78% Moisture26
  • AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredientChicken, beef, seafood, etc. 95%(ingredient without modifiers)
  • Product Name Modifiers Flavor Designation 95% Beef “Beef” for Dogs 25% Beef “Beef Dinner,” “Platter,” “Formula,” “Recipe,” 3% Beef “Entrée” “With Beef” <3% Beef “Beef Flavor” (recognizable by pet)
  • Product Name No Qualifiers ≥ 95% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%29
  • AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredientFormula, recipe, dinner, entrée, platter 25%(chicken dinner, beef entrée, seafoodand beef platter)
  • Product Name Qualifier following Name 25% to 94% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%31 0%
  • AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredient“With” 3%(with chicken, with beef, with seafood etc.)
  • Product Name Qualifier ‘With’ 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 3% to 30% 24% 20% 10% 0%33
  • AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredient“Flavor” <3% & ingredient list must(chicken flavor, beef flavor) disclose source of flavor
  • Product Name Qualifier ‘Flavor’ 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% ≤3% 10% 0%35
  • AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredientChicken, beef, seafood, etc. 95%(ingredient without modifiers)Formula, recipe, dinner, entrée, platter 25%(chicken dinner, beef entrée, seafoodand beef platter)“With” 3%(with chicken, with beef, with seafood etc.)“Flavor” <3% & ingredient list must(chicken flavor, beef flavor) disclose source of flavor
  • Organic,Natural,Holistic,HumanGrade??
  • Requirements for Naming Pet FoodsTERM LEGALLY DEFINITION DEFINEDOrganic YES According to the USDA – the term “Organic” may only be applied to pet food labels that follow USDA rules. Look for the seal.Natural YES According to AAFCO – the term “natural” requires a pet food to consist of only natural ingredients without chemical alterations.Holistic NO There is no legal definition of this term under law devoted to pet foods. Any manufacturer can make claims of “holistic” in literature or brochures regardless of ingredients chosen.Human NO Claims that a product contains or is made from ingredientsGrade that are “human grade,” “human quality,” “people food,” ingredients you (the purchaser) would eat” are “false and misleading.”
  • Organic - USDA Ingredient listed only “Made with Organic peas, Organics” organic chicken, etc. > 95% 70% to 94% 1% to 69%39
  • Natural AAFCO definition: Ingredients that have never been subjected to chemical synthesis.40
  • Holistic41
  • Human Edible/Human Grade? WEBSITES LITERATURE AAFCO- Claims that a product contains or is made from ingredients that are “human grade,” “human quality,” “people food,” ingredients you (the purchaser) would eat” are “false and misleading.”42
  • Human Edible/Human Grade43
  • Pet FoodIngredients: The Facts
  • Corn• Corn: An Amazing Grain – Well-rounded nutritional package containing: • Essential fatty acids for healthy skin and coat • High quality proteins for muscle and tissue growth • Highly digestible carbohydrates that provide energy • Nature’s antioxidants: Vitamin E, lutein, β-carotene
  • Corn is Highly Digestible• Corn is: • Ground and cooked, which increases its digestibility • Higher protein digestibility than rice and wheat – NOT aProtein Dry Matter Digestibility (%) Of Dry Dog Foods Containing Different Grain Flours “filler • the term “filler” means no nutritional value 86 85 –Corn is over 84 A complete nutritional ingredient 83 85% 82 digestible! 81 80 79 78 77 76 Corn Rice Wheat Barley Sorghum *Murray SM, Fahey GC, Merchen RN, et al. Evaluation of selected high-starch flours as ingredients in canine diets. J Anim Sci 1999; 77:2180-2186.
  • Corn is GREAT for Skin & Coat• Corn provides fatty acids which provide healthy skin and a shiny coat!• Corn is not a common allergen in pet foods – Studies show corn causes no more food allergies than any other grain 2.5 Corn is a rich Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids % DM 2 source of essential fatty 1.5 acids 1 0.5 0 Corn Barley Wheat Rice Source: From USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Release 13; 9/22/2003.
  • Food Allergies in Pets Beef Dairy 68% Wheat of reported casesDOGS Lamb Chicken Chicken Egg 25% of reported cases Soy 93% of all canine adverse reactions to food are caused by these 7 ingredients alone.2 BeefCATS Dairy 80% Fish of reported cases Adverse reactions to food affect less than 10% of all dogs and cats.1 1 Health status and population characteristics of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States. Elizabeth M. Lund, DVM, MPH, PhD; P. Jane Armstrong, DVM, MS; Claudia A. Kirk, DVM, PhD; Linda M. Kolar, DVM, MPH; Jeffrey S. Klausner, DVM, MS 2 Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, IV Edition, page 437
  • By-Products• Definition: – Something produced in the making of something else• Are common ingredients in both human and pet foods – Examples: Jell-O® brand gelatin, beef bouillon, lamb meal, fish meal – Vitamin E is a by-product of soybean processing• Hill’s requires suppliers to provide only those by-product components that add great nutritional value and palatability
  • The Facts About By-Products• Chicken by-product meal – is a more concentrated protein source than raw chicken – contains high quality protein that is digestible and adds flavor• Examples of ingredients containing by-products: – lamb meal, fish meal, all types of liver• Many by-products, such as liver, offer superior taste. Pets like it better! The by-products that Hill’s selects allows us to add nutrient-rich organ meats, while avoiding excess minerals from bones that are found in less-expensive meat meals.
  • Pet Food RecallsFrom the FDA….A recall is a voluntaryaction that takes placebecause manufacturersand distributors carry outtheir responsibility toprotect the public healthand well-being fromproducts that present a riskof injury or gross deceptionor are otherwise defective.
  • Hill’s PromiseBefore Production•Hill’s only buys ingredients from suppliers whose facilities meet our raw material qualitystandards.•Each of our manufacturing facilities and supplier sites are inspected by a team of Hill’s orColgate quality auditors and by numerous government agencies.•Our Hazardous Analysis Critical Control Points program, or HACCP, ensures that systemsare in place to prevent contamination hazards.During Production•We began adding lactic acid to Hill’s dry pet food products in 2010 to lessen the risk ofsalmonella contamination.•Quality samples are taken every 30 minutes and tested for key attributes to ensureconsistency.•More than 60 quality checks are performed on each batch.After Production•Every finished product is physically inspected, and tested for key nutrients and salmonellacontamination.•All products are screened for metal or other foreign material prior to release.•Finally, all of our products can be tracked by batch or ingredient within 24 hours.
  • Our Mission Statement To help enrich and lengthen the special relationships between people and their pets
  • Thank you BlogPaws! Daniel S. Aja, DVM Daniel_Aja@hillspet.com @MSUDVMAJA