www.everypeteverytime.com The American Animal Hospital Association recommends a nutritional assessment and specific dietary recommendation for every pet on each veterinary visit. Good nutrition enhances pets’ quality and quantity of life, and is integral to optimal animal care.
Nutritional Adequacy Statement (AAFCO Statement) Can be one of two methods: Formulation Method • Requires food formulated to meet AAFCO Dog or Cat Nutrient Profiles • Growth and Reproduction • Adult maintenance • Less expensive, less time consuming • Doesn’t require feeding or digestibility trials – No guarantee of pet’s acceptability or nutrient bioavailability LABEL EXAMPLE: Acme Brand Adult Chicken Formula Cat Food is formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by the AAFCO Cat Food Nutrient Profiles for maintenance.
Nutritional Adequacy Statement (AAFCO Statement) Animal Feeding Trial Method • Preferred method (Gold Standard) • Manufacturer must perform an AAFCO-protocol feeding trial using the food as the sole source of nutrition • Gestation and Lactation* • Growth* • Adult Maintenance • All Lifestages** • Documents how an animal performs when fed a specific foodLABEL EXAMPLE: Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that Science Diet Adult Small Bites provides complete and balanced nutrition for maintenance of adult cats.
What is Lifestage Nutrition?The practice of feeding foods designed to meet an animal’s optimal nutritional needs at a specific age or physiologic state
Lifestage Nutrition• Nutritional needs change throughout the pet’s life• Lifestage concept – Pet receives ideal balance of nutrients during each stage of life – Avoids nutritional excesses and deficiencies
Guaranteed Analysis• Required information – lists only minimums and maximums – Crude protein (minimum) – Crude fat (minimum) – Crude fiber (maximum) – Moisture (maximum)• General idea of nutrient content• No indication of quality
Guaranteed Analysis Product “A” “B” “C” Crude Protein, min % 6.0 6.0 5.0 Crude Fat, min % 4.0 5.0 2.2 Crude Fiber, max % 6.3 2.5 2.5 Moisture, max % 78 78 78Product “A” is old shoes, oil, coal, and waterProduct “B” is Old Yeller® Dog Food for growth & maintenanceProduct “C” is a “Premium” Adult Light Food Guaranteed analysis does not help you understand the nutritional value or quality of the product. 19
Ingredient StatementLamb, Ground Rice, Rice Flour, Rice Bran, Whole Brown Rice, Lamb Meal, Potato Protein, Poultry Fat (preserved withmixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), Rice Protein Concentrate, Natural Flavors, Pea Protein, Soybean Oil(preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), Sunflower Oil (preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source ofVitamin E), Potassium Chloride, Monocalcium Phosphate, L-Lysine, Salt, Choline Chloride, Egg Product, Dried BeetPulp, Dried Kelp, Taurine, Vitamin E Supplement, Zinc Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate,(source ofVitamin C), Copper Proteinate, Biotin, Niacin Supplement, Garlic Flavor, Potassium Iodide, Manganous Oxide, CalciumPantothenate, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement (source of Vitamin B2), ThiamineMononitrate (source of Vitamin B1), Pyridozxine Hydrochloride (source of Vitamin B6), Menadione Sodium BisulfiteComplex (source of Vitamin K activity), Folic Acid, Vitamin D3 Supplement.• Listed in descending order by weight• Meat first – can appear first due to higher moisture content than other dry ingredients• Ingredient splitting – several different forms of same ingredient listed separately
Nutrients vs. Ingredients • Nutrient Do dogs and cats need nutrients or ingredients? Vitamins – Any food vehicles that that supports – Ingredients are constituent provide nutrientslife Minerals – A metabolically useful component of Fat food • may be essential or non-essential Protein – 6 Basic Categories Carbohydrates Water
Nutrients vs. Ingredients• Nutrient needs vary according: – Age – Activity / Lifestyle / Special Needs – Environment – Health status – Reproductive status• Nutritional excesses – As harmful as, and more common than nutritional deficiencies – Lifestage nutrition aids in avoiding nutritional excesses
Nutrients of Concern Obesity Diabetes Excess Joint disease Fat Heart disease Respiratory disease Anesthetic risk Liver disease Excess Kidney disease ProteinLeading Causes of Non-Accidental Death in Dogs and Cats, Morris Animal Foundation Survey, 1998.
Nutrients of Concern Kidney disease Skeletal disease Excess Urinary bladder stonesPhosphorus Skeletal disease Urinary bladder stones Excess Skin conditions Calcium FLUTD Excess Urinary bladder stonesMagnesium Heart disease Hypertension Excess Kidney disease Sodium Leading Causes of Non-Accidental Death in Dogs and Cats, Morris Animal Foundation Survey, 1998.
AAFCO Food Forms (based on moisture levels) Dry Food < 20% Moisture Semi-Moist Food 20-65% Moisture Wet 65-78% Moisture26
AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredientChicken, beef, seafood, etc. 95%(ingredient without modifiers)
Product Name Modifiers Flavor Designation 95% Beef “Beef” for Dogs 25% Beef “Beef Dinner,” “Platter,” “Formula,” “Recipe,” 3% Beef “Entrée” “With Beef” <3% Beef “Beef Flavor” (recognizable by pet)
Product Name No Qualifiers ≥ 95% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%29
AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredientFormula, recipe, dinner, entrée, platter 25%(chicken dinner, beef entrée, seafoodand beef platter)
Product Name Qualifier following Name 25% to 94% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%31 0%
AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredient“With” 3%(with chicken, with beef, with seafood etc.)
Product Name Qualifier ‘With’ 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 3% to 30% 24% 20% 10% 0%33
AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredient“Flavor” <3% & ingredient list must(chicken flavor, beef flavor) disclose source of flavor
AAFCO Requirements for Naming Pet Foods Pet food must contain atIf pet food name says…. least this % of the named ingredientChicken, beef, seafood, etc. 95%(ingredient without modifiers)Formula, recipe, dinner, entrée, platter 25%(chicken dinner, beef entrée, seafoodand beef platter)“With” 3%(with chicken, with beef, with seafood etc.)“Flavor” <3% & ingredient list must(chicken flavor, beef flavor) disclose source of flavor
Requirements for Naming Pet FoodsTERM LEGALLY DEFINITION DEFINEDOrganic YES According to the USDA – the term “Organic” may only be applied to pet food labels that follow USDA rules. Look for the seal.Natural YES According to AAFCO – the term “natural” requires a pet food to consist of only natural ingredients without chemical alterations.Holistic NO There is no legal definition of this term under law devoted to pet foods. Any manufacturer can make claims of “holistic” in literature or brochures regardless of ingredients chosen.Human NO Claims that a product contains or is made from ingredientsGrade that are “human grade,” “human quality,” “people food,” ingredients you (the purchaser) would eat” are “false and misleading.”
Organic - USDA Ingredient listed only “Made with Organic peas, Organics” organic chicken, etc. > 95% 70% to 94% 1% to 69%39
Natural AAFCO definition: Ingredients that have never been subjected to chemical synthesis.40
Human Edible/Human Grade? WEBSITES LITERATURE AAFCO- Claims that a product contains or is made from ingredients that are “human grade,” “human quality,” “people food,” ingredients you (the purchaser) would eat” are “false and misleading.”42
Corn• Corn: An Amazing Grain – Well-rounded nutritional package containing: • Essential fatty acids for healthy skin and coat • High quality proteins for muscle and tissue growth • Highly digestible carbohydrates that provide energy • Nature’s antioxidants: Vitamin E, lutein, β-carotene
Corn is Highly Digestible• Corn is: • Ground and cooked, which increases its digestibility • Higher protein digestibility than rice and wheat – NOT aProtein Dry Matter Digestibility (%) Of Dry Dog Foods Containing Different Grain Flours “filler • the term “filler” means no nutritional value 86 85 –Corn is over 84 A complete nutritional ingredient 83 85% 82 digestible! 81 80 79 78 77 76 Corn Rice Wheat Barley Sorghum *Murray SM, Fahey GC, Merchen RN, et al. Evaluation of selected high-starch flours as ingredients in canine diets. J Anim Sci 1999; 77:2180-2186.
Corn is GREAT for Skin & Coat• Corn provides fatty acids which provide healthy skin and a shiny coat!• Corn is not a common allergen in pet foods – Studies show corn causes no more food allergies than any other grain 2.5 Corn is a rich Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids % DM 2 source of essential fatty 1.5 acids 1 0.5 0 Corn Barley Wheat Rice Source: From USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Release 13; 9/22/2003.
Food Allergies in Pets Beef Dairy 68% Wheat of reported casesDOGS Lamb Chicken Chicken Egg 25% of reported cases Soy 93% of all canine adverse reactions to food are caused by these 7 ingredients alone.2 BeefCATS Dairy 80% Fish of reported cases Adverse reactions to food affect less than 10% of all dogs and cats.1 1 Health status and population characteristics of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States. Elizabeth M. Lund, DVM, MPH, PhD; P. Jane Armstrong, DVM, MS; Claudia A. Kirk, DVM, PhD; Linda M. Kolar, DVM, MPH; Jeffrey S. Klausner, DVM, MS 2 Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, IV Edition, page 437
By-Products• Definition: – Something produced in the making of something else• Are common ingredients in both human and pet foods – Examples: Jell-O® brand gelatin, beef bouillon, lamb meal, fish meal – Vitamin E is a by-product of soybean processing• Hill’s requires suppliers to provide only those by-product components that add great nutritional value and palatability
The Facts About By-Products• Chicken by-product meal – is a more concentrated protein source than raw chicken – contains high quality protein that is digestible and adds flavor• Examples of ingredients containing by-products: – lamb meal, fish meal, all types of liver• Many by-products, such as liver, offer superior taste. Pets like it better! The by-products that Hill’s selects allows us to add nutrient-rich organ meats, while avoiding excess minerals from bones that are found in less-expensive meat meals.
Pet Food RecallsFrom the FDA….A recall is a voluntaryaction that takes placebecause manufacturersand distributors carry outtheir responsibility toprotect the public healthand well-being fromproducts that present a riskof injury or gross deceptionor are otherwise defective.
Hill’s PromiseBefore Production•Hill’s only buys ingredients from suppliers whose facilities meet our raw material qualitystandards.•Each of our manufacturing facilities and supplier sites are inspected by a team of Hill’s orColgate quality auditors and by numerous government agencies.•Our Hazardous Analysis Critical Control Points program, or HACCP, ensures that systemsare in place to prevent contamination hazards.During Production•We began adding lactic acid to Hill’s dry pet food products in 2010 to lessen the risk ofsalmonella contamination.•Quality samples are taken every 30 minutes and tested for key attributes to ensureconsistency.•More than 60 quality checks are performed on each batch.After Production•Every finished product is physically inspected, and tested for key nutrients and salmonellacontamination.•All products are screened for metal or other foreign material prior to release.•Finally, all of our products can be tracked by batch or ingredient within 24 hours.
Our Mission Statement To help enrich and lengthen the special relationships between people and their pets
Thank you BlogPaws! Daniel S. Aja, DVM Daniel_Aja@hillspet.com @MSUDVMAJA