2. What is a wave? A vibration or disturbance. SOUND & LIGHT are forms of energy that travel in waves.
3. Period (T) A period is the time it takes for one cycle. 1 cycle = 1 complete trip  1 trip back & forth  Around and back to the same point  1 wave = 1 cycle
4. Frequency (ƒ) # of cycles in one second. # of waves in one second. Measured in Hertz (Hz). 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second
5.  frequency = 1 period period = 1 frequency
6. Give it a try… A wave vibrates 100 times in 2 seconds. What is its frequency? 100 waves in 2 seconds 100 waves per 2 seconds 50 waves/ 1 second 50 waves/ second = 50 Hz
7. Give it a try… The Sears Tower moves back and forth at a frequency of about 0.1 Hz. What is its period?ƒ = 0.1 HzT = 1/ ƒT= 1/ 0.1 HzT= 10 sec
8. Parts of a wave
9. Parts of a wave Crest= High point of a wave. Trough=Low point of a wave. Amplitude (A)= Distance from the midpoint to the crest. Wavelength (λ)= The length of one complete wave.
10. Wavelength (λ) The length of one wave is measured from a point on one wave to that same point on the next wave.  Crest to crest  Trough to trough  Midpoint (past crest & trough) to midpoint
11. Speed of a wave The speed of a wave depends on the medium it travels through. Medium is the material it passes through.
13. What is the velocity of a wave that is 2 mlong with a frequency of 10Hz?λ = 2mƒ = 10Hzν = λ • ƒν = (2m)(10Hz)ν = 20m/s
14. Types of waves Transverse:  The medium moves at a right angle to the direction of the wave.  Example: Light
15. Types of Waves Compressional  A Compressional wave is when matter vibrates in the same direction as the wave travels.  These are also known as Longitudinal waves.
16.  Longitudinal:  The medium moves in the same direction as the wave.  Example: Sound waves
17. Parts of a CompressionalWave Compression: where the wave “squeezes” or compresses the medium Rarefraction: Where there is space in the wave with no compression.
18. Type of mediumThe type of medium changes the way a wave moves.Mediums with close molecules travel quickly.This is why waves travel better in liquids and solids than in gases.
19. Waves through air However, air can still let waves pass at a great speed. The speed of sound through air is 344 m/s! That is really fast!
20. What happens to a wavewhen it runs into something? REFLECT- Bounce off REFRACT- Bend DIFFRACT- Break up GET ABSORBED- Soak into PENETRATE- Pass through
21. SOUND NOTES
22. How does sound travel? Sound is a form of energy that moves in waves through matter. Sound waves are longitudinal waves or compressional waves .
23. Properties of Sound Waves Sound waves move out from a vibrating object in all directions. As a sound wave travels further from the object, the wave gets weaker.
24. How is sound produced? The movement of particles around a vibrating object creates a sound wave.  Your vocal cords vibrate air molecules. They vibrate other air molecules and so on until the air molecules by the listener’s ear vibrate their ear drum.
25. Speed of sound The speed of sound in air at room temperature is about 344 m/s. vSound in Air = 344 m/s
26. Speed of Sound If the particles are closer together, they hit faster and the wave (sound) moves faster. Does sound move faster in:  air or water?  water or steel?
27.  When one particle bumps another that bumps another and so on, a sound is made. IS THERE SOUND IN SPACE?
28. LOUD and soft Sounds Intensity: strength of a sound  Which sound is more intense, an airplane or talking?  Which has more energy? Intensity is measured in Decibels. Your ear hears intensity as volume of a sound.
29. Intensity of a wave The intensity of a wave is shown by the amplitude. An intense sound is LOUD so it has a high amplitude. LOUD SOFT
30. and sounds The pitch describes high and low sounds.  A high sound like a flute has a high pitch.  A low sound like a tuba has a low pitch.
31. Pitch of a wave The pitch of a wave is shown by the frequency. A high pitch sound has a high frequency and a short wavelength.
32. ECHOS When sound waves reflect, they make an echo. Sonar uses echo to locate objects under water. Ultrasound uses echos to “see” inside the human body.
34. Types of Light Waves Light waves are grouped by different frequencies and wavelengths. These are the different types of electromagnetic waves.
35. Electromagnetic Spectrum Energy that is given off by electrons that moves in waves.
36. Look at your pictures and answer the questions: Which ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE has the most energy? The least? Which ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE has the longest wavelength? The shortest? As frequency increases, what happens to energy? As frequency increases, what happens to wavelength? As the wavelength increases, what happens to the frequency of the waves?
51. How does light travel? Light is made up of bunches of energy called photons. Light travels in waves. Light is an example of a transverse wave.
52. Speed of light Light travels fastest through empty spaces. Light waves slow down or get stopped by matter.In air at room temperature, speed travels at: v = 300 000 km/s = 3 X 108m/sRemember, sound travels at 344 m/s, so light is about 1,000,000 times faster!
53. Light & Optics
54. How do I see Light?
55. Materials that light hits can be: Opaque- (Solid)  Does not let light pass through.  A door is opaque. Transparent- (See-through)  Lets light pass through.  A window is transparent. Translucent- (Not clear)  Lets some light pass through.  A glass of lemonade is translucent.
56. When light hits a material, thelight may: Reflect: Bounce off Refract: Bend Get Absorbed
58. Law of Reflection The angle the light ray hits the mirror equals the angle it bounces off. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
59. The Law of Reflection
60.  Diffusion = the breaking up of light
61. Think about roads…
62. Look at the curved mirrors.What do you observe about thereflection?
63. Sound waves that hit this would allgo to the microphone.
64. What color light is in themiddle?
65. Refraction Waves bend when they pass into a different medium. This happens because the speed of light changes.
66. Refraction explains how lenses work:
67. Your eyes have color sensors. Thousands of rods & cones in your eye tell your brain how much red, green and blue light hits your eye.
68. How do we see colors?
69. When ALL of the colors of lightcombine… White light is produced.
70. The Sun gives off "white" light, a mixture of all the colors in the spectrum.The object looks WHITE because an equal mixture of RED, BLUE, and GREENlight is reflected off the object and interpreted by our eyes and brain as WHITE.
71. You can use a FILTER toabsorb a color of light.
72. Your TV works using little pixels that look like this:Any color can be made from acombination of these three colors oflight.
73. When colors of pigment, (or paint)combine:
74. Colors effect our mood! Red = Stimulating Yellow = Excitement Blue = Calming Which would you eat?
75. Colorblindness Some people have trouble telling the difference between colors. Their rods and cones do not detect differences.
76. The last test is the easiest to use. A person with normal color vision will see a “5” in the dot pattern. A person with Red/Green color blindness (the most common) will see a “2” revealed in the dots.
77. Sometimes your eyes gettired! Your rods & cones get used to what they see and it takes them some time to go back to normal.
78. Sometimes, your eyes playtricks on you!
79. Which guy is the tallest?
80. How many shelves are here?
81. Are these bricks in straightrows?
82. Look at the center and movecloser to the screen!