WAVES   Chapter 10
What is a wave?   A vibration or disturbance.   SOUND & LIGHT are forms of energy    that travel in waves.
Period (T)   A period is the time it takes for one    cycle.   1 cycle = 1 complete trip       1 trip back & forth    ...
Frequency (ƒ)   # of cycles in one second.   # of waves in one second.   Measured in Hertz (Hz).   1 Hz = 1 cycle per ...
   frequency =    1                  period   period =       1               frequency
Give it a try…   A wave vibrates 100 times in 2    seconds. What is its frequency?   100 waves in 2 seconds   100 waves...
Give it a try… The Sears Tower moves back and forth  at a frequency of about 0.1 Hz. What is  its period?ƒ = 0.1 HzT = 1/...
Parts of a wave
Parts of a wave   Crest= High point of a wave.   Trough=Low point of a wave.   Amplitude (A)= Distance from the    midp...
Wavelength (λ)   The length of one wave is measured    from a point on one wave to that same    point on the next wave.  ...
Speed of a wave   The speed of a wave depends on the    medium it travels through.   Medium is the material it passes   ...
Wave speed   = wavelength •    frequency   (m/s)     =   (m)       •   (Hz)        ν = λ • ƒ
What is the velocity of a wave that is 2 mlong with a frequency of 10Hz?λ = 2mƒ = 10Hzν   = λ • ƒν   = (2m)(10Hz)ν   = 20m/s
Types of waves   Transverse:       The medium moves at a right angle to the direction of        the wave.       Example...
Types of Waves   Compressional       A Compressional        wave is when matter        vibrates in the same        direc...
   Longitudinal:       The medium moves in the same direction as        the wave.       Example: Sound waves
Parts of a CompressionalWave   Compression: where the wave    “squeezes” or compresses the medium   Rarefraction: Where ...
Type of mediumThe type of medium changes the way a wave moves.Mediums with close molecules travel quickly.This is why wave...
Waves through air   However, air can still let waves pass at a    great speed.   The speed of sound through air is 344 m...
What happens to a wavewhen it runs into something?   REFLECT- Bounce off   REFRACT- Bend   DIFFRACT- Break up   GET AB...
SOUND NOTES
How does sound travel?   Sound is a form of energy that moves in    waves through matter.   Sound waves are longitudinal...
Properties of Sound Waves   Sound waves move out from a    vibrating object in all directions.   As a sound wave travels...
How is sound produced?   The movement of particles around a    vibrating object creates a sound    wave.       Your voca...
Speed of sound   The speed of sound in air at room    temperature is about 344 m/s.       vSound in Air = 344 m/s
Speed of Sound   If the particles are closer together, they    hit faster and the wave (sound) moves    faster.   Does s...
   When one particle bumps another that    bumps another and so on, a sound is made.   IS THERE SOUND IN SPACE?
LOUD and soft Sounds   Intensity: strength of a sound       Which sound is more intense, an airplane or talking?       ...
Intensity of a wave   The intensity of a wave is shown by the    amplitude.   An intense sound is LOUD so it has a    hi...
and               sounds   The pitch describes    high and low    sounds.       A high sound like a        flute has a h...
Pitch of a wave   The pitch of a wave is shown by the    frequency.   A high pitch sound has a high    frequency and a s...
ECHOS   When sound waves reflect, they make an    echo.   Sonar uses echo to locate objects under    water.   Ultrasoun...
LIGHT
Types of Light Waves   Light waves are grouped by different    frequencies and wavelengths.   These are the different ty...
Electromagnetic Spectrum   Energy that is given off by electrons    that moves in waves.
Look at your pictures and answer         the questions:   Which ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE has    the most energy? The least? ...
   Radio waves   Microwaves   Infrared Waves   Visible Light Waves   Ultraviolet Waves   X-Ray Waves   Gamma Waves
Radio Waves   Radio waves are    used for radio    broadcasts, amateur    radio, television, and    mobile phones.
Microwaves   Microwaves can be    used to study the    Universe,    communicate with    satellites in Earth    orbit, and...
Infrared Waves   Infrared waves are    used to heat food at    restaurants, by    police scanners, in    your remote cont...
Ultraviolet Waves                  UV Waves are used                   in tanning and in                   sterilization ...
X-Ray Waves                 X-Rays are so                  strong, they can go                  right through you!
Gamma Waves           Gamma rays and X-            Rays can cause            cancer, but gamma            rays can also b...
LIGHT WAVES- Visible Light   VISIBLE LIGHT is a    form of    electromagnetic    energy that we can    see.
Visible Light
White Light   Sunlight is white light.   White light = every color of    light
PRISM   A prism REFRACTS    white light into all its    colors!
What color light is refracted the most?
Visible Spectrum   Visible Spectrum = the colors that you    can see.   All the colors of the rainbow
Visible SpectrumRed (longest wavelength)OrangeYellowGreenBlueIndigoViolet (shortest wavelength)
How does light travel?   Light is made up of bunches of energy    called photons.   Light travels in waves.   Light is ...
Speed of light   Light travels fastest through empty spaces.   Light waves slow down or get stopped by    matter.In air ...
Light & Optics
How do I see Light?
Materials that light hits can be:   Opaque- (Solid)       Does not let light pass through.       A door is opaque.   T...
When light hits a material, thelight may:   Reflect: Bounce off   Refract: Bend   Get Absorbed
Reflection
Law of Reflection   The angle the light ray hits the mirror    equals the angle it bounces off.   The angle of incidence...
The Law of Reflection
   Diffusion = the breaking up of light
Think about roads…
Look at the curved mirrors.What do you observe about thereflection?
Sound waves that hit this would allgo to the microphone.
What color light is in themiddle?               
Refraction   Waves bend when    they pass into a    different medium.   This happens    because the speed    of light ch...
Refraction explains how lenses work:
Your eyes have color sensors.   Thousands of rods & cones in your    eye tell your brain how much red, green    and blue ...
How do we see colors?
When ALL of the colors of lightcombine… White light is produced.
The Sun gives off "white" light, a mixture of all the colors in the spectrum.The object looks WHITE because an equal mixtu...
You can use a FILTER toabsorb a color of light.
Your TV works using little   pixels that look like this:Any color can be made from acombination of these three colors ofli...
When colors of pigment, (or paint)combine:
Colors effect our mood!   Red = Stimulating   Yellow = Excitement   Blue = Calming   Which would you eat?
Colorblindness   Some people have trouble telling the    difference between colors.   Their rods and cones do not detect...
The last test is the easiest to use.   A person with normal color vision    will see a “5” in the dot pattern.   A perso...
Sometimes your eyes gettired!   Your rods & cones get used to what    they see and it takes them some time to    go back ...
Sometimes, your eyes playtricks on you!
Which guy is the tallest?
How many shelves are here?
Are these bricks in straightrows?
Look at the center and movecloser to the screen!
Are the long lines parallel?
Look at the center & move your head.
Are the purple lines parallel?
Curved or straight?
Waves presentation
Waves presentation
Waves presentation
Waves presentation
Waves presentation
Waves presentation
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Waves presentation

  1. 1. WAVES Chapter 10
  2. 2. What is a wave? A vibration or disturbance. SOUND & LIGHT are forms of energy that travel in waves.
  3. 3. Period (T) A period is the time it takes for one cycle. 1 cycle = 1 complete trip  1 trip back & forth  Around and back to the same point  1 wave = 1 cycle
  4. 4. Frequency (ƒ) # of cycles in one second. # of waves in one second. Measured in Hertz (Hz). 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second
  5. 5.  frequency = 1 period period = 1 frequency
  6. 6. Give it a try… A wave vibrates 100 times in 2 seconds. What is its frequency? 100 waves in 2 seconds 100 waves per 2 seconds 50 waves/ 1 second 50 waves/ second = 50 Hz
  7. 7. Give it a try… The Sears Tower moves back and forth at a frequency of about 0.1 Hz. What is its period?ƒ = 0.1 HzT = 1/ ƒT= 1/ 0.1 HzT= 10 sec
  8. 8. Parts of a wave
  9. 9. Parts of a wave Crest= High point of a wave. Trough=Low point of a wave. Amplitude (A)= Distance from the midpoint to the crest. Wavelength (λ)= The length of one complete wave.
  10. 10. Wavelength (λ) The length of one wave is measured from a point on one wave to that same point on the next wave.  Crest to crest  Trough to trough  Midpoint (past crest & trough) to midpoint
  11. 11. Speed of a wave The speed of a wave depends on the medium it travels through. Medium is the material it passes through.
  12. 12. Wave speed = wavelength • frequency (m/s) = (m) • (Hz) ν = λ • ƒ
  13. 13. What is the velocity of a wave that is 2 mlong with a frequency of 10Hz?λ = 2mƒ = 10Hzν = λ • ƒν = (2m)(10Hz)ν = 20m/s
  14. 14. Types of waves Transverse:  The medium moves at a right angle to the direction of the wave.  Example: Light
  15. 15. Types of Waves Compressional  A Compressional wave is when matter vibrates in the same direction as the wave travels.  These are also known as Longitudinal waves.
  16. 16.  Longitudinal:  The medium moves in the same direction as the wave.  Example: Sound waves
  17. 17. Parts of a CompressionalWave Compression: where the wave “squeezes” or compresses the medium Rarefraction: Where there is space in the wave with no compression.
  18. 18. Type of mediumThe type of medium changes the way a wave moves.Mediums with close molecules travel quickly.This is why waves travel better in liquids and solids than in gases.
  19. 19. Waves through air However, air can still let waves pass at a great speed. The speed of sound through air is 344 m/s! That is really fast!
  20. 20. What happens to a wavewhen it runs into something? REFLECT- Bounce off REFRACT- Bend DIFFRACT- Break up GET ABSORBED- Soak into PENETRATE- Pass through
  21. 21. SOUND NOTES
  22. 22. How does sound travel? Sound is a form of energy that moves in waves through matter. Sound waves are longitudinal waves or compressional waves .
  23. 23. Properties of Sound Waves Sound waves move out from a vibrating object in all directions. As a sound wave travels further from the object, the wave gets weaker.
  24. 24. How is sound produced? The movement of particles around a vibrating object creates a sound wave.  Your vocal cords vibrate air molecules. They vibrate other air molecules and so on until the air molecules by the listener’s ear vibrate their ear drum.
  25. 25. Speed of sound The speed of sound in air at room temperature is about 344 m/s. vSound in Air = 344 m/s
  26. 26. Speed of Sound If the particles are closer together, they hit faster and the wave (sound) moves faster. Does sound move faster in:  air or water?  water or steel?
  27. 27.  When one particle bumps another that bumps another and so on, a sound is made. IS THERE SOUND IN SPACE?
  28. 28. LOUD and soft Sounds Intensity: strength of a sound  Which sound is more intense, an airplane or talking?  Which has more energy? Intensity is measured in Decibels. Your ear hears intensity as volume of a sound.
  29. 29. Intensity of a wave The intensity of a wave is shown by the amplitude. An intense sound is LOUD so it has a high amplitude. LOUD SOFT
  30. 30. and sounds The pitch describes high and low sounds.  A high sound like a flute has a high pitch.  A low sound like a tuba has a low pitch.
  31. 31. Pitch of a wave The pitch of a wave is shown by the frequency. A high pitch sound has a high frequency and a short wavelength.
  32. 32. ECHOS When sound waves reflect, they make an echo. Sonar uses echo to locate objects under water. Ultrasound uses echos to “see” inside the human body.
  33. 33. LIGHT
  34. 34. Types of Light Waves Light waves are grouped by different frequencies and wavelengths. These are the different types of electromagnetic waves.
  35. 35. Electromagnetic Spectrum Energy that is given off by electrons that moves in waves.
  36. 36. Look at your pictures and answer the questions: Which ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE has the most energy? The least? Which ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE has the longest wavelength? The shortest? As frequency increases, what happens to energy? As frequency increases, what happens to wavelength? As the wavelength increases, what happens to the frequency of the waves?
  37. 37.  Radio waves Microwaves Infrared Waves Visible Light Waves Ultraviolet Waves X-Ray Waves Gamma Waves
  38. 38. Radio Waves Radio waves are used for radio broadcasts, amateur radio, television, and mobile phones.
  39. 39. Microwaves Microwaves can be used to study the Universe, communicate with satellites in Earth orbit, and cook popcorn.
  40. 40. Infrared Waves Infrared waves are used to heat food at restaurants, by police scanners, in your remote control.
  41. 41. Ultraviolet Waves  UV Waves are used in tanning and in sterilization of equipment.
  42. 42. X-Ray Waves  X-Rays are so strong, they can go right through you!
  43. 43. Gamma Waves  Gamma rays and X- Rays can cause cancer, but gamma rays can also be used to destroy cancer cells: this is called radio- therapy or radiation.
  44. 44. LIGHT WAVES- Visible Light VISIBLE LIGHT is a form of electromagnetic energy that we can see.
  45. 45. Visible Light
  46. 46. White Light Sunlight is white light. White light = every color of light
  47. 47. PRISM A prism REFRACTS white light into all its colors!
  48. 48. What color light is refracted the most?
  49. 49. Visible Spectrum Visible Spectrum = the colors that you can see. All the colors of the rainbow
  50. 50. Visible SpectrumRed (longest wavelength)OrangeYellowGreenBlueIndigoViolet (shortest wavelength)
  51. 51. How does light travel? Light is made up of bunches of energy called photons. Light travels in waves. Light is an example of a transverse wave.
  52. 52. Speed of light Light travels fastest through empty spaces. Light waves slow down or get stopped by matter.In air at room temperature, speed travels at: v = 300 000 km/s = 3 X 108m/sRemember, sound travels at 344 m/s, so light is about 1,000,000 times faster!
  53. 53. Light & Optics
  54. 54. How do I see Light?
  55. 55. Materials that light hits can be: Opaque- (Solid)  Does not let light pass through.  A door is opaque. Transparent- (See-through)  Lets light pass through.  A window is transparent. Translucent- (Not clear)  Lets some light pass through.  A glass of lemonade is translucent.
  56. 56. When light hits a material, thelight may: Reflect: Bounce off Refract: Bend Get Absorbed
  57. 57. Reflection
  58. 58. Law of Reflection The angle the light ray hits the mirror equals the angle it bounces off. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
  59. 59. The Law of Reflection
  60. 60.  Diffusion = the breaking up of light
  61. 61. Think about roads…
  62. 62. Look at the curved mirrors.What do you observe about thereflection?
  63. 63. Sound waves that hit this would allgo to the microphone.
  64. 64. What color light is in themiddle?  
  65. 65. Refraction Waves bend when they pass into a different medium. This happens because the speed of light changes.
  66. 66. Refraction explains how lenses work:
  67. 67. Your eyes have color sensors. Thousands of rods & cones in your eye tell your brain how much red, green and blue light hits your eye.
  68. 68. How do we see colors?
  69. 69. When ALL of the colors of lightcombine… White light is produced.
  70. 70. The Sun gives off "white" light, a mixture of all the colors in the spectrum.The object looks WHITE because an equal mixture of RED, BLUE, and GREENlight is reflected off the object and interpreted by our eyes and brain as WHITE.
  71. 71. You can use a FILTER toabsorb a color of light.
  72. 72. Your TV works using little pixels that look like this:Any color can be made from acombination of these three colors oflight.
  73. 73. When colors of pigment, (or paint)combine:
  74. 74. Colors effect our mood! Red = Stimulating Yellow = Excitement Blue = Calming Which would you eat?
  75. 75. Colorblindness Some people have trouble telling the difference between colors. Their rods and cones do not detect differences.
  76. 76. The last test is the easiest to use. A person with normal color vision will see a “5” in the dot pattern. A person with Red/Green color blindness (the most common) will see a “2” revealed in the dots.
  77. 77. Sometimes your eyes gettired! Your rods & cones get used to what they see and it takes them some time to go back to normal.
  78. 78. Sometimes, your eyes playtricks on you!
  79. 79. Which guy is the tallest?
  80. 80. How many shelves are here?
  81. 81. Are these bricks in straightrows?
  82. 82. Look at the center and movecloser to the screen!
  83. 83. Are the long lines parallel?
  84. 84. Look at the center & move your head.
  85. 85. Are the purple lines parallel?
  86. 86. Curved or straight?
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