Index1.1Energy sources(Uses,Definition and Classification)2.1Electricity2.2Electric power plant(How an electric power plant work)2.3 Transport and distribution of electric energy.3.1Conventional electric power plant.3.2 Nuclear power plant3.3 Fossil fuel thermal power plant(Combined cycle powerplant)3.4 Hydroelectric power plants4.1Non-conventional electric power plants4.2Wind power plants and wind farms4.3Solar power plants(Photo-thermal power plants andphotovoltaic power plant)4.4Georthermal power plants4.5Biomass thermal power plants4.6Ocean power plants5.1 Environmental impacts assesment5.2(Extraction of natural resources, fuel transport,Electricitygeneration and final energy use).6.Investigation of wind turbine.
Energy Sources: -Are natural resources from which we obtain different forms of energythat can be transformed for a specific use. -The energy we consume has many different uses, for example: Household energy and Industrial energy
Examples of uses of energy sourcesHousehold uses: The operating of electrical appliances, heating systems, hot water systems, heats for cooking and for means of transport.
Industrial energy: The operating of factories and companies, construction, agriculture and so on.
We can classify energy sources in several ways:By availability in nature and capacity for regeneration: Renewable or Non- Renewable.RENEWABLE: Abundant and inexhaustive for example: Trees, the sun, water, the wind...NON-RENEWABLE: May or may not be abundant,depleted when we used them up, cannot be renewed in a short period of time. For example: Fossil fuels, oil, coal...
By use in each country:CONVENTIONAL: Most commonly usedCONVENTIONAL in industrialized countries, for example: energy that comes from fossil fuels.NON CONVENTIONAL: Alternative energy source, In early stages of the technological development, solar and wind power belong to this group.
By enviromental impact:Clean or non polluting: Low enviromental impact, do not generate by-products that pollute the enviroment.Pollutants: Sources that have negative effects on the enviroment, for example: they might generate by-products that severely pollute the enviroment. enviroment
By origin:Primary: The energy is obtained directly from nature, examples: crude oil, natural gas ,coal, nuclear energy and renewable energiesSecondary: Resulting from transformation ofSecondary primary sources, examples: electricity and some petroleum derivatives
ElectricityIts the most widely used form of energy in inductrialised societies for two reasons:-It can be easily transformed into other forms of energy.-It can be transported easily long distancesHumans have an intimate relationship with electricity, to the point that its virtually impossible to separate your life from it.
Even at the loneliest corners of the world, electricity exists. If its not lighting up the storm clouds overhead or crackling in a static spark at your fingertips, then its moving through the human nervous system, animating the brains will in every flourish, breath and unthinking heartbeat.
How and electric power plant works.1.)Some fuel source, such as coal, oil, naturalgas, or nuclear energy produces heat.2.)The heat is used to boil water to create steam.3)The steam under high pressure is used to spina turbine.4.)The spinning turbine interacts with a systemof magnets to produce electricity.5.)The electricity is transmitted as movingelectrons through a series of wires to homes andbusiness.
Transport and distribution of electric energy. Electric power plants are usually located far away from the points where the energy is used for safety reasons. Electricity cant be stored so it have to be transported to consumption centres. This transport involves several processes:1) Incrising the voltage to 220.000V or 4000.000V to prevent significant energy loss.2)Transporting it by high voltage cables attached to towers3)Decreaing the voltage at the electricity substations to 3-30 kV.4)Distribution reducing the voltage to 230-400V
Nuclear power plantsThis type of plant includes a nuclear fission reactor that produces the pressurised steam needed to move the turbine motor. Uranium is the main fuel used. Electricity is created by the uranium fission …
Fossil fuel thermal power plantsAt this type of power plant water is eated in a boiler by the heat generated from the combustion of a fossil fuel, usually natural gas or oil .The steam that is generated moves the turbine connected to the generator
Combined cycle of thermal power plantsElectricity is generated as a result of two combined cycles:During the fist cycle gas turbine is used, including a compressor(Machine used to increase or decrease the pressure of a gas)The combustion gases are transported to a boiler where they transfer the energy to the water during the second cycle.
Hydroelectric power plantsThis type of power plant uses the potentialenergy provovided by the height of thestore water in a dam, converting it intokinetic energy. This energy moves theblades of the turbine. Depending on thedestination of the water it can be dividedinto two types:Gravity or pump.
Gravity-driven hydraulic power plantsWater used follows the course of a river and will not be reused.
Pump-driven hydraulic power plants Water descends into a reservoir located at lower height, then pumped to a higher reservoir to reuse it.
Sizes of hydroelectric power plantsLarge powerplantsSmall powerplantsMicro-powerplants
Types of non-conventional energy power plants. Wind power plants. Solar power plants: Photo-thermal power plants and Photovoltaic power plants. Geothermal power plants. Biomass thermal power plants. Ocean power plants.
Wind Power Plants These power plants use the kinetic energy of the wind to move the blades of a rotor at the top of a tower; know as the wind turbine. Wind power plants are a clean form of generating electricity. However, they can only be installed in places with appropiate wind conditions.
ADVANTAGES 1 . W in d is R e n e w a b le a n d fre e o f c o s t 2 . P o llu tio n fre e 3 . C a n b e i n s t a l l e d i n r e m o t e v i l la g e s , t h u s r e d u c i n g c o s t l y t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e sD IS A D V A N T A G E S 1 . C a p ita l c o s t is v e ry h ig h 2 . L a rg e a re a o f la n d is re q u ire d 3 . M a in te n a n c e c o s t is v e ry h ig h
Solar Power Plants These plants use the energy from the sun to produce power. There are two main types of installations: Photo-Thermal and Photovoltaic power plants.
Photo-thermal power plants In this type of power plants, the heat generated by solar radiation produces steam that is used to move the rotor in the generator. To do this, they use special mirrors, called heliostats, that reflect sunlight and concentrate it at one point, where it reaches a high temperature.
Renewable source of energy Capital cost is very high Large area of land isPollution free requiredAfter the capital cost, the Large number of solarcost of power generation panels are required Affected by seasons.is quite low.Wide range of applications,powering street lights tosatellites
Geothermal Power Plants These plants use the heat found at deep levels in the earth. This heat may reach the surface in the form of steam, gases or hot water. Geothermal energy may be used directly (for hot water and heating industrial use and so on) and indirectly (the heat generates steam, which produces electricity)
Biomass Thermal Power Plants Biomass consists of all organic compounds that are produced through natural processes. They may come from the following sources:Forestry and agricultural waste .Specific crops, such as sunflowers and sugar beet.Waste from agri-food industries. Biomass is subjected to different physycal and chemical processes in order to produce fuel such as characoal, alcohol or biogas.
Ocean Power Plants These type of power plants use the energy from the seas and the oceans, they use three types of energy from the sea: The mechanical energy from the tides. The mechanical energy from the waves. The energy from the oceans thermal gradient. gradient
Enviromental ImpactThe building and operating ofan electrical power plant resultsin an ecological change in thatregion. This is due to theconstruction of the necessaryinfrastructure and the waste thatthis activity generates
Enviromental impact assessementAn environmental impact assessment are the possible positive or negative impact that a proposed project may have on the environment.The main characteristics of each type of power plant and the impact that they have on the enviroment are shown in the next slide:
Types of enviromental impact Extraction of natural resources. Fuel transport. Electricity generation. Final energy source.
Extraction of natural resources The explotation of fossil fuels and nuclear power means the depletion of resources, which makes it necessary to find new ones. Fuel extraction processes are sometimes harmful to the enviroment. In particular, timber (wood processed from trees harvested from forests) extraction has led to the disappearance of large areas of forests, a process that is continuing even today.
Fuel transport Oil is transported by means of oil pipelines and oil tankers . Oil pipelines can suffer accidents caused by nature or human error, which result in uncontrolled spills. Oil tankers can suffer accidents at sea, with the risk of oil spills. Some spills have caused oil slicks (a film of crude oil leaked from ships which floats on top of sea water) that have taken years to clean up and dissipate, and have affected the lives of many plants and animals species.
Electricity generation Large hidroelectric power plants require water reservoirs convering large areas, which profundly change the natural cycle of rivers, flood (area of land covered by water) large land areas and destroy ecosystems, in addition to increaing the risk of accidents.
Electricity generation Conventional thermal power plants:-They produce air pollution .-They emit large amount of CO2, which increases the greenhouse effect.-They emit sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide that cause acid rain.-The water used in the cooling system is returned to the enviroment while its still warm, which can affect both animal and plant life
Electricity generation Nuclear thermal power plants are accompained by the risk of nuclear accidents and the problem of nuclear waste, some of which, remain dangerous for thousand of years.
Final energy use The fuels we use in vehicles and heating systems emit gases and particles similar to those generated by conventional thermal power plants. When we turn on an electric appliance, we are consuming energy that has already caused several enviromental prolems during its extraction, generation and transportation.
Brief comment about wind turbines that create water from the air. After we read the article we have realised that is a very innovative idea that will be very useful for arid countries where there arent any posibilities of finding potable water. Its a very good idea because it wont cause any pollution although large extension of land will be required. We think that all of this water produced in the future will reach places where many adults, children and old people die because of deshidratation so we hope that its the beginning of a huge change in our world.