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Blake Lapthorn green breakfast Beyond food miles

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    Blake Lapthorn green breakfast Beyond food miles Blake Lapthorn green breakfast Beyond food miles Presentation Transcript

    • Beyond food milesRichard Sheane, Senior Consultant Best Foot Forward richard@bestfootforward.com @richardsheane
    • Presentation overview• Introducing BFF• The UK’s food system• The definition of a sustainable food/diet• Food miles• Beyond food miles: ‘foodprinting’ examples
    • About me• Richard Sheane• Biochemistry/environmental technology• Previous work in agri-environment sector (FWAG)• At BFF for 3 years• Advisor to Carbon Trust, Scot Gov & WRI• Footprints of lager, growing media, bottled water,dairy, bioplastics, lettuce, beef
    • Best Foot Forward • Sustainability consultants • Environmental accounting • Oxford-based • Core staff = 20 • Established 1997 • 1000+ analyses • Queen’s Award, ACCA, Biffaward …
    • The UK food system
    • Globalisation of food system … since 1960 • Increase in food trade • Concentration - fewer, larger suppliers & sellers • Major changes in delivery patterns – RDCs • Out of town supermarkets – car journeysSource: The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development (2005) Defra
    • What do we eat? (by Energy intake) EuropeSource: The Validity ofFood Miles as anIndicator of SustainableDevelopment (2005)Defra
    • Where does our food come from? EuropeSource:Agriculture inthe UnitedKingdom,Defra(2010) Europe = c. 90% self-sufficient
    • Self-sufficiency (by value) • Beef – BSE, 30+mths scheme • Pork – Currency, disease • Dairy (butter, cheese) - Source: Currency Agriculture in the United Kingdom, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2010)
    • Food sustainability
    • What is a sustainable food system?• Complex! Many tensions & synergies• Attributes of a sustainable food system include: Resource efficient: Water; land; energy; phosphate Low levels of pollution: GHGs; nitrates, etc Wildlife-friendly High standards of animal welfare Fairly traded & support communities (economic, social) Nutritious, safe, affordable Diverse & traditional • Does it matter where it comes from if these satisfied?
    • What effects the env. footprint of diet? • Farming system • Location of production • Distribution energy & emissions (‘food miles’) • Packaging • Home chilling & cooking • Over consumption • Mix of food types • Waste – home & supply chain
    • GHG footprint of UK consumption Source: Food Climate research Network “Cooking up a storm - Food, greenhouse gas emissions and our changing climate” (2008)
    • Environmental hotspots depend on food type & what you’re measuringMeat; Bread Beer; Ice cream; US berries BakedDairy bottled frozen potato; water peas pasta; tea; coffee Adapted from: Presentation by Tara Garnett, FCRN (2007)
    • Food miles
    • Food transport – ‘Food miles’‘The distance food travels from the farm to consumer’ • 25% of HGV v-km in UK • 19 mtCO2 • 10 mtCO2 in UK 2% of UK emissionsSource: The Validity of FoodMiles as an Indicator ofSustainable Development (2005)Defra
    • Carbon intensity of freight … per tonne-km Source: Defra GHG Reporting Guidelines (2010)
    • Freight vs. consumer car useSource: BFF calculation based on Defra GHG emissions factors
    • Breakeven point – Claret vs. Napa!Source: Red, white and “green”: the cost of carbon in the global winetrade. American Association of Wine Economists (2007)
    • French vs. Chilean wine … Source: BFF (2010)
    • Seasonality is just as important- British vs. SA Apples Seasonality not picked up by ‘carbon labels’ Derived from: Milà i Canals et al. ‘Comparing Domestic versus Imported Apples: A Focus on Energy Use’. Env Sci Pollut Res 14 (5) 338 – 344 (2007) Blanke, Food (miles) for Thought - Energy Balance for Locally-grown versus Imported Apple Fruit. Environ Sci & Pollut Res 12 (3) 125 – 127 (2005)
    • What’s happening in August? Lesson: local alone is not good indicator of environmental impact Answer: Don’t eat apples in August! (unless they’re early varieties!
    • Beyond food miles Some footprinting examples and thoughts
    • How local is local? Oil Nitrogen fertilizers Packaging Livestock feed Phosphorous
    • Super dairy, Lincolnshire• Animal welfare vs. environmental impact 3,770 cows (UK average 113!) All year housed 33% lower GHGs per litre (compared to EU average) Anaerobic digester – 820 homes Export manures to displace synthetic fertilizers This ‘local’ to Lincolnshire (!) … Source: http://noctondairies.co.uk/
    • Are ready mealsunsustainable?Resource efficiency vs. nutrition • Less waste – and sent for use (e.g. animal feed) • No packaging for individual ingredients • Use non-prime animal parts • More efficient ovens • Only transport what is eaten • Footprint studies show little env. difference LCA example: ‘Industrial Processing versus Home Cooking: An Environmental Comparison between Three Ways to Prepare a Meal’. Ambio Vol. 34, No. 4–5, June 2005
    • What about allotment production? Doesn’t capture other benefits: • Exercise • Freshness Source: Claire Carter (2010) Global Warming Potential of produce grown on an allotment using a life cycle assessment approach. MSc Thesis
    • Packaging: bottled water 0.5kg glass bottle 130km transport Source: BFF study (2009)
    • Scottish dairy sectorSource: DairyCo.Milk utilisationstatistics forScotland
    • Emissions hot spot map (ktCO2e) Life cycle Yoghur Ice Emission source Milk Cheese Butter Cream Total stage t cream Milk Enteric fermentation 284 250 32 27 02 03 598 production Manure storage 136 119 15 13 01 02 285 Livestock feed 214 188 24 20 01 02 450 Parlour energy 24 21 03 02 00 00 51 Other inputs 05 04 01 00 00 00 10 Milk freight 03 01 00 00 00 00 04 Dairy Packaging 35 15 01 06 01 01 59 processing Energy 53 11 01 00 01 02 67 Other sources 04 02 00 00 00 00 07 Distribution Transport 13 02 00 00 00 00 16 Retail 23 33 10 12 02 04 83 Consumer Chilling 07 04 01 01 00 01 13 Food waste 00 01 00 00 00 00 01 Total All sources 806 657 89 82 8 16 1,657Source: BFF study (2010) 3% of Scotland’s emissions (in line with FAO)
    • Soya impact of dairy• Major sustainability risk in livestock sector• High on agenda: NGOs, customers Sustainable Livestock Bill Forest Disclosure Project• LUC increases GHGs of soya by 30x (per kg)• Scottish dairy farms: 5% of farm emissions from soya LUC ca. 73,000tCO2e/year Source: BFF study (2010)
    • Whey – an undervalued product• Pollution issue Sea, sewers• Little data on fate of whey• 0.5mt whey liquid/yr = 13% of raw milk DM!! ca. 8,000 tonnes of crude protein• Major GHG ‘investment’• Displace production of crops e.g. soya Dairy soya CP 10,000 tonnes• Avoid impacts of disposal Source: BFF study (2010)
    • Comparative advantage• Most footprint studies in ‘developed’ world• Very little data elsewhere• Emerging data shows W Europe is eco-efficient
    • Comparative advantage: emissions Function of: • Feed quality • Climate • Breed • Milk yield Source: DairyCo - World Cows Milk Production
    • Comparative advantage: water footprints Global max Global min Hoekstra, A.Y. and Chapagain, A.K. (2008) Globalization of water: Sharing the planets freshwater resources, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
    • Summary• ‘Food miles’ raised awareness of food env. impact• But studies show distribution is often not hotspot• Especially across broader measures than energy/GHGs• Opportunities exist elsewhere for larger, easier mitigation• Underlines importance of life cycle thinking