Carbon Capture and Storage breakfast seminar


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Tony Booer, Director of Schlumberger Carbon Services speaks at Blake Lapthorn's Green Breakfast on Carbon Capture and Storage

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Carbon Capture and Storage breakfast seminar

  1. 1. What is Carbon Capture and Storage ? Dr AK (Tony) Booer, Schlumberger Carbon Services, Abingdon, UK April 14, 2010
  2. 2. The problem… Schlumberger Public 30-Oct-2006
  3. 3. Where do the GHG1 emissions come from ? Schlumberger Public 1 GHG = Greenhouse Gas
  4. 4. Achieving Global GHG Stabilisation Requires a Technology Revolution ENERGY 70 CCS industry TECHNOLOGY CO2 emissions (Gt CO2/yr) and transformation 9% PERSPECTIVES 60 CCS power generation 10% 50 Nuclear 6% Renewables 21% Scenarios & 40 Power generation efficiency Strategies & fuel switching 7% to 2050 30 End-use fuel switching 11% End use electricity 20 efficiency 12% 10 End use fuel WEO2007 450 ppm case ETP2008 BLUE Map scenario efficiency 24% 0 2005 2050 In support of the G8 Plan of Action
  5. 5. CCS : CO2 Capture,and Storage and Storage Capture TRANSPORT Capture Power Plants Other industrial processes Schlumberger Public Associated Gas production Transport Pipelines Ships Geological Storage Depleted oil/gas reservoirs Deep saline formations
  6. 6. Carbon Capture & Storage What are the issues ? Public Technology: Schlumberger Public Awareness: ...we have Climate, enough to Energy, CCS, start NGOs, NUMBY… Projects: Financial: Europe, Regulatory Carbon Price, Australia, Framework: Incentives, America… International, Funding… National, …
  7. 7. Capture Options Post Combustion: ~15% CO2 Air CO2 Fuel Combustion Separator >95% CO2 Schlumberger Public Oxyfuel: O2 Fuel Combustion >90% CO2 Pre Combustion: ~99% CO2 H2 O Fuel (gas) Reformer Combustion H2 O eg. CH4 H2
  8. 8. Transport options Pipelines: ● Permanent infrastructure Schlumberger Public ● Short to medium distance Shipping: ● Flexible option ● Medium to long distance Tanker image courtesy of IM Skaugen
  9. 9. Storage Options Stored in geological formations: ● Depleted oil or gas fields Depth: ● Deep saline formations 1,500 – 3,000m Schlumberger Public 5,000 – 10,000ft TWO KEY POINTS: Storage sites are NOT huge caverns… …but „solid rocks‟ like a sponge. Secondary CO2 is NOT a gas, at depth, seals but like a dense liquid. Primary seals „Enhanced Oil Recovery‟ is NOT the same as storage. Storage reservoir
  10. 10. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery versus Storage Enhanced Oil Recovery Storage ● CO2 rate depends on ● CO2 rate determined by source production strategy ● CO2 stored ● CO2 recycled ● Legislation under new CO2 regime Schlumberger Public ● Legislation under ● Long-term monitoring petroleum industry ● High public awareness ● No Monitoring ● Revenue from price of carbon ● Revenue from hydrocarbon Significant experience in CO2 pipelines and injection wells gained from US EOR activities in the last 30+ years.
  11. 11. Storage mechanisms & containment Storage sites evolve over time... ● Structural & stratigraphic trapping ● Residual – in pore space Schlumberger Public ● Solubility – in water ● Mineralisation – “turned to stone” Oil/gas fields demonstrate storage times of millions of years. Natural accumulations of CO2 have been safely stored for millions of years. from IPCC, 2005
  12. 12. Finding the right Storage Site What do we need? Other: Injectivity: • Environment The ease with • Infrastructure Schlumberger Public which the CO2 • Regulation can be injected • Public opinion • Finance Capacity: Containment: The amount of The ability to CO2 that can store CO2 be safely safely and stored permanently …the best risk reduction approach is to choose the right site in the first place
  13. 13. CCS is ready to go (on an industrial scale …) In Salah each Sahara desert, ~1 M-tonne Algeria of CO2 per year Weyburn Schlumberger Public Canada, at end Sleipner of 200km Norwegian pipeline North Sea Remote regions have fewer public awareness issues CO2 can be Carbon transported taxes long distances work! by pipeline Courtesy of IEA Weyburn CO2 Storage and Monitoring Project , BP, Sonatrach, and Statoil 13
  14. 14. 80 companies saying they‟re ready to help do CCS Schlumberger Public
  15. 15. For Q&A session Schlumberger Public Additional slides 15
  16. 16. Examples of natural CO2 leaks ... ...not the end of the world Schlumberger Public Collage of leaks courtesy Stuart Haszeldine, U of Edinburgh
  17. 17. Lake Nyos ● Lake Nyos, Cameroon -- Lake Nyos is one of about thirty similar crater lakes in This was a natural disaster – western Cameroon. not the result of a poorly managed storage site Schlumberger Public ● On August 21, 1986, Lake Nyos released a massive cloud of CO2 gas that overwhelmed Nyos village and adjacent settlements. ● The gas cloud asphyxiated 1,742 people and thousands of cattle and birds. ● The CO2 eruption brought up iron-rich bottom waters which were oxidized to give the lake waters a red-brown color. Photo courtesy J. P. Lockwood, USGS.
  18. 18. Degassing Lake Nyos… Schlumberger Public CO2 Water Jet, Lake Nyos, Cameroon – remediation at work.
  19. 19. Not just a gas: CO2 – density and volume as a function of depth “Supercritical” CO2 As dense as a Schlumberger Public liquid… but with the viscosity of a gas. Source: IEA
  20. 20. CO2 Monitoring – 3 objectives Schlumberger Public #3: Monitor the environment Freshwater Well Integrity aquifer Containment #2: Watch possible leakage paths Sealed fault #1: Watch stored CO2 Boundaries CO2 Monitoring Abandoned Monitoring injection well well well well
  21. 21. Finding the right Storage Site Schlumberger Public
  22. 22. Modeling & Measurement to reduce Uncertainty Schlumberger Public