perkembangan dewasa awal dari segi fizikal dan kognitif
Physical And Cognitive
Development In Early
The Transition From Adolescence To
Referred as Emerging Adulthood – the transition from
adolescence to adulthood occurring from approximately 18
to 25 years of age, which is characterized by
experimentation and exploration.
Key features (Jeffrey Arnett 2006) :
Identity exploration, especially in love and work.
The age of possibilities, a time when individuals have an
opportunity to transform their lives.
Markers of becoming an adult :
In U.S :
- Holding a move or less permanent
- Full time job
- Graduate/profesional school
Taking responsibility for oneself
In Developing Countries such India -> marriage.
The Transition From High School To College
- Student are more likely to
feel grown up
- More time to spend with
- Explore different lifestyle
- Be challenged
intellectually by academic
- Stress ( academic,
1-4 Times 5-8 Times 9 or More
Felt things were
hopeless 39 11 13
with all I had to
32 25 36
exhausted 32 24 35
Felt so depressed
it was difficult
18 7 10
8 1 1
suicide 1.2 0.2 0.2
Figure 13.1 college students’ mental health difficulties in the
Physical Performance and Development
Average peak physical performance is between ages 19 and
26 (under 30), and this includes athletes.
Usually during this time people are healthiest.
Emerging adulthood is not healthy as they seem
Have more than twice the mortality rate of adolescence
Inactivity, diet, obesity, substance abuse, ate more fast food
and less fruits/vegetables.
Main reasons that health experts want people to exercise is
to prevent chronic disorder - heart disease and diabetes.
Recommend that young adults engage in 30 minutes or
more aerobic exercise – jogging, swimming, or cycling.
Good for physical and mental health.
Sexual activity in emerging adulthood
o Patterns of heterosexual behavior males & females
Males have more casual sexual partners & females report being
more selective about their sexual partners
60% have had sexual intercourse with only 1 individual in past
25% having sexual intercourse only a couple of times a rear or
not at all
Casual sex is more common in emerging adulthood than in
Sexual orientation and behavior
o Heterosexual attitudes and behavior
Americans tend to fall into 3 categories – 1/3 have sex twice a
week or more, 1/3 a few times a month and 1/3 a few times a year
or not at all.
Married (and cohabiting) couples have sex more often than non-
Most Americans do not engage in kinky sexual acts
Adultery is clearly the exception rather than the rule
Men think about sex more often than women do
o Sources of sexual orientation
Sexual orientation is a continuum from exclusive male-female
relations to exclusive same-sex relations.
An individual sexual orientation > same-sex, heterosexual or
bisexual is most likely determined by- genetic, hormonal,
cognitive and environmental factors.
o Attitudes and behavior of lesbians and gays
Many gender differences that appear in heterosexual
relationships also occur in same-sex relationships
Example : heterosexual women, lesbians have fewer sexual
partners than gay men & lesbians have less permissive attitudes
about casual sex outside a primary relationship than gay men do
Sexually transmitted infections
o Diseases that are primarily spread through sexual contact-
intercourse as well as oral-genital & anal-genital sex.
o Affect about 1 in 6 U.S adults
o STIs are bacterial infections such as gonorrhea, syphilis and
o STIs caused by viruses- genital herpes, genital warts and
HIV which can lead to AIDS.
Forcible sexual behavior and sexual harassment
Forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does not give
Most victim are women and often reluctant to report the
Rape of men does occur – men in prisons are especially
vulnerable to rape, usually by heterosexual males who use rape as
a means of establishing their dominance & power.
Males are socialized to be sexually aggressive, to regard women
as inferior beings & to view their own pleasure.
Date or acquaintance rape – coercive sexual activity directed at
someone whit whom the perpetrator is at least casually
o Sexual harassment
Manifestation of power of one person over another.
Takes many forms – ranging from inappropriate sexual remarks
and physical contact (patting, brushing against another person’s
body) to blatant propositions and sexual assaults.
62% reported having experienced sexual harassment while
attending college – involved noncontact forms such as crude
jokes, remarks and gestures.
- Piaget’s view: Adolescent
and an adult think
qualitatively in the same
- Post formal stage:
realistic and influence by
- peaks in adulthood and
then decline, often occur
Finding a path
The impact of
Diversity in the
Stability and Change From Childhood To
o Is an individual’s behavior style
and characteristic emotional
o Temperament-childhood ,
o Types and dimensions-childhood
with characteristic of adult
- Easy and difficult temperaments
- Ability to control one’s emotion
o Romantic partner fulfill some of the
same needs for adults as parents
do for children.
o Adults may count on their romantic
partner to be a secure base.
o 3 styles of Attachment :
i. Secure attachment styles
ii. Avoidant attachment styles
iii. Anxious attachment styles
Familiarity and Similarity Physical Attractiveness
Necessary for close relationship.
Friends or lover have similar
attitudes, values, lifestyles and
Opposite characteristic may
Example: an introvert may wish
to be with an extrovert or
someone with little money may
wish to associate with someone
who is wealthy.
Consensual validation > our
own attitudes and values are
supported when someone else
are similar to ours.
Link between physical
beauty-attractions can differ :
Standard of what is attraction
change over time and across
Matching hypothesis – we
choose partner who match
our own level of
Women and men have a
different-seeking an intimate
The Faces of Love
- Self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts .
- Erikson’s stage: intimacy versus isolation
• Enter the sixth developmental stage when they are well on their
way to establishing stable & successful identities.
• Describes intimacy as finding oneself while losing oneself in
another person & it requires commitment to another person.
• If a person fail to develop an intimate relationship in early
adulthood, isolation results
- Intimacy and Independence
• Balancing intimacy and commitment , independence and
- plays an important role in development through the human life
- adulthood brings opportunities for new friendships.
- Gender Differences in Friendships
• Women more close friends & their friendship involve more self-
disclosure & exchange of mutual support.
• Women share many aspects -> experiences, thoughts, & feelings
• Men friendships are more to engage in activities especially
• Men find solution of their problems rather than sympathy and
more competitive than women.
- Friendships between women and men
• Cross-gender friendships are more common among adults than
children but less common than same gender friendship in
• Cross-gender friendship provide both opportunities & problems.
• Opportunities -> learning more about common feelings, interest
and shared characteristic, knowledge and understanding other
• Problems -> because of different expectations . 1 problem that
can plague an adult is unclear sexual boundaries – tension and
o Romantic love
- Also known as passionate love or eros
- Has strong components of sexuality & infatuation.
- A complex intermingling of different emotions goes into romantic love ->
passion, fear, anger, sexual desire, joy and jealousy.
- Ellen Berscheid says that sexual desire is the most important ingredient of
o Affectionate love
- Also called companionate love .
- Love that occurs when someone desires to have the other person near &
has a deep, caring affection for the person.
o Consummate love
- Steinberg’s triarchic theory of love
• Love can be thought of as triangle with 3 dimensions :
• Passion -> physical & sexual attraction to another
• Intimacy -> emotional feelings of warmth, closeness and sharing in
• Commitment -> cognitive appraisal & intent to maintain relationship .
Falling Out Love
The collapse of a close relationship may feel tragic.
Ending a relationship may be wise if :
betray you repeatedly
Draining you emotionally or financially or both
You are desperately in love with someone who does
not return your feelings .
Depression, obsessive thoughts, sexual dysfunction,
health problems, inability to work effectively, difficulty
in making new friends and self condemnation.
Gay and Lesbian Adults
The benefits a good
Marriage and the
Becoming a parent
7 main principles :
1) Establish love maps.
2) Nurture fondness and
3) Turn toward each
other instead of away.
4) Let your partner
5) Solve solvable
6) Overcome gridlock.
7) Create shared
Parenting myths and
Trends in childbearing
Women show an
increased interest in
developing a career
Married later and having
6 common pathways in
1) The enhancers.
2) The good-enough's.
3) The seekers.
4) The libertines.
5) The competent loners.
6) The defeated.
Gender, Relationship, and Self-
Gender and communication
• communicating problems between women and men may
come in part from differences in their preferred ways of
• Tannen distinguishes two ways of communicating:
- Rapport talk
- Report talk
• Tanner’s analysis-rapport talk : women place a high value
on relationship and focus on nurturing their connection
with others .
• Miller- researchers examine what women have been in life,
a large part of it is active participation in the development
• Male roles are contradictory and inconsistent.
• men not only experience stress when they violate men’s
roles , they also are harmed when they act in accord with
• Areas where men’s roles can cause considerable strain:
1) Health - men die 5 years younger than woman.
- higher rates of stress-related disorders,
alcoholism, car accident and suicide.
1) Male-female relationships
2) Male-male relationships
Ron Levant- suggest that every man should :
Reexamine his beliefs about manhood
Separate out the valuable aspects of the male role
Get rid of those part of the masculine role that are