perkembangan dewasa awal dari segi fizikal dan kognitif


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perkembangan dewasa awal dari segi fizikal dan kognitif

  1. 1. Physical And Cognitive Development In Early Adulthood Johari Raja Stephanie Emyliana
  2. 2. The Transition From Adolescence To Adulthood  Referred as Emerging Adulthood – the transition from adolescence to adulthood occurring from approximately 18 to 25 years of age, which is characterized by experimentation and exploration.  Key features (Jeffrey Arnett 2006) : Identity exploration, especially in love and work. Instability Self-focused Feeling in-between The age of possibilities, a time when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives.
  3. 3. Markers of becoming an adult :  In U.S : - Holding a move or less permanent - Full time job - Graduate/profesional school  Economic independence  Taking responsibility for oneself  In Developing Countries such India -> marriage.
  4. 4. The Transition From High School To College  Positive Aspect - Student are more likely to feel grown up - More time to spend with peers - Explore different lifestyle and values - Be challenged intellectually by academic work  Negative Aspect - Stress ( academic, personal, economic, emotional situation) - Depressed
  5. 5. Mental Health Difficulty 1-4 Times 5-8 Times 9 or More Times Felt things were hopeless 39 11 13 Felt overwhelmed with all I had to do 32 25 36 Felt mentally exhausted 32 24 35 Felt so depressed it was difficult function 18 7 10 Seriously contemplated suicide 8 1 1 Attempted suicide 1.2 0.2 0.2 Figure 13.1 college students’ mental health difficulties in the past year.
  6. 6. Physical Development Physical Performance and Development  Average peak physical performance is between ages 19 and 26 (under 30), and this includes athletes.  Usually during this time people are healthiest.
  7. 7. Health  Emerging adulthood is not healthy as they seem  Have more than twice the mortality rate of adolescence  Inactivity, diet, obesity, substance abuse, ate more fast food and less fruits/vegetables.
  8. 8. Eating And Weight obesity Heredity Leptin Set Point Environmental Factors Dieting
  9. 9. Regular Exercise  Main reasons that health experts want people to exercise is to prevent chronic disorder - heart disease and diabetes.  Recommend that young adults engage in 30 minutes or more aerobic exercise – jogging, swimming, or cycling.  Good for physical and mental health.
  10. 10. Substance Abuse Alcohol Binge Drinking Alcoholism Cigarette Smoking And Nicotine
  11. 11. Sexuality  Sexual activity in emerging adulthood o Patterns of heterosexual behavior males & females include (Lefkowitz&Gillen,2006):  Males have more casual sexual partners & females report being more selective about their sexual partners  60% have had sexual intercourse with only 1 individual in past year  25% having sexual intercourse only a couple of times a rear or not at all  Casual sex is more common in emerging adulthood than in young adulthood
  12. 12.  Sexual orientation and behavior o Heterosexual attitudes and behavior  Americans tend to fall into 3 categories – 1/3 have sex twice a week or more, 1/3 a few times a month and 1/3 a few times a year or not at all.  Married (and cohabiting) couples have sex more often than non- cohabiting couples  Most Americans do not engage in kinky sexual acts  Adultery is clearly the exception rather than the rule  Men think about sex more often than women do o Sources of sexual orientation  Sexual orientation is a continuum from exclusive male-female relations to exclusive same-sex relations.
  13. 13.  An individual sexual orientation > same-sex, heterosexual or bisexual is most likely determined by- genetic, hormonal, cognitive and environmental factors. o Attitudes and behavior of lesbians and gays  Many gender differences that appear in heterosexual relationships also occur in same-sex relationships  Example : heterosexual women, lesbians have fewer sexual partners than gay men & lesbians have less permissive attitudes about casual sex outside a primary relationship than gay men do  Sexually transmitted infections o Diseases that are primarily spread through sexual contact- intercourse as well as oral-genital & anal-genital sex.
  14. 14. o Affect about 1 in 6 U.S adults o STIs are bacterial infections such as gonorrhea, syphilis and Chlamydia o STIs caused by viruses- genital herpes, genital warts and HIV which can lead to AIDS.
  15. 15.  Forcible sexual behavior and sexual harassment o Rape  Forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does not give consent.  Most victim are women and often reluctant to report the incident  Rape of men does occur – men in prisons are especially vulnerable to rape, usually by heterosexual males who use rape as a means of establishing their dominance & power.  Males are socialized to be sexually aggressive, to regard women as inferior beings & to view their own pleasure.  Date or acquaintance rape – coercive sexual activity directed at someone whit whom the perpetrator is at least casually acquainted.
  16. 16. o Sexual harassment  Manifestation of power of one person over another.  Takes many forms – ranging from inappropriate sexual remarks and physical contact (patting, brushing against another person’s body) to blatant propositions and sexual assaults.  62% reported having experienced sexual harassment while attending college – involved noncontact forms such as crude jokes, remarks and gestures.
  17. 17. Cognitive Development  Cognitive Stages - Piaget’s view: Adolescent and an adult think qualitatively in the same way. - Post formal stage: reflective, relativistic, contextual, provisional, realistic and influence by emotion.  Creativity - peaks in adulthood and then decline, often occur in forties.
  18. 18. Careers and work Development changes Finding a path to purpose Monitoring the occupational outlook The impact of work Diversity in the workplace Unemployment Dual-earner couples
  19. 19. Socioemotional Development In Early Adulthood
  20. 20. Stability and Change From Childhood To Adulthood Temperament o Is an individual’s behavior style and characteristic emotional responses o Temperament-childhood , Personality- adulthood. o Types and dimensions-childhood with characteristic of adult personality: - Easy and difficult temperaments - Inhibition - Ability to control one’s emotion Attachment o Romantic partner fulfill some of the same needs for adults as parents do for children. o Adults may count on their romantic partner to be a secure base. o 3 styles of Attachment : i. Secure attachment styles ii. Avoidant attachment styles iii. Anxious attachment styles
  21. 21. Attraction Familiarity and Similarity Physical Attractiveness  Necessary for close relationship.  Friends or lover have similar attitudes, values, lifestyles and physical attractiveness.  Opposite characteristic may attract.  Example: an introvert may wish to be with an extrovert or someone with little money may wish to associate with someone who is wealthy.  Consensual validation > our own attitudes and values are supported when someone else are similar to ours.  Link between physical beauty-attractions can differ :  Standard of what is attraction change over time and across culture.  Matching hypothesis – we choose partner who match our own level of attractiveness.  Women and men have a different-seeking an intimate partner.
  22. 22. The Faces of Love o Intimacy - Self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts . - Erikson’s stage: intimacy versus isolation • Enter the sixth developmental stage when they are well on their way to establishing stable & successful identities. • Describes intimacy as finding oneself while losing oneself in another person & it requires commitment to another person. • If a person fail to develop an intimate relationship in early adulthood, isolation results - Intimacy and Independence • Balancing intimacy and commitment , independence and freedom.
  23. 23. o Friendship - plays an important role in development through the human life span. - adulthood brings opportunities for new friendships. - Gender Differences in Friendships • Women more close friends & their friendship involve more self- disclosure & exchange of mutual support. • Women share many aspects -> experiences, thoughts, & feelings • Men friendships are more to engage in activities especially outdoors • Men find solution of their problems rather than sympathy and more competitive than women.
  24. 24. - Friendships between women and men • Cross-gender friendships are more common among adults than children but less common than same gender friendship in adulthood. • Cross-gender friendship provide both opportunities & problems. • Opportunities -> learning more about common feelings, interest and shared characteristic, knowledge and understanding other gender. • Problems -> because of different expectations . 1 problem that can plague an adult is unclear sexual boundaries – tension and confusion. o Romantic love - Also known as passionate love or eros - Has strong components of sexuality & infatuation.
  25. 25. - A complex intermingling of different emotions goes into romantic love -> passion, fear, anger, sexual desire, joy and jealousy. - Ellen Berscheid says that sexual desire is the most important ingredient of romantic love. o Affectionate love - Also called companionate love . - Love that occurs when someone desires to have the other person near & has a deep, caring affection for the person. o Consummate love - Steinberg’s triarchic theory of love • Love can be thought of as triangle with 3 dimensions : • Passion -> physical & sexual attraction to another • Intimacy -> emotional feelings of warmth, closeness and sharing in relationship • Commitment -> cognitive appraisal & intent to maintain relationship .
  26. 26. Falling Out Love  The collapse of a close relationship may feel tragic.  Ending a relationship may be wise if : betray you repeatedly Draining you emotionally or financially or both  You are desperately in love with someone who does not return your feelings .  Depression, obsessive thoughts, sexual dysfunction, health problems, inability to work effectively, difficulty in making new friends and self condemnation.
  27. 27. Adult Lifestyles Single Adults Cohabiting Adults Married Adults Divorced Adults Remarried Adults Gay and Lesbian Adults Marital Trends Cross-cultural comparisons Premarital Education The benefits a good married
  28. 28. Marriage and the Family Making marriage work Becoming a parent Dealing with divorce 7 main principles : 1) Establish love maps. 2) Nurture fondness and admiration. 3) Turn toward each other instead of away. 4) Let your partner influence you. 5) Solve solvable conflicts. 6) Overcome gridlock. 7) Create shared meaning.  Parenting myths and reality  Trends in childbearing Women show an increased interest in developing a career Married later and having fewer children 6 common pathways in exiting divorced: 1) The enhancers. 2) The good-enough's. 3) The seekers. 4) The libertines. 5) The competent loners. 6) The defeated.
  29. 29. Gender, Relationship, and Self- Development  Gender and communication • communicating problems between women and men may come in part from differences in their preferred ways of communicating. • Tannen distinguishes two ways of communicating: - Rapport talk - Report talk
  30. 30.  Women’s development • Tanner’s analysis-rapport talk : women place a high value on relationship and focus on nurturing their connection with others . • Miller- researchers examine what women have been in life, a large part of it is active participation in the development of others.  Men’s development • Male roles are contradictory and inconsistent. • men not only experience stress when they violate men’s roles , they also are harmed when they act in accord with men’s roles.
  31. 31. • Areas where men’s roles can cause considerable strain: 1) Health - men die 5 years younger than woman. - higher rates of stress-related disorders, alcoholism, car accident and suicide. 1) Male-female relationships 2) Male-male relationships  Ron Levant- suggest that every man should :  Reexamine his beliefs about manhood  Separate out the valuable aspects of the male role  Get rid of those part of the masculine role that are destructive