2016 powerpoint

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This is the latest power point I use in my workshops.
TPRS Blaine Ray

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2016 powerpoint

  1. 1. Brain RulesBrain Rules CirclingCircling Planning a StoryPlanning a Story Reading and DiscussingReading and Discussing a Storya Story TPRS and GradingTPRS and Grading
  2. 2. Slideshare.net/BlaineraySlideshare.net/Blaineray
  3. 3. Make every minute COUNT!!!
  4. 4. We focus on FLUENCY Fluency andTPRS®Fluency andTPRS®
  5. 5. In order to successfullyIn order to successfully teachteach fluencyfluency the teacher must:the teacher must:  Focus on the details of a storyFocus on the details of a story  NotNot focus on the languagefocus on the language
  6. 6. TPRS® is a method of second- language teaching that uses highly-interactive stories to provide comprehensible input and create a feeling of “I am so getting this.” What is TPRS®?
  7. 7. We do 4 things inTPRSWe do 4 things inTPRS We teach language a sentence at aWe teach language a sentence at a time. If there is breakdown then we :time. If there is breakdown then we : 1.1.Circle (Repetitive questions)Circle (Repetitive questions) 2.2.Add a characterAdd a character
  8. 8. No breakdownNo breakdown We don’t circle.We don’t circle. 1.We add details to our story.1.We add details to our story. 2.We go back and review.2.We go back and review.
  9. 9. Use words students know Speak slowly Key 1: ComprehensibleKey 1: Comprehensible
  10. 10. Repetitive questions Continually start over Add details Multiple locations Multiple characters Verify details with actors and with the class Key 2: RepetitionKey 2: Repetition
  11. 11. BreakdownBreakdown Students need to answer ourStudents need to answer our questions with confidence,questions with confidence, accuracy and no hesitation.Whenaccuracy and no hesitation.When they don’t, we call thatthey don’t, we call that breakdown.breakdown.
  12. 12. Recycle the Story ✓ at any point, stop, go back, and review the story ✓ re-circle the recycled parts ✓ continue story when you get back to where you left off
  13. 13. Surprise details “Playing the game” Personalization Positive exaggeration Key 3: InterestKey 3: Interest
  14. 14. Teach to the Eyes! ✓teach STUDENTS not curriculum ✓look in individual student’s eyes when teaching ✓hold students accountable ✓always check for understanding
  15. 15. Story Retells Have students frequently retell the story to their partners ✓after the story ends ✓have superstar retell story to class ✓Limit the time to two or three minutes
  16. 16. Shelter Vocabulary Limit vocabulary to a few hundred words per year
  17. 17. Don’t shelter grammar Use whatever grammar is necessary to express meaning.
  18. 18. Use lessons each dayUse lessons each day to practice structure.to practice structure. Structure is the keyStructure is the key to fluency.to fluency. Teaching fluency…Teaching fluency…
  19. 19. Data -TeacherData -Teacher
  20. 20. Data -TeacherData -Teacher
  21. 21. Brain Rules
  22. 22. SHORT TERM MEMORY Brain Processing ModelBrain Processing Model E N V I R O N M E N T E N V I R O N M E N T HEARING LONG-TERM STORAGE SMELL SIGHT TOUCH TASTE PERCEPTUAL REGISTER OUT OUT OUT WORKING MEMORY Sousa, David A.. How the Brain Learns. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, 2006.
  23. 23. Rule #1: We don’t pay attention toWe don’t pay attention to boring thingsboring things..
  24. 24. Rule #2: We have 30 seconds to repeatWe have 30 seconds to repeat something before it is forgotten.something before it is forgotten.
  25. 25. Rule #3: Students must pay attentionStudents must pay attention in order to learn.in order to learn. Medina, John. Brain Rules. Seattle: Pear Press, 2008. pp. 76, 79.
  26. 26. How do we get them to pay attention? •“The novel stimuli – the unusual, the unpredictable, or distinctive are powerful ways to harness attention.”
  27. 27. Emotions get our attention.
  28. 28. People usually forget 90% of what they learn in a class within 30 days.
  29. 29. Rule #4 Most of what we learn is visual.Most of what we learn is visual. • Dramatize the story • Props
  30. 30. dramatize the story
  31. 31. ✓ wigs & hats ✓ cardboard cutouts ✓ funny noses ✓ funny glasses ✓ stuffed animals ✓ toys use props
  32. 32. Rule 5: The initial learning is important.
  33. 33. One could increase the life span of a memory simply by repeating the information in timed intervals.
  34. 34. Rule 6: There are two types of memories
  35. 35. 1. Non-declarative1. Non-declarative These are things learned by feel such as riding a bike,These are things learned by feel such as riding a bike, playing the piano, or jumping rope. Theseplaying the piano, or jumping rope. These memories are not in our conscious awareness.memories are not in our conscious awareness. 2. Declarative memories “The shirt is blue” “Jupiter is a planet.”
  36. 36. What we remember after 24 hours… HEAR 5% READ 10% AUDIO-VISUAL 20% DEMONSTRATE 30% DISCUSS 50% DO 75% EXPLAIN / APPLY 90% Sousa, David A.. How the Brain Learns. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, 2006.
  37. 37. Brain RulesBrain Rules CirclingCircling Planning a StoryPlanning a Story Reading and DiscussingReading and Discussing a Storya Story TPRS and GradingTPRS and Grading
  38. 38. Es (it) gab (gave) ein Mädchen There was a girl Sie war She was • Was? What • Wer? Who • Wo? Where
  39. 39. Es gab ein Mädchen There was a girl Sie war She was kein not one oder or und and nicht not • Was? • What? • • Wer? • Who? • Wo? • Where?
  40. 40. Es gab ein Mädchen There was a girl Sie war She was Sie hatte She had kein not one oder or und and nicht not • Was? • What? • • Wer? • Who? • Wo? • Where? • • Warum? • Why • Wie? • How
  41. 41. • Es gab ein Mädchen There was a girl Sie war She was • Sie wollte zwei Nasen haben She wanted to have two noses Sie ist (is) nach (to) …… gegangen She went to (gone) • Sie hatte She had • kein not one mit with oder or und and • Was? • What? • • Wer? • Who? • Wo? • Where? • • Warum? • Why • Wohin? • Where to?
  42. 42. Circling: the heart of TPRS®
  43. 43. Circling 1. Positive statement 2. ? with a yes answer 3. Either/or questions 4. ? with a no answer 5. Restate the negative and restate the positive 6. Who? 7. What? Where? When? How? Why? How much?, etc… 8. Positive statement
  44. 44. Teach a sentence • Past tense to the class. • Present tense to the student actor. • Verify with both the class and the student actor. • Student actor either says the answer or reads it.
  45. 45. _____ era una chica. Soy – I am _____ was a girl. Eres – You are Es - S/he is _____ estaba en _____ Estoy – I am _____ was in _____ Estás – You are Está - s/he is ¿Quién? Who? ¿Qué? What? ¿Dónde? Where?
  46. 46. Step one Add a sentence Elena was a girl. Talk to the class in the past tense. Ask Elena: Are you are girl? Yes, I am a girl. Yes, you are a girl. Class, Elena was a girl.
  47. 47. Step two Add a location You now have two sentences Elena was a girl. She was in Arizona. Talk to the class in the past. Talk to your student actor in the present. Verify what she says and then talk to the class.
  48. 48. Step 3 Add a more specific location. Now you have 3 sentences. Elena was a girl. She was in Arizona. She was in Happy Valley, Arizona.
  49. 49. Step 4 Add another location. Elena was a girl. She was in Arizona. She was in Happy Valley. She was in Panda Express.
  50. 50. Step 5 Add a parallel character. Compare and contrast both characters. Elena was a girl in Happy Valley, Arizona at Panda Express. Susie was a girl in Blaine, Minnesota, at Starbucks. Compare and contrast the two characters. Verify the details with your student actors.
  51. 51. The girl was ________. She wanted a cat. She didn’t have a cat. She went to _______. (Dialogue to show there is no cat. Girl said, Do you have a cat? Boy said, I don’t have a cat.) The girl went to _____________. (Dialogue to show there is a cat. Girl said, Do you have a cat? Boy said, Yes, I have a cat.) The boy gave the girl a cat. The girl was happy.
  52. 52. Había Hay There was There is, are Quería quiero s/he wanted I want quieres - you want Tenía – had tengo I have tienes you have Fue a voy Went to I go vas you go Le dijo Le dio told him/her gave him ¿Quién? Who? ¿Qué? What? ¿Dónde? Where?
  53. 53. Brain RulesBrain Rules CirclingCircling Planning a StoryPlanning a Story Reading and DiscussingReading and Discussing a Storya Story TPRS and GradingTPRS and Grading
  54. 54. Create a TPRS® Lesson Plan
  55. 55. A Story has two parts Background information
  56. 56. Background information Often will set up a story and give information to be used in the story.
  57. 57. Background information (Monday) 1. Names, and places 2. Multiple characters 3. Doesn’t need to pertain to story 4. Practice any word or structure 5. Use for compare and contrast 6. Verify details with actors
  58. 58. Parallel characters are used to compare and contrast. They also make the story last much longer.
  59. 59. Tuesday- day 2 Every story has a problem!
  60. 60. Problem has 3 parts • Introduce the problem by stating someone wants something. • Make an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem. • Resolve the problem.
  61. 61. Variables Every story has variables. Use your variables to create surprise details. Surprise details are what make the stories interesting.
  62. 62. Specificity go from the general to the specific general specific
  63. 63. Problem: A boy wanted a cat. Sentences: ________________________________________ ________________________________________ __ In the first line, list a fact of the story, circle the variable or variables, and list the alternative variables. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ______ Lesson PlanLesson Plan
  64. 64. Start with 2 or 3 structuresStart with 2 or 3 structures  These are the structures you want to practice.  Should be basic, high frequency words.  Always translate the words of these structures.
  65. 65. Problem: A boy wanted a cat. Sentences: There was a boy. He was a boy. . ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________ Lesson PlanLesson Plan
  66. 66. Read the story There was a boy. He didn’t have a cat. He went to Green River, Wyoming. There was a girl. The girl didn’t have a cat. The boy went to Brooklyn. There was a cat in Brooklyn. The boy picked up the cat. He was happy because he had a cat.
  67. 67. Lesson PlanLesson Plan Problem: A boy wanted a cat. Sentences: The boy didn’t have a cat. He went to Wyoming. The boy - What don’t we know about him? Name? Where he lives? How old is he? Favorite music? What is in his bedroom? Who are his friends? Why does he want a bird? Information: Where did he live? (Three levels of specificity) Did he have a cat? Did he have an elephant? What did he have? What did he want? Where did he go? Surprise details: Add proper nouns as a surprise. Kmart or Dollar Tree for locations. Add names and places that are a surprise.
  68. 68. Lesson PlanLesson Plan Problem: A boy wanted a cat. Sentences: The boy went to Wyoming. There was a girl but there wasn’t a cat. Green River, Wyoming - Our character always goes some place. There was a girl there but not a cat. Brooklyn - The boy went to Brooklyn. There was a cat. He picked up the cat.
  69. 69. Brain RulesBrain Rules CirclingCircling Planning a StoryPlanning a Story Reading and DiscussingReading and Discussing a Storya Story TPRS and GradingTPRS and Grading
  70. 70. x. This person will be the most experienced TPRS person in the group. Announce the three procedures. A. Make a statement and have students say, “Ohhhhhhh”. B. Ask a question where they know the answer and have them answer in the target language. C. Ask them a question where they don’t know the answer and have them answer
  71. 71. a. in target language (Spanish because it is a Spanish story b. Proper nouns c. surprise me (If you don’t surprise me, I will surprise you.)
  72. 72. Person number 1– Monday Background information  Background information: Introduce the first character—add details about him/her by asking questions. Name, where s/he was (be as specific as possible – name of state, city, place (proper noun?). Choose a student actor. Verify the details with that actor and with the class.
  73. 73. Person number 2– Monday Background information Review information about the first character by asking questions and then add another character. Add more information about the character. Verify the details with both characters and with the class.
  74. 74. Tuesday Introduce a problem Review the background information by asking questions. Your main focus is on character one. You can add more information about him/her. Add a problem where the character needs or wants something. Verify the details with your student actor and the class.
  75. 75. Tuesday - Unsuccessful attempt to solve the problem Have the character go someplace to make an unsuccessful attempt to solve the problem. Use dialogue. Talk to the class and tell the class what each character says. Create a reason why the actor doesn’t get what he/she wants.
  76. 76. Tuesday - Solve the problem Have the character go to another place and solve the problem. Use dialogue. Talk to the class when adding dialogue. It is your story therefore the actors don’t know what they are going to say. The story is over when the problem is solved.
  77. 77. Brain RulesBrain Rules CirclingCircling Planning a StoryPlanning a Story Reading and DiscussingReading and Discussing a Storya Story TPRS and GradingTPRS and Grading
  78. 78. Wednesday Embedded Reading Start with the first embedded reading. Translate the first embedded reading. Students write in the meaning of any new words.
  79. 79. Embedded reading one Students sit in pairs. These pairs are in groups of 6 or 8. (They sit like in an airplane.) Student one reads the first sentence in the target language. Student two reads that same sentence in English and then reads the second sentence in target language. (Volleyball translation) Students continue reading and translating for 2 or 3 minutes. Students rotate. One side of the students all move up while the student in front goes to the back. Continue until all have read with another partner.
  80. 80. Embedded reading 2 Repeat the same process for the second reading. Students will have a little more time to do the volleyball translation. Continue until students have read with either 3 or 4 partners.
  81. 81. Person number 1– Wednesday Extended reading - Background information Background information: Introduce the first character—add details about him/her.  This person is playing the role of the main character in the extended reading. Add information about the character. Add his/her name, where s/he was (be as specific as possible – name of state, city, place (proper noun?). Choose a student actor. Verify the details with that actor and with the class. Verify the details with that actor and with the class.
  82. 82. Person number 2 Wednesday Extended reading - Background information Add a parallel character. (Usually a student playing himself) Compare the new character to the other character. Add more information about both characters. Verify the details with both characters and with the class.
  83. 83. Person 3 – Extended reading Thursday  Review the details established in the background information. Read the first paragraph. Translate with the class. Ask facts about the paragraph. Add any surprises to the story. Dramatize the extended reading. Add surprises. Verify the details with your student actors.
  84. 84. Person 5 – Extended reading Thursday After you have acted out the extended reading, students are now ready for volleyball translation of the extended reading. Have them go through the entire story now in groups. Give them 3 minutes to read with each partner. If there is time, also do volleyball translation with the extended reading in the past tense.
  85. 85. Brain RulesBrain Rules CirclingCircling Planning a StoryPlanning a Story Reading and DiscussingReading and Discussing a Storya Story TPRS and GradingTPRS and Grading
  86. 86. TPRSTPRS® andand SchoolSchool
  87. 87. A typical TPRS® week
  88. 88. Monday ✓talk about weekend/ PQA practice with new structures ✓Establish background information and add parallel characters with surprise details.
  89. 89. Tuesday ✓ Start over and re- establish the background information from yesterday. ✓ Introduce the problem. ✓ Make an unsuccessful attempt to solve the problem ✓ Solve the problem ✓ If there is time, solve the problem with the parallel character ✓ If there is time, do a partner retell
  90. 90. Wednesday ✓Embedded readings 1 and 2 ✓Add background information to the story ✓Add a student as the parallel character ✓Add background information about the student
  91. 91. Thursday ✓Review the details of the extended reading ✓Add more surprise details to both characters ✓Dramatize the rest of the story ✓Do the embedded reading with the extended reading
  92. 92. Friday ✓Timed writing ✓Read a discuss a novel ✓Add surprise details ✓Add one or more parallel character ✓Read and translate to the end of the chapter. ✓If time, do partner student retells.
  93. 93. TestsTests 1. 50% of nine-weeks grade (40% with reading option) 2. Surprise tests 3. Translation – Target language to English 4. Cumulative throughout the year 5. Test words they know 6. Most students get A’s or B’s on tests 7. If 80% don’t get 80% or higher, retest
  94. 94. Reading Option 1.Make your test grades worth 40% of their nine weeks grade. 2.Earn 10% of the grade by reading. 3.First and second year students read a novel every nine weeks. 4.Third year students read a novel a month. 5.Fourth year students read 2000 words of literature a night.
  95. 95. After 13 days of TPRS one of my 7th graders asked if he could try a TPRS novel. For half an hour he read "Berto y sus buenas ideas" and said that he understood it and knew most of the words. I've never had a student read a novel after 13 days of TPRS in a beginning class. I am blown away and so excited about the rest of my classes starting to read when they are ready. This student is the hook I need in order to motivate the rest. Last year I had a 7th grader who read 10 novels before I shared her success with the rest of the classes. She was the hook for the rest of the students (over a 100!) who ended up reading novels in their own time.
  96. 96. Non-Test GradesNon-Test Grades (quizzes and homework)(quizzes and homework) 1. 25% of nine-weeks grade 2. About a grade or two a week 3. Quizzes 4. Timed writings 5. Homework a. Retell story to an adult b. Write out story c. Draw the story d. Write a new ending to the story
  97. 97. Timed writingsTimed writings A homework grade. Speed writeSpeed write Students write for five minutes without stopping. They write as many words as possible. Relaxed writeRelaxed write Students write for ten minutes. They can stop, edit and ask questions.
  98. 98. Timed writingsTimed writings Both are graded at a point a word. Accuracy is usually not graded on timed writings.
  99. 99. ParticipationParticipation 1. 25% of nine-weeks grade 2. Each student starts with 100 points. 3. Students are required to look engaged. 4. Looking engaged means: no sleeping, talking or writing. 5. Each infraction costs the student 5 pts. 6. When there is an infraction, teacher says the name of the student and “págame”.
  100. 100. Págame MakeupsPágame Makeups 1. Student can make up two págames (10 pts.) by giving the teacher a nice card. 2. Student can make up two more págames by shaking the teacher’s hand.
  101. 101. Págame MakeupsPágame Makeups There is a maximum of one card and one hand shake per nine weeks. All other págames are made up with 100 word essays in the target language: a. Essay can be copied but it must be in the student’s own handwriting. b. Student can only write two 100-word

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