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# Assumption University Of Thailand ACT1600 PPT 2009 CH10

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Assumption University Of Thailand

Assumption University Of Thailand
ACT1600 PPT 2009 CH10

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## Assumption University Of Thailand ACT1600 PPT 2009 CH10Document Transcript

• CHAPTER 10 Plant Assets, Natural Resources, and Intangible Assets ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE Brief A B Study Objectives Questions Exercises Exercises Problems Problems 1. Describe how the cost principle 1, 2, 3 1, 2 1, 2, 3 1A, 4A 1B, 4B applies to plant assets. 2. Explain the concept of 4, 5 depreciation. 3. Compute periodic depreciation 6, 7, 22 3, 4, 5 4, 5, 6 2A, 3A, 4A 2B, 3B, 4B using different methods. 4. Describe the procedure for 8 6 7 3A 3B revising periodic depreciation. 5. Distinguish between revenue 9, 24 7 and capital expenditures, and explain the entries for each. 6. Explain how to account for 10, 11 8, 9 8, 9 4A, 5A 4B, 5B the disposal of a plant asset. 7. Compute periodic depletion 12, 13 10 10 of natural resources. 8. Explain the basic issues 14, 15, 16, 11 11, 12 6A, 7A 6B, 7B related to accounting for 17, 18, 19 intangible assets. 9. Indicate how plant assets, 12, 13 13 4A, 6A, 8A 4B, 6B, 8B natural resources, and intan- gible assets are reported. *10. Explain how to account 14, 15 14, 15 for the exchange of plant as- sets. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-1
• ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE Problem Difficulty Time Number Description Level Allotted (min.) 1A Determine acquisition costs of land and building. Simple 20–30 2A Compute depreciation under different methods. Moderate 30–40 3A Calculate revisions to depreciation expense. Moderate 20–30 4A Journalize a series of equipment transactions related to Moderate 40–50 purchase, sale, retirement, and depreciation. 5A Record disposals. Simple 30–40 6A Prepare entries to record transactions related to acquisition Moderate 30–40 and amortization of intangibles; prepare the intangible assets section. 7A Prepare entries to correct errors made in recording and Moderate 30–40 amortizing intangible assets. 8A Calculate and comment on asset turnover ratio. Moderate 5–10 1B Determine acquisition costs of land and building. Simple 20–30 2B Compute depreciation under different methods. Simple 30–40 3B Calculate revisions to depreciation expense. Moderate 20–30 4B Journalize a series of equipment transactions related to Moderate 40–50 purchase, sale, retirement, and depreciation. 5B Record disposals. Simple 30–40 6B Prepare entries to record transactions related to acquisition Moderate 30–40 and amortization of intangibles; prepare the intangible assets section. 7B Prepare entries to correct errors made in recording and Moderate 30–40 amortizing intangible assets. 8B Calculate and comment on asset turnover ratio. Moderate 5–10 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-2
• © 2009 For Instructor Use Only BLOOM’S TAXONOMY TABLE Correlation Chart between Bloom’s Taxonomy, Study Objectives and End-of-Chapter Exercises and Problems Study Objective Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation 1. Describe how the cost principle Q10-1 E10-3 BE10-1 E10-2 applies to plant assets. Q10-2 P10-1A BE10-2 P10-4A Q10-3 P10-1B E10-1 P10-5B 2. Explain the concept of Q10-5 Q10-4 depreciation. 3. Compute periodic depreciation Q10-6 BE10-3 E10-5 P10-3B P10-2A using different methods. Q10-7 BE10-4 E10-6 P10-4B P10-2B Q10-22 BE10-5 P10-3A E10-4 P10-4A 4. Describe the procedure for Q10-8 P10-3A BE10-6 revising periodic depreciation. P10-3B E10-7 5. Distinguish between revenue and Q10-9 BE10-7 capital expenditures, and explain Q10-24 the entries for each. 6. Explain how to account for the Q10-10 Q10-11 BE10-8 E10-9 P10-4B disposal of a plant asset. BE10-9 P10-4A P10-5B E10-8 P10-5A 7. Compute periodic depletion of Q10-12 Q10-13 BE10-10 natural resources. E10-10 8. Explain the basic issues related Q10-18 Q10-14 Q10-17 BE10-11 P10-6A P10-7B to accounting for intangible assets. Q10-15 Q10-19 E10-11 P10-7A Q10-16 E10-12 P10-6B 9. Indicate how plant assets, natural Q10-21 Q10-20 E10-13 P10-4B P10-8A resources, and intangible assets Q10-23 BE10-12 P10-4A P10-6B P10-8B are reported. BE10-13 P10-6A *10. Explain how to account for the Q10-25 Q10-26 BE10-14 E10-14 exchange of plant assets. BE10-15 E10-15 Broadening Your Perspective Communication Decision Making Across Financial Reporting Decision Making Exploring the Web the Organization Comp. Analysis Across the Organization Ethics Case Comp. Analysis All About You 10-4 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-3
• ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. For plant assets, the cost principle means that cost consists of all expenditures necessary to acquire the asset and make it ready for its intended use. 2. Examples of land improvements include driveways, parking lots, fences, and underground sprinklers. 3. (a) When only the land is to be used, all demolition and removal costs of the building less any proceeds from salvaged materials are necessary expenditures to make the land ready for its intended use. (b) When both the land and building are to be used, necessary costs of the building include remodeling expenditures and the cost of replacing or repairing the roofs, floors, wiring, and plumbing. 4. You should explain to the president that depreciation is a process of allocating the cost of a plant asset to expense over its service (useful) life in a rational and systematic manner. Recognition of depreciation is not intended to result in the accumulation of cash for replacement of the asset. 5. (a) Salvage value, also called residual value, is the expected value of the asset at the end of its useful life. (b) Salvage value is used in determining depreciation in each of the methods except the declining- balance method. 6. (a) Useful life is expressed in years under the straight-line method and in units of activity under the units-of-activity method. (b) The pattern of periodic depreciation expense over useful life is constant under the straight-line method and variable under the units-of-activity method. 7. The effects of the three methods on annual depreciation expense are: Straight-line—constant amount; units of activity—varying amount; declining-balance—decreasing amounts. 8. A revision of depreciation is made in current and future years but not retroactively. The rationale is that continual restatement of prior periods would adversely affect confidence in the financial statements. 9. Revenue expenditures are ordinary repairs made to maintain the operating efficiency and productive life of the asset. Capital expenditures are additions and improvements made to increase operating efficiency, productive capacity, or useful life of the asset. Revenue expenditures are recognized as expenses when incurred; capital expenditures are generally debited to the plant asset affected. 10. In a sale of plant assets, the book value of the asset is compared to the proceeds received from the sale. If the proceeds of the sale exceed the book value of the plant asset, a gain on disposal occurs. If the proceeds of the sale are less than the book value of the plant asset sold, a loss on disposal occurs. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-4
• Questions Chapter 10 (Continued) 11. The plant asset and its accumulated depreciation should continue to be reported on the balance sheet without further depreciation adjustment until the asset is retired. Reporting the asset and related accumulated depreciation on the balance sheet informs the reader of the financial statements that the asset is still in use. However, once an asset is fully depreciated, even if it is still being used, no additional depreciation should be taken. In no situation can the accumulated depreciation on the plant asset exceed its cost. 12. Natural resources consist of underground deposits of oil, gas, and minerals, and standing timber. These long-lived productive assets have two distinguishing characteristics: they are physically extracted in operations, and they are replaceable only by an act of nature. 13. Depletion is the allocation of the cost of natural resources to expense in a rational and systematic manner over the resource’s useful life. It is computed by multiplying the depletion cost per unit by the number of units extracted and sold. 14. The terms depreciation, depletion, and amortization are all concerned with allocating the cost of an asset to expense over the periods benefited. Depreciation refers to allocating the cost of a plant asset to expense, depletion to recognizing the cost of a natural resource as expense, and amortization to allocating the cost of an intangible asset to expense. 15. The intern is not correct. The cost of an intangible asset should be amortized over that asset’s useful life (the period of time when operations are benefited by use of the asset). In addition, some intangibles have indefinite lives and therefore are not amortized at all. 16. The favorable attributes which could result in goodwill include exceptional management, desirable location, good customer relations, skilled employees, high-quality products, and harmonious relations with labor unions. 17. Goodwill is the value of many favorable attributes that are intertwined in the business enterprise. Goodwill can be identified only with the business as a whole and, unlike other assets, cannot be sold separately. Goodwill can only be sold if the entire business is sold. And, if goodwill appears on the balance sheet, it means the company has purchased another company for more than the fair market value of its net assets. 18. Goodwill is recorded only when there is a transaction that involves the purchase of an entire business. Goodwill is the excess of cost over the fair market value of the net assets (assets less liabilities) acquired. The recognition of goodwill without an exchange transaction would lead to subjective valuations which would reduce the reliability of financial statements. 19. Research and development costs present several accounting problems. It is sometimes difficult to assign the costs to specific projects, and there are uncertainties in identifying the extent and timing of future benefits. As a result, the FASB requires that research and development costs be recorded as an expense when incurred. 20. McDonald’s asset turnover ratio is computed as follows: Net sales \$20.5 billion = = .71 times Average total assets \$28.9 billion © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-5
• Questions Chapter 10 (Continued) 21. Since Resco uses the straight-line depreciation method, its depreciation expense will be lower in the early years of an asset’s useful life as compared to using an accelerated method. Yapan’s depreciation expense in the early years of an asset’s useful life will be higher as compared to the straight-line method. Resco’s net income will be higher than Yapan’s in the first few years of the asset’s useful life. And, the reverse will be true late in an asset’s useful life. 22. Yes, the tax regulations of the IRS allow a company to use a different depreciation method on the tax return than is used in preparing financial statements. Lopez Corporation uses an accelerated depreciation method for tax purposes to minimize its income taxes and thereby the cash outflow for taxes. 23. By selecting a longer estimated useful life, May Corp. is spreading the plant asset’s cost over a longer period of time. The depreciation expense reported in each period is lower and net income is higher. Won’s choice of a shorter estimated useful life will result in higher depreciation expense reported in each period and lower net income. 24. Expensing these costs will make current period income lower but future period income higher because there will be no additional depreciation expense in future periods. If the costs are ordinary repairs, they should be expensed. 25. When assets are exchanged in a transaction that has commercial substance, the gain or loss on disposal is computed as the difference between the book value and the fair market value of the asset given up at the time of exchange. 26. Yes, Tatum should recognize a gain equal to the difference between the fair market value of the old machine and its book value. If the fair market value of the old machine is less than its book value, Tatum should recognize a loss equal to the difference between the two amounts. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-6
• SOLUTIONS TO BRIEF EXERCISES BRIEF EXERCISE 10-1 The cost of the truck is \$31,900 (cash price \$30,000 + sales tax \$1,500 + painting and lettering \$400). The expenditures for insurance and motor vehicle license should not be added to the cost of the truck. BRIEF EXERCISE 10-2 All of the expenditures should be included in the cost of the land. Therefore, the cost of the land is \$81,000, or (\$70,000 + \$3,000 + \$2,500 + \$2,000 + \$3,500). BRIEF EXERCISE 10-3 Depreciable cost of \$36,000, or (\$42,000 – \$6,000). With a four-year useful life, annual depreciation is \$9,000, or (\$36,000 ÷ 4). Under the straight-line method, depreciation is the same each year. Thus, depreciation is \$9,000 for both the first and second years. BRIEF EXERCISE 10-4 The declining balance rate is 50%, or (25% X 2) and this rate is applied to book value at the beginning of the year. The computations are: Book Value X Rate = Depreciation Year 1 \$42,000 50% \$21,000 Year 2 (\$42,000 – \$21,000) 50% \$10,500 BRIEF EXERCISE 10-5 The depreciation cost per unit is 22 cents per mile computed as follows: Depreciable cost (\$33,500 – \$500) ÷ 150,000 = \$.22 Year 1 30,000 miles X \$.22 = \$6,600 Year 2 20,000 miles X \$.22 = \$4,400 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-7
• BRIEF EXERCISE 10-6 Book value, 1/1/08 (\$29,000 – \$9,000) ............................................ \$20,000 Less: Salvage value........................................................................ 2,000 Depreciable cost .............................................................................. \$18,000 Remaining useful life....................................................................... 4 years Revised annual depreciation (\$18,000 ÷ 4) .................................... \$ 4,500 BRIEF EXERCISE 10-7 1. Repair Expense ........................................................... 45 Cash ..................................................................... 45 2. Delivery Truck ............................................................. 400 Cash ..................................................................... 400 BRIEF EXERCISE 10-8 (a) Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Equipment................................................................ 41,000 Delivery Equipment ............................................. 41,000 (b) Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Equipment................................................................ 39,000 Loss on Disposal ........................................................ 2,000 Delivery Equipment ............................................. 41,000 Cost of delivery equipment \$41,000 Less accumulated depreciation 39,000 Book value at date of disposal 2,000 Proceeds from sale 0 Loss on disposal \$ 2,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-8
• BRIEF EXERCISE 10-9 (a) Depreciation Expense—Office Equipment .............. 5,250 Accumulated Depreciation—Office Equipment....................................................... 5,250 (b) Cash ............................................................................ 20,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Office Equipment ...... 47,250 Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 4,750 Office Equipment ............................................... 72,000 Cost of office equipment \$72,000 Less accumulated depreciation 47,250* Book value at date of disposal 24,750 Proceeds from sale 20,000 Loss on disposal \$ 4,750 *\$42,000 + \$5,250 BRIEF EXERCISE 10-10 (a) Depletion cost per unit = \$7,000,000 ÷ 35,000,000 = \$.20 depletion cost per ton \$.20 X 6,000,000 = \$1,200,000 Depletion Expense....................................... 1,200,000 Accumulated Depletion ....................... 1,200,000 (b) Ore mine ....................................................... \$7,000,000 Less: Accumulated depletion .................... 1,200,000 \$5,800,000 BRIEF EXERCISE 10-11 (a) Amortization Expense—Patent (\$120,000 ÷ 10) ........ 12,000 Patents .................................................................. 12,000 (b) Intangible Assets Patents .................................................................. \$108,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-9
• BRIEF EXERCISE 10-12 SPAIN COMPANY Balance Sheet (partial) December 31, 2008 Property, plant, and equipment Coal mine ........................................... \$ 500,000 Less: Accumulated depletion ......... 108,000 \$392,000 Buildings............................................ 1,100,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation .... 650,000 450,000 Total property, plant, and equipment .............................. \$842,000 Intangible assets Goodwill ............................................. 410,000 BRIEF EXERCISE 10-13  \$32.2 + \$35.0  \$51.2 ÷   = 1.52 times  2  BRIEF EXERCISE 10-14 Delivery Equipment (new) ................................................. 24,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Equipment........... 30,000 Loss on Disposal ............................................................... 12,000 Delivery Equipment (old) ........................................... 61,000 Cash ............................................................................ 5,000 Fair market value of old delivery equipment \$19,000 Cash 5,000 Cost of new delivery equipment \$24,000 Fair market value of old delivery equipment \$19,000 Book value of old delivery equipment (\$61,000 – \$30,000) 31,000 Loss on disposal \$12,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-10
• BRIEF EXERCISE 10-15 Delivery Equipment (new)................................................. 43,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Equipment .......... 30,000 Gain on Disposal ....................................................... 7,000 Delivery Equipment (old) .......................................... 61,000 Cash ............................................................................ 5,000 Fair market value of old delivery equipment \$38,000 Cash 5,000 Cost of new delivery equipment \$43,000 Fair market value of old delivery equipment \$38,000 Book value of old delivery equipment (\$61,000 – \$30,000) 31,000 Gain on disposal \$ 7,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-11
• SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES EXERCISE 10-1 1. Factory Machinery 2. Truck 3. Factory Machinery 4. Land Improvements 5. Prepaid Insurance 6. Land 7. Land Improvements 8. Building 9. Land EXERCISE 10-2 (a) Cost of land Cash paid ........................................................................... \$80,000 Net cost of removing warehouse ..................................... 6,900 (\$8,600 – \$1,700) Attorney’s fee..................................................................... 1,100 Real estate broker’s fee .................................................... 5,000 Total ............................................................................ \$93,000 (b) The architect’s fee (\$7,800) should be debited to the Building account. The cost of the driveways and parking lot (\$14,000) should be debited to Land Improvements. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-12
• EXERCISE 10-3 (a) Under the cost principle, the acquisition cost for a plant asset includes all expenditures necessary to acquire the asset and make it ready for its intended use. For example, the cost of factory machinery includes the purchase price, freight costs paid by the purchaser, insurance costs during transit, and installation costs. (b) 1. Land 2. Factory Machinery 3. Delivery Equipment 4. Land Improvements 5. Delivery Equipment 6. Factory Machinery 7. Prepaid Insurance 8. License Expense EXERCISE 10-4 (a) (1) 2008: (\$50,000 – \$4,000)/8 = \$5,750 2009: (\$50,000 – \$4,000)/8 = \$5,750 (2) (\$50,000 – \$4,000)/100,000 = \$0.46 per mile 2008: 15,000 X \$0.46 = \$6,900 2009: 12,000 X \$0.46 = \$5,520 (3) 2008: \$50,000 X 25% = \$12,500 2009: (\$50,000 – \$12,500) X 25% = \$9,375 (b) (1) Depreciation Expense........................................... 5,750 Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Truck...... 5,750 (2) Delivery Truck........................................................ \$50,000 Less: Accumulated Depreciation......................... (5,750) \$44,250 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-13
• EXERCISE 10-5 (a) Straight-line method:  \$120,000 – \$12,000    5  = \$21,600 per year.  2008 depreciation = \$21,600 X 3/12 = \$5,400. (b) Units-of-activity method:  \$120,000 – \$12,000    = \$10.80 per hour.  10,000  2008 depreciation = 1,700 hours X \$10.80 = \$18,360. (c) Declining-balance method: 2008 depreciation = \$120,000 X 40%* X 3/12 = \$12,000. Book value January 1, 2009 = \$120,000 – \$12,000 = \$108,000. 2009 depreciation = \$108,000 X 40% = \$43,200. *(1/5 X 2) EXERCISE 10-6 (a) Depreciation cost per unit is \$1.60 per mile [(\$168,000 – \$8,000) ÷ 100,000]. (b) Computation End of Year Annual Units of Depreciation Depreciation Accumulated Book Year Activity X Cost /Unit = Expense Depreciation Value 2008 26,000 \$1.60 \$41,600 \$ 41,600 \$126,400 2009 32,000 1.60 51,200 92,800 75,200 2010 25,000 1.60 40,000 132,800 35,200 2011 17,000 1.60 27,200 160,000 8,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-14
• EXERCISE 10-7 (a) Type of Asset Building Warehouse Book value, 1/1/08 \$686,000 \$81,000 Less: Salvage value 37,000 3,600 Depreciable cost \$649,000 \$77,400 Revised useful life in years 44 15 Revised annual depreciation \$ 14,750 \$ 5,160 (b) Dec. 31 Depreciation Expense—Building............ 14,750 Accumulated Depreciation— Building ......................................... 14,750 EXERCISE 10-8 Jan. 1 Accumulated Depreciation—Machinery....... 62,000 Machinery ................................................ 62,000 June 30 Depreciation Expense .................................... 4,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Computer (\$40,000 X 1/5 X 6/12)........ 4,000 30 Cash................................................................. 14,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Computer........ 28,000 (\$40,000 X 3/5 = \$24,000; \$24,000 + \$4,000) Gain on Disposal .................................... 2,000 [\$14,000 – (\$40,000 – \$28,000)] Computer................................................. 40,000 Dec. 31 Depreciation Expense .................................... 6,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Truck ....... 6,000 [(\$39,000 – \$3,000) X 1/6] 31 Loss on Disposal............................................ 9,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Truck............... 30,000 [(\$39,000 – \$3,000) X 5/6] Delivery Truck ......................................... 39,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-15
• EXERCISE 10-9 (a) Cash .......................................................................... 28,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment ............... 27,000 [(\$50,000 – \$5,000) X 3/5] Equipment ....................................................... 50,000 Gain on Disposal ............................................ 5,000 (b) Depreciation Expense ............................................. 3,000 [(\$50,000 – \$5,000) X 1/5 X 4/12] Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment ...... 3,000 Cash .......................................................................... 28,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment ............... 30,000 (\$27,000 + \$3,000) Equipment ....................................................... 50,000 Gain on Disposal ............................................ 8,000 (c) Cash ............................................................................ 11,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment.................. 27,000 Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 12,000 Equipment ........................................................... 50,000 (d) Depreciation Expense ............................................... 6,750 [(\$50,000 – \$5,000) X 1/5 X 9/12] Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment........... 6,750 Cash ............................................................................ 11,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment.................. 33,750 (\$27,000 + \$6,750) Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 5,250 Equipment ........................................................... 50,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-16
• EXERCISE 10-10 (a) Dec. 31 Depletion Expense ................................... 90,000 Accumulated Depletion ................... 90,000 (100,000 X \$.90) Cost (a) \$720,000 Units estimated (b) 800,000 tons Depletion cost per ton [(a) ÷ (b)] \$0.90 (b) The costs pertaining to the unsold units are reported in current assets as part of inventory (20,000 X \$.90 = \$18,000). EXERCISE 10-11 Dec. 31 Amortization Expense—Patent ................... 12,000 Patents (\$90,000 X 1/5 X 8/12) .............. 12,000 Note: No entry is made to amortize goodwill because it has an indefinite life. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-17
• EXERCISE 10-12 1/2/08 Patents .......................................................... 560,000 Cash....................................................... 560,000 4/1/08 Goodwill ........................................................ 360,000 Cash....................................................... 360,000 (Part of the entry to record purchase of another company) 7/1/08 Franchise ...................................................... 440,000 Cash....................................................... 440,000 9/1/08 Research and Development Expense ........ 185,000 Cash....................................................... 185,000 12/31/08 Amortization Expense—Patent .................... 80,000 (\$560,000 ÷ 7) Amortization Expense—Franchise .............. 22,000 [(\$440,000 ÷ 10) X 1/2] Patents................................................ 80,000 Franchise............................................ 22,000 Ending balances, 12/31/08: Patent = \$480,000 (\$560,000 – \$80,000). Goodwill = \$360,000 Franchise = \$418,000 (\$440,000 – \$22,000). R&D expense = \$185,000 EXERCISE 10-13 \$4,900,000 Asset turnover ratio = = 3.5 times \$1,400,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-18
• *EXERCISE 10-14 (a) Trucks (new)............................................................... 54,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Trucks (old) ............... 42,000 Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 7,000 Trucks (old) ........................................................ 74,000 Cash .................................................................... 29,000 Cost of old trucks \$74,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation 42,000 Book value 32,000 Fair market value of old trucks 25,000 Loss on disposal \$ 7,000 Fair market value of old trucks \$25,000 Cash paid 29,000 Cost of new trucks \$54,000 (b) Machine (new) ............................................................ 25,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Machine (old)............. 14,000 Gain on Disposal................................................ 2,000 Machine (old) ...................................................... 20,000 Cash .................................................................... 17,000 Cost of old machine \$20,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation 14,000 Book value 6,000 Fair market value of old machine 8,000 Gain on disposal \$ 2,000 Fair market value of old machine \$ 8,000 Cash paid 17,000 Cost of new machine \$25,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-19
• *EXERCISE 10-15 (a) Delivery Truck (new) .................................................. 4,000 Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 3,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Truck (old)............................................................... 15,000 Delivery Truck (old) ............................................ 22,000 Cost of old truck \$22,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation 15,000 Book value 7,000 Fair market value of old truck 4,000 Loss on disposal \$ 3,000 (b) Delivery Truck (new) .................................................. 4,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Trucks (old)............................................................. 8,000 Delivery Truck (old) ............................................ 10,000 Gain on Disposal ................................................ 2,000 Cost of old truck \$10,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation 8,000 Book value 2,000 Fair market value of old truck 4,000 Gain on Disposal \$ 2,000 Cost of new delivery truck* \$ 4,000 *Fair value of old truck © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-20
• SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS PROBLEM 10-1A Item Land Building Other Accounts 1 (\$ 5,000) 2 \$ 7,500 Property Taxes Expense 3 \$500,000 4 19,000 5 100,000 6 18,000 Land Improvements 7 9,000 8 6,000 Land Improvements 9 ( 17,000) 10 ( (3,500) (\$118,500) \$528,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-21
• PROBLEM 10-2A (a) (1) Purchase price................................................................... \$ 46,500 Sales tax ............................................................................. 2,200 Shipping costs................................................................... 175 Insurance during shipping ............................................... 75 Installation and testing ..................................................... 50 Total cost of machinery............................................. \$ 49,000 Machinery............................................................ 49,000 Cash ............................................................. 49,000 (2) Recorded cost.................................................................... \$ 49,000 Less: Salvage value ......................................................... 5,000 Depreciable cost................................................................ \$ 44,000 Years of useful life............................................................. ÷ 4 Annual depreciation .................................................. \$ 11,000 Depreciation Expense ........................................ 11,000 Accumulated Depreciation......................... 11,000 (b) (1) Recorded cost.................................................................... \$120,000 Less: Salvage value ......................................................... 8,000 Depreciable cost................................................................ \$112,000 Years of useful life............................................................. ÷ 4 Annual depreciation .................................................. \$ 28,000 (2) Book Value at Annual Beginning of Depreciation Accumulated Year Year DDB Rate Expense Depreciation 2008 \$120,000 *50%* \$60,000 \$ 60,000 2009 60,000 *50%* 30,000 90,000 2010 30,000 *50%* 15,000 105,000 2011 15,000 *50%* 7,000** 112,000 *100% ÷ 4-year useful life = 25% X 2 = 50%. **[(\$120,000 – \$8,000) – \$105,000] = \$7,000. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-22
• PROBLEM 10-2A (Continued) (3) Depreciation cost per unit = (\$120,000 – \$8,000)/25,000 units = \$4.48 per unit. Annual Depreciation Expense 2008: \$4.48 X 6,500 = \$29,120 2009: 4.48 X 7,500 = 33,600 2010: 4.48 X 6,000 = 26,880 2011: 4.48 X 5,000 = 22,400 (c) The straight-line method reports the lowest amount of depreciation expense the first year while the declining-balance method reports the highest. In the fourth year, the declining-balance method reports the lowest amount of depreciation expense while the straight-line method reports the highest. These facts occur because the declining-balance method is an accelerated depreciation method in which the largest amount of depreciation is recognized in the early years of the asset’s life. If the straight-line method is used, the same amount of depreciation expense is recognized each year. Therefore, in the early years less depreciation expense will be recognized under this method than under the declining-balance method while more will be recognized in the later years. The amount of depreciation expense recognized using the units-of-activity method is dependent on production, so this method could recognize more or less depreciation expense than the other two methods in any year depending on output. No matter which of the three methods is used, the same total amount of depreciation expense will be recognized over the four-year period. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-23
• PROBLEM 10-3A Depreciation Accumulated Year Expense Depreciation 2006 \$12,000(a) \$12,000 2007 12,000 24,000 2008 9,600(b) 33,600 2009 9,600 43,200 2010 9,600 52,800 2011 11,600(c) 64,400 2012 11,600 76,000 (a) \$80,000 – \$8,000 = \$12,000 6 years (b) Book value – Salvage value \$56,000 – \$8,000 = = \$9,600 Remaining useful life 5 years (c) \$27,200 – \$4,000 = \$11,600 2 years © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-24
• PROBLEM 10-4A (a) Apr. 1 Land ................................................. 2,200,000 Cash.......................................... 2,200,000 May 1 Depreciation Expense..................... 20,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment............................ 20,000 (\$600,000 X 1/10 X 4/12) 1 Cash ................................................. 360,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment.................................... 260,000 Equipment................................ 600,000 Gain on Disposal ..................... 20,000 Cost \$600,000 Accum. depreciation— equipment 260,000 [(\$600,000 X 1/10 X 4) + \$20,000] Book value 340,000 Cash proceeds 360,000 Gain on disposal \$ 20,000 June 1 Cash ................................................. 1,800,000 Land.......................................... 600,000 Gain on Disposal ..................... 1,200,000 July 1 Equipment........................................ 1,800,000 Cash.......................................... 1,800,000 Dec. 31 Depreciation Expense..................... 50,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment............................ 50,000 (\$500,000 X 1/10) 31 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment.................................... 500,000 Equipment................................ 500,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-25
• PROBLEM 10-4A (Continued) Cost \$500,000 Accum. depreciation— equipment 500,000 (\$500,000 X 1/10 X 10) Book value \$ 0 (b) Dec. 31 Depreciation Expense ..................... 530,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Buildings .............................. 530,000 (\$26,500,000 X 1/50) 31 Depreciation Expense ..................... 3,980,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment ............................ 3,980,000 (\$38,900,000* X 1/10) \$3,890,000 [(\$1,800,000 X 1/10) X 6/12] 90,000 \$3,980,000 *(\$40,000,000 – \$600,000 – \$500,000) (c) YOCKEY COMPANY Partial Balance Sheet December 31, 2009 Plant Assets* Land ...................................................... \$ 4,600,000 Buildings .............................................. \$26,500,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation— buildings ............................... 12,630,000 13,870,000 Equipment ............................................ 40,700,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation— equipment ............................. 8,290,000 32,410,000 Total plant assets ........................ \$50,880,000 *See T-accounts which follow. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-26
• PROBLEM 10-4A (Continued) Land Bal. 3,000,000 June 1 600,000 Apr. 1 2,200,000 Bal. 4,600,000 Buildings Bal. 26,500,000 Bal. 26,500,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Buildings Bal. 12,100,000 Dec. 31 adj. 530,000 Bal. 12,630,000 Equipment Bal. 40,000,000 May 1 600,000 July 1 1,800,000 Dec. 31 500,000 Bal. 40,700,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment May 1 260,000 Bal. 5,000,000 Dec. 31 500,000 May 1 20,000 Dec. 31 50,000 Dec. 31 adj. 3,980,000 Bal. 8,290,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-27
• PROBLEM 10-5A (a) Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Equipment............................................................... 24,000 Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 26,000 Delivery Equipment ............................................ 50,000 (b) Cash ............................................................................ 31,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Equipment............................................................... 24,000 Gain on Disposal ................................................ 5,000 Delivery Equipment ............................................ 50,000 (c) Cash ............................................................................ 18,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Delivery Equipment............................................................... 24,000 Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 8,000 Delivery Equipment ............................................ 50,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-28
• PROBLEM 10-6A (a) Jan. 2 Patents ................................................... 27,000 Cash................................................ 27,000 Jan.– Research and Development June Expense ............................................. 140,000 Cash................................................ 140,000 Sept. 1 Advertising Expense............................. 75,000 Cash................................................ 75,000 Oct. 1 Copyright ............................................... 120,000 Cash................................................ 120,000 (b) Dec. 31 Amortization Expense—Patents.......... 9,000 Patents ........................................... 9,000 [(\$60,000 X 1/10) + (\$27,000 X 1/9)] 31 Amortization Expense—Copyright...... 4,200 Copyright ....................................... 4,200 [(\$36,000 X 1/10) + (\$120,000 X 1/50 X 3/12)] (c) Intangible Assets Patents (\$87,000 cost – \$15,000 amortization) (1) ............... \$ 72,000 Copyright (\$156,000 cost – \$18,600 amortization) (2) ......... 137,400 Total intangible assets ................................................... \$209,400 (1) Cost (\$60,000 + \$27,000); amortization (\$6,000 + \$9,000). (2) Cost (\$36,000 + \$120,000); amortization (\$14,400 + \$4,200). (d) The intangible assets of the company consist of two patents and two copyrights. One patent with a total cost of \$87,000 is being amortized in two segments (\$60,000 over 10 years and \$27,000 over 9 years); the other patent was obtained at no recordable cost. A copyright with a cost of \$36,000 is being amortized over 10 years; the other copyright with a cost of \$120,000 is being amortized over 50 years. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-29
• PROBLEM 10-7A 1. Research and Development Expense ...................... 95,000 Patents................................................................. 95,000 Patents ........................................................................ 4,750 Amortization Expense—Patents ....................... 4,750 [\$6,750 – (\$40,000 X 1/20)] 2. Goodwill ...................................................................... 800 Amortization Expense—Goodwill ..................... 800 Note: Goodwill should not be amortized because it has an indefinite life unlike Patents. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-30
• PROBLEM 10-8A (a) Gavin Corp. Keady Corp. Asset turnover ratio \$1,300,000 \$1,140,000 = .65 times = .76 times \$2,000,000 \$1,500,000 (b) Based on the asset turnover ratio, Keady Corp. is more effective in using assets to generate sales. Its asset turnover ratio is 17% higher than Gavins’s asset turnover ratio. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-31
• PROBLEM 10-1B Item Land Building Other Accounts 1 (\$ 4,000) 2 \$700,000 3 \$ 5,000 Property Taxes Expense 4 ( 145,000) 5 35,000 6 10,000 7 ( 2,000) 8 14,000 Land Improvements 9 ( 15,000) 10 (3,500) (\$162,500) \$745,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-32
• PROBLEM 10-2B (a) (1) Purchase price .................................................................. \$ 38,000 Sales tax ............................................................................ 1,700 Shipping costs .................................................................. 150 Insurance during shipping ............................................... 80 Installation and testing ..................................................... 70 Total cost of machinery ............................................ \$ 40,000 Machinery ........................................................... 40,000 Cash............................................................. 40,000 (2) Recorded cost ................................................................... \$ 40,000 Less: Salvage value ......................................................... 5,000 Depreciable cost ............................................................... \$ 35,000 Years of useful life ............................................................ ÷ 5 Annual depreciation.................................................. \$ 7,000 Depreciation Expense........................................ 7,000 Accumulated Depreciation ........................ 7,000 (b) (1) Recorded cost ................................................................... 160,000 Less: Salvage value ......................................................... 10,000 Depreciable cost ............................................................... \$150,000 Years of useful life ............................................................ ÷ 4 Annual depreciation.................................................. \$ 37,500 (2) Book Value at Beginning DDB Annual Depreciation Accumulated of Year Rate Expense Depreciation \$160,000 *50%* \$80,000 \$ 80,000 80,000 *50%* 40,000 120,000 40,000 *50%* 20,000 140,000 20,000 *50%* ** 10,000 150,000 **100% ÷ 4-year useful life = 25% X 2 = 50%. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-33
• PROBLEM 10-2B (Continued) (3) Depreciation cost per unit = (\$160,000 – \$10,000)/125,000 units = \$1.20 per unit. Annual Depreciation Expense 2008: \$1.20 X 45,000 = \$54,000 2009: 1.20 X 35,000 = 42,000 2010: 1.20 X 25,000 = 30,000 2011: 1.20 X 20,000 = 24,000 (c) The declining-balance method reports the highest amount of depreciation expense the first year while the straight-line method reports the lowest. In the fourth year, the straight-line method reports the highest amount of depreciation expense while the declining-balance method reports the lowest. These facts occur because the declining-balance method is an acceler- ated depreciation method in which the largest amount of depreciation is recognized in the early years of the asset’s life. If the straight-line method is used, the same amount of depreciation expense is recognized each year. Therefore, in the early years less depreciation expense will be recognized under this method than under the declining-balance method while more will be recognized in the later years. The amount of depreciation expense recognized using the units-of-activity method is dependent on production, so this method could recognize more or less depreciation expense than the other two methods in any year depending on output. No matter which of the three methods is used, the same total amount of depreciation expense will be recognized over the four-year period. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-34
• PROBLEM 10-3B Depreciation Accumulated Year Expense Depreciation (b) 2006 \$13,500(a) \$13,500 2007 13,500 27,000 (b) 2008 10,800(b) 37,800 2009 10,800 48,600 2010 10,800 59,400 2011 12,800(c) 72,200 2012 12,800 85,000 (a) \$90,000 – \$9,000 = \$13,500 6 years (b) Book value – Salvage value \$63,000 – \$9,000 = = \$10,800 Remaining useful life 5 years (c) \$30,600 – \$5,000 = \$12,800 2 years © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-35
• PROBLEM 10-4B (a) Apr. 1 Land .................................................. 2,130,000 Cash .......................................... 2,130,000 May 1 Depreciation Expense ..................... 26,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment ............................ 26,000 (\$780,000 X 1/10 X 4/12) 1 Cash.................................................. 450,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment .................................... 338,000 Equipment ................................ 780,000 Gain on Disposal...................... 8,000 Cost \$780,000 Accum. depreciation— equipment 338,000 [(\$780,000 X 1/10 X 4) + \$26,000] Book value 442,000 Cash proceeds 450,000 Gain on disposal \$ 8,000 June 1 Cash.................................................. 1,500,000 Land .......................................... 400,000 Gain on Disposal...................... 1,100,000 July 1 Equipment ........................................ 2,000,000 Cash .......................................... 2,000,000 Dec. 31 Depreciation Expense ..................... 50,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment ............................ 50,000 (\$500,000 X 1/10) 31 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment .................................... 500,000 Equipment ................................ 500,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-36
• PROBLEM 10-4B (Continued) Cost \$500,000 Accum. depreciation— equipment 500,000 (\$500,000 X 1/10 X 10) Book value \$ 0 (b) Dec. 31 Depreciation Expense..................... 570,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Buildings .............................. 570,000 (\$28,500,000 X 1/50) 31 Depreciation Expense..................... 4,772,000 Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment............................ 4,772,000 (\$46,720,000* X 1/10) \$4,672,000 [(\$2,000,000 X 1/10) X 6/12] 100,000 \$4,772,000 *(\$48,000,000 – \$780,000 – \$500,000) (c) JIMENEZ COMPANY Partial Balance Sheet December 31, 2009 Plant Assets* Land ..................................................... \$ 5,730,000 Buildings.............................................. \$28,500,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation— buildings............................... 12,670,000 15,830,000 Equipment............................................ 48,720,000 Less: Accumulated depreciation— equipment............................. 9,010,000 39,710,000 Total plant assets ........................ \$61,270,000 *See T-accounts which follow. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-37
• PROBLEM 10-4B (Continued) Land Bal. 4,000,000 June 1 400,000 Apr. 1 2,130,000 Bal. 5,730,000 Buildings Bal. 28,500,000 Bal. 28,500,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Buildings Bal. 12,100,000 Dec. 31 adj. 570,000 Bal. 12,670,000 Equipment Bal. 48,000,000 May 1 780,000 July 1 2,000,000 Dec. 31 500,000 Bal. 48,720,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment May 1 338,000 Bal. 5,000,000 Dec. 31 500,000 May 1 26,000 Dec. 31 50,000 Dec. 31 adj. 4,772,000 Bal. 9,010,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-38
• PROBLEM 10-5B (a) Accumulated Depreciation—Office Furniture ................................................................. 50,000 Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 25,000 Office Furniture .................................................. 75,000 (b) Cash ............................................................................ 21,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Office Furniture ................................................................. 50,000 Loss on Disposal ....................................................... 4,000 Office Furniture .................................................. 75,000 (c) Cash ............................................................................ 31,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Office Furniture ................................................................. 50,000 Gain on Disposal................................................ 6,000 Office Furniture .................................................. 75,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-39
• PROBLEM 10-6B (a) Jan. 2 Patents.................................................... 45,000 Cash ................................................ 45,000 Jan.– Research and Development June Expense.............................................. 140,000 Cash ................................................ 140,000 Sept. 1 Advertising Expense ............................. 50,000 Cash ................................................ 50,000 Oct. 1 Franchise................................................ 100,000 Cash ................................................ 100,000 (b) Dec. 31 Amortization Expense—Patents .......... 12,000 Patents............................................ 12,000 [(\$70,000 X 1/10) + (\$45,000 X 1/9)] 31 Amortization Expense—Franchise ...... 5,300 Franchise........................................ 5,300 [(\$48,000 X 1/10) + (\$100,000 X 1/50 X 3/12)] (c) Intangible Assets Patents (\$115,000 cost – \$19,000 amortization) (1)............. \$ 96,000 Franchise (\$148,000 cost – \$24,500 amortization) (2)......... 123,500 Total intangible assets................................................... \$219,500 (1) Cost (\$70,000 + \$45,000); amortization (\$7,000 + \$12,000). (2) Cost (\$48,000 + \$100,000); amortization (\$19,200 + \$5,300). © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-40
• PROBLEM 10-7B 1. Research and Development Expense ................... 136,000 Patents ............................................................. 136,000 Patents..................................................................... 6,800 Amortization Expense—Patents.................... 6,800 [\$9,800 – (\$60,000 X 1/20)] 2. Goodwill................................................................... 920 Amortization Expense—Goodwill.................. 920 Note: Goodwill should not be amortized because it has an indefinite life unlike Patents. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-41
• PROBLEM 10-8B (a) Lebo Ritter Asset turnover ratio \$1,200,000 \$1,080,000 = .48 times = .54 times \$2,500,000 \$2,000,000 (b) Based on the asset turnover ratio, Ritter is more effective in using assets to generate sales. Its asset turnover ratio is almost 13% higher than Lebo’s ratio. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-42
• CHAPTER 10 COMPREHENSIVE PROBLEM SOLUTION (a) 1. Equipment............................................................. 13,800 Cash ................................................................. 13,800 2. Depreciation Expense—Equipment ................... 450 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment....... 450 Cash ...................................................................... 3,500 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment............ 2,250 Equipment........................................................ 5,000 Gain on Disposal............................................. 750 3. Accounts Receivable ........................................... 9,000 Sales................................................................. 9,000 Cost of Goods Sold.............................................. 6,300 Merchandise Inventory ................................... 6,300 4. Bad Debts Expense.............................................. 3,500 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts ................. 3,500 5. Interest Receivable (\$10,000 X .08 X 9/12) ........... 600 Interest Revenue ............................................. 600 6. Insurance Expense .............................................. 2,400 Prepaid Insurance ........................................... 2,400 7. Depreciation Expense—Building........................ 4,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Building........... 4,000 8. Depreciation Expense—Equipment ................... 9,900 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment....... 9,900 [(\$60,000 – \$5,000 – \$5,500) ÷ 5] 9. Depreciation Expense—Equipment ................... 1,600 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment....... 1,600 [(\$13,800 – \$1,800) ÷ 5] X 8/12 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-43
• COMPREHENSIVE PROBLEM (Continued) 10. Amortization Expense—Patents ......................... 900 Patent................................................................ 900 11. Salaries Expense .................................................. 2,200 Salaries Payable .............................................. 2,200 12. Unearned Rent ...................................................... 2,000 Rent Revenue................................................... 2,000 13. Interest Expense................................................... 4,140 Interest Payable ............................................... 4,140 (\$11,000 + \$35,000) X .09 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-44
• COMPREHENSIVE PROBLEM (Continued) (b) WINTERSCHID COMPANY Trial Balance December 31, 2008 Debits Credits Cash (\$28,000 – \$13,800 + \$3,500) .................... \$ 17,700 Accounts Receivable ......................................... 45,800 Notes Receivable ............................................... 10,000 Interest Receivable ............................................ 600 Merchandise Inventory ...................................... 29,900 Prepaid Insurance .............................................. 1,200 Land..................................................................... 20,000 Building ............................................................... 150,000 Equipment (\$60,000 + \$13,800 – \$5,000) .......... 68,800 Patent .................................................................. 8,100 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts..................... \$ 4,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Building .............. 54,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment.......... 33,700* Accounts Payable .............................................. 27,300 Salaries Payable ................................................. 2,200 Unearned Rent.................................................... 4,000 Notes Payable (short-term) ............................... 11,000 Interest Payable.................................................. 4,140 Notes Payable (long-term)................................. 35,000 Common Stock ................................................... 75,000 Retained Earnings.............................................. 38,600 Dividends ............................................................ 12,000 Sales.................................................................... 909,000 Interest Revenue ................................................ 600 Rent Revenue ..................................................... 2,000 Gain on Disposal ................................................ 750 Bad Debts Expense............................................ 3,500 Cost of Goods Sold............................................ 636,300 Depreciation Expense—Building...................... 4,000 Depreciation Expense—Equipment.................. 11,950 Insurance Expense ............................................ 2,400 Interest Expense ................................................ 4,140 Other Operating Expenses ................................ 61,800 Amortization Expense–Patents......................... 900 Salaries Expense................................................ 112,200 Total..................................................................... \$1,201,290 \$1,201,290 *(\$24,000 + \$450 – \$2,250 + \$9,900 + \$1,600) © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-45
• COMPREHENSIVE PROBLEM (Continued) (c) WINTERSCHID COMPANY Income Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 2008 Sales ................................................................... \$909,000 Cost of Goods Sold ........................................... 636,300 Gross Profit ........................................................ 272,700 Operating Expenses Salaries Expense .......................................... \$112,200 Other Operating Expenses .......................... 61,800 Depr. Expense—Equipment......................... 11,950 Depr. Expenses—Building........................... 4,000 Bad Debts Expense ...................................... 3,500 Insurance Expense ....................................... 2,400 Amortization Expense—Patents ................. 900 Total Operating Expense .................................. 196,750 Income From Operations .................................. 75,950 Other Revenues and Gains Rent Revenue................................................ 2,000 Gain on Disposal .......................................... 750 Interest Revenue........................................... 600 3,350 Other Expenses and Losses Interest Expense ........................................... 4,140 (790) Net Income ......................................................... \$ 75,160 WINTERSCHID COMPANY Retained Earnings Statement For the Year Ended December 31, 2008 Retained Earnings, 1/1/08 .................................................... \$ 38,600 Add: Net Income ................................................................... 75,160 113,760 Less: Dividends .................................................................... 12,000 Retained Earnings, 12/31/08 ................................................ \$101,760 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-46
• COMPREHENSIVE PROBLEM (Continued) (d) WINTERSCHID COMPANY Balance Sheet December 31, 2008 Current Assets Cash ......................................................... \$17,700 Accounts Receivable .............................. \$ 45,800 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts.......... 4,000 41,800 Notes Receivable..................................... 10,000 Interest Receivable ................................. 600 Merchandise Inventory ........................... 29,900 Prepaid Insurance ................................... 1,200 Total Current Assets ........................ \$101,200 Property, Plant, and Equipment Land.......................................................... 20,000 Building .................................................... 150,000 Less Accum. Depr. .................................. 54,000 96,000 Equipment................................................ 68,800 Less Accum. Depr. .................................. 33,700 35,100 Total Property, Plant, and Equip. .... 151,100 Intangible Assets Patent ....................................................... 8,100 Total Assets.................................................. \$260,400 Current Liabilities Notes Payable (short-term) .................... \$11,000 Accounts Payable ................................... 27,300 Interest Payable....................................... 4,140 Unearned Rent......................................... 4,000 Salaries Payable ...................................... 2,200 Total Current Liabilities.................... 48,640 Long-term Liabilities Notes Payable (long-term)...................... 35,000 Total Liabilities ............................................. 83,640 Stockholders’ Equity Common Stock ........................................ 75,000 Retained Earnings.......................................... 101,760 Total Stockholders’ Equity.................... 176,760 Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity....... \$260,400 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-47
• BYP 10-1 FINANCIAL REPORTING PROBLEM (a) Property, plant, and equipment is reported net, book value, on the December 31, 2005, balance sheet at \$8,681,000,000. The cost of the property, plant, and equipment is \$17,145,000,000 as shown in Note 4. (b) Depreciation expense is calculated using the straight-line method over an asset’s estimated useful live. (see Note 4). (c) Depreciation expense was: 2005: \$1,103,000,000. 2004: \$1,062,000,000. 2003: \$1,020,000,000. Amortization expense was: 2005: \$150,000,000. 2004: \$147,000,000. 2003: \$145,000,000. (d) PepsiCo’s capital spending was: 2005: \$1,736,000,000. 2004: \$1,387,000,000. (e) PepsiCo reports amortizable intangible assets, net of \$530,000,000 and nonamortizable intangible assets, net of \$5,174,000,000. In Note 4, the company indicates that intangible assets consist primarily of brands and goodwill. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-48
• BYP 10-2 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS PROBLEM (a) PepsiCo Coca-Cola Asset turnover \$27,987 + \$31,7 27 \$31,4 41+ \$29,427 ratio \$32,562 ÷ = 1.09 times \$23,104 ÷ = .76 times 2 2 (b) The asset turnover ratio measures how efficiently a company uses its assets to generate sales. It shows the dollars of sales generated by each dollar invested in assets. PepsiCo’s asset turnover ratio (1.09) was 43% higher than Coca-Cola’s (.76). Therefore, it can be concluded that PepsiCo was more efficient during 2005 in utilizing assets to generate sales. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-49
• BYP 10-3 EXPLORING THE WEB Answers will vary depending on the company selected. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-50
• BYP 10-4 DECISION MAKING ACROSS THE ORGANIZATION (a) Reimer Company—Straight-line method Annual Depreciation Building [(\$320,000 – \$20,000) ÷ 40] ................................ \$ 7,500 Equipment [(\$110,000 – \$10,000) ÷ 10]............................ 10,000 Total annual depreciation................................................. \$17,500 Total accumulated depreciation (\$17,500 X 3) ....................... \$52,500 Lingo Company—Double-declining-balance method Annual Accumulated Year Asset Computation Depreciation Depreciation 2006 Building \$320,000 X 5% \$16,000 Equipment \$110,000 X 20% 22,000 \$38,000 2007 Building \$304,000 X 5% 15,200 Equipment \$ 88,000 X 20% 17,600 32,800 2008 Building \$288,800 X 5% 14,440 Equipment \$ 70,400 X 20% 14,080 28,520 \$99,320 (b) Lingo Reimer Company Company Net Income Year Net Income As Adjusted Computations for Lingo Company 2006 \$ 84,000 \$ 88,500 \$68,000 + \$38,000 – \$17,500 = \$88,500 2007 88,400 91,300 \$76,000 + \$32,800 – \$17,500 = \$91,300 2008 90,000 96,020 \$85,000 + \$28,520 – \$17,500 = \$96,020 Total net income \$262,400 \$275,820 (c) As shown above, when the two companies use the same depreciation method, Lingo Company is more profitable than Reimer Company. When the two companies are using different depreciation methods, Lingo Company has more cash than Reimer Company for two reasons: © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-51
• BYP 10-4 (Continued) (1) its earnings are generating more cash than the earnings of Reimer Company, and (2) depreciation expense has no effect on cash. Cash generated by operations can be arrived at by adding depreciation expense to net income. If this is done, it can be seen that Lingo Company’s opera- tions generate more cash (\$229,000 + \$99,320 = \$328,320) than Reimer Company’s (\$262,400 + \$52,500 = \$314,900). Based on the above analysis, Mrs. Vogts should buy Lingo Company. It not only is in a better financial position than Reimer Company, but it is also more profitable. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-52
• BYP 10-5 COMMUNICATION ACTIVITY To: Instructor From: Student Re: American Exploration Company footnote American Exploration Company accounts for its oil and gas activities using the successful efforts approach. Under this method, only the costs of suc- cessful exploration are included in the cost of the natural resource, and the costs of unsuccessful explorations are expensed. Depletion is determined using the units-of-activity method. Under this method, a depletion cost per unit is computed based on the total number of units expected to be extracted. Depletion expense for the year is determined by multiplying the units extracted and sold by the depletion cost per unit. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-53
• BYP 10-6 ETHICS CASE (a) The stakeholders in this situation are: Dennis Harwood, president of Buster Container Company. Shelly McGlone, controller. The stockholders of Buster Container Company. Potential investors in Buster Container Company. (b) The intentional misstatement of the life of an asset or the amount of the salvage value is unethical for whatever the reason. There is nothing per se unethical about changing the estimate either of the life of an asset or of an asset’s salvage value if the change is an attempt to better match cost and revenues and is a better allocation of the asset’s depreciable cost over the asset’s useful life. In this case, it appears from the controller’s reaction that the revisions in the life are intended only to improve earn- ings and, therefore, are unethical. The fact that the competition uses a longer life on its equipment is not necessarily relevant. The competition’s maintenance and repair policies and activities may be different. The competition may use its equipment fewer hours a year (e.g., one shift rather than two shifts daily) than Buster Container Company. (c) Income before income taxes in the year of change is increased \$140,000 by implementing the president’s proposed changes. Old Estimates Asset cost \$3,100,000 Estimated salvage 300,000 Depreciable cost 2,800,000 Depreciation per year (1/8) \$ 350,000 Revised Estimates Asset cost \$3,100,000 Estimated salvage 300,000 Depreciable cost 2,800,000 Depreciation taken to date (\$350,000 X 2) 700,000 2,100,000 Remaining life in years ÷ 10 years Depreciation per year \$ 210,000 © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-54
• BYP 10-7 ALL ABOUT YOU ACTIVITY (a) 1 c 2 b 3 a 4 d 5 c (b) For the most part, the value of a brand is not reported on a company’s balance sheet. Most companies are required to expense all costs related to the maintenance of a brand name. Also any research and development that went into the development of the related product is generally expensed. The only way significant costs related to the value of the brand are reported on balance sheet is when a company purchases another company that has a significant tradename (brand). In that case, given an objective transaction, companies are able to assign value to the brand and report it on the balance sheet. A conservative approach is used in this area because the value of the brand can be extremely difficult to determine. It should be noted that international rules permit companies to report brand values on their balance sheets. © 2009 For Instructor Use Only 10-55