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Krashens Five Hypotheses
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Krashens Five Hypotheses

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  • 1. Stephen Krashen’s L2 Acquisition Theory Compiled by Doris Shih
  • 2. Outline for Today
    • The acquisition-learning hypothesis
    • The natural order hypothesis
    • The monitor hypothesis
    • The input hypothesis
    • The affective filter hypothesis
  • 3.
    • What are the causative variables in second language acquisition?
  • 4.
    • For you, does language teaching really help? When does it help and when does it NOT help?
  • 5. Effecting Variables
    • Comprehensible input (causative)
    • Strength of the filter (causative)
    • Language teaching
    • Exposure variable
    • Age
    • Acculturation
  • 6.  
  • 7. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
    • Acquisition = subconsciously picking up
    • Learning = conscious
      • Error correction
      • Explicit instruction
    • Children acquire language better than adults
  • 8. The Natural Order Hypothesis
    • Grammar structures are acquired in a predictable order
    • L2 learning order is different from L1 order
    • L2 learning adults and children show similar order
  • 9. ING (progressive) PLURAL COPULA (“to be”) AUXILIARY ARTICLE IRREGULAR PAST REGULAR PAST SINGULAR (-s) POSSESSIVE (-s) The order for L2 learners (Krashen, 1977)
  • 10. The Monitor Hypothesis
    • Acquisition has the central role
    • Learning functions as a Monitor
    • 3 conditions needed to use Monitor
      • Time
      • Focus on form
      • Know the rule
    • When Monitor is not used, errors are natural
    • Pedagogically: study of grammar has a place, but a limited one
  • 11. The Input Hypothesis
    • We acquire by comprehensible input (i) + 1
    • Input Hypothesis relates to acquisition, not learning
    • Focus not on structure but on understanding the message
    • Do not teach structure deliberately; i+1 is provided naturally when input is understood
    • Production ability emerges. It’s not taught directly
  • 12. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
    • Motivation
    • Self-confidence
    • Anxiety
    • Lower affective filter will go further
  • 13. The affective filter Language Input Affective Filter Acquired Competence Language Acquisition Device
  • 14. Reference
    • Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall, 1987.