Gamification and Improved Engagement

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Could gamification be the answer to improved engagement in your classroom?

Presented by Kahiwa Sebire, Solutions Engineer at Blackboard at the Taking Education Beyond Borders Forum in Cairns.

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  • What do you think it is?
    Is it, like this girl, playing video games in class?
    Is it about those apps and software that promise to “make education fun!”?
  • Here are some examples of popular games and some of the individual elements that I thought describes them. What do you think?
  • If the idea of gamification is to apply game elements to non-game contexts, what are your thoughts on these, would you agree that they might represent gamification?
  • What do these Game elements look like in an educational context?
    How familiar do they look?
  • We’ve talked about what gamification is, but I suppose the most important this to discuss is why should you care? Why would I propose that it could be the answer to improved engagement?

    Throughout today we’ve talked about various ways to increase learner engagement and motivation, because the literature shows that an engaged and motivated learner is more likely to be a successful learner. But why?
  • So, why should we care about motivation?
  • Ryan and Deci did a review of 100 pieces of literature around motivation, and came up with this classification
  • One of the key points I took from it was a discussion of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
  • I assume we all have an idea of some kind of what intrinsic motivation is -> being inspired to do something by a pressure outside of your self.
  • Extrinsic motivation isn’t all bad though. Ryan and Deci separated out it out into 4 “types” with these two interesting components: internalisation and integration.

    Internalisation is the process of taking in a value or regulation
    Integration is the process by which individuals more fully transform the regulation in to their own so that it will emanate from their sense of self.

    The question becomes how to foster the internalisation and integration of values and behavioural regulations
  • Amotivation
    – activity has no value
    - don’t feel competent
    don’t believe that it will bring about a desired outcome

    Active
    Greater persistence
    More positive self-perception
    Better quality of engagement
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  • Gamification and Improved Engagement

    1. 1. ® Gamification: The answer to improved engagement? Kahiwa Sebire Solutions Engineer Kahiwa.Sebire@blackboard.com @thisiskahiwa
    2. 2. What is “Gamification”? 2
    3. 3. Fun Lazzaro's "Four Fun Keys": • Personal triumph over adversity (Hard fun) • Curiosity (Easy fun) • Relaxation/Excitement (Serious fun) • Amusement (People Fun)
    4. 4. I declare a MMP Thumb War • Joy • Relief • Love • Surprise • Pride • Curiosity • Excitement • Awe & Wonder • Contentment • Creativity McGonigal's challenge: 10 positive emotions of gaming
    5. 5. Deterding et al, 2011 “Use of game design elements in non-game contexts” Gamification is:
    6. 6. Deterding et al, 2011 “Use of game design elements in non-game contexts” Gamification is: - Jane McGonigal Game consists of: 1. Goal(s) 2. Rules/Constraints 3. Feedback 4. Voluntary participation Game mechanics: "constructs of rules and feedback loops intended to produce enjoyable gameplay" - Gamification.org
    7. 7. Game design elements • Tetris: levels, usually of increasing difficulty • Angry Birds: scaffolded instruction to build competency • WoW: group-focus, community of peers • Black Ops: constant feedback • Monopoly: clear goal with clear obstacles/constraints • FarmVille: recognition for level completion • Chess: choice and strategy
    8. 8. Are these gamification?
    9. 9. So in a learning context... • levels, usually of increasing difficulty • scaffolded instruction to build competency • group-focus, community of peers • constant feedback • clear goal with clear obstacles/constraints • recognition for level completion • choice and strategy
    10. 10. Nicholson, 2012 “Underlying the concept of gamification is motivation” Why Gamification?
    11. 11. Ryan and Deci, 2000 “To be motivated means to be moved to do something … energised or activated toward an end” Why motivation?
    12. 12. Motivation continuum Ryan and Deci, 2000
    13. 13. Motivation continuum Ryan and Deci, 2000
    14. 14. Motivation Extrinsic & Intrinsic "Moved to act for fun or challenge, rather than external prods, pressures or rewards" Ryan and Deci, 2000
    15. 15. "Moved to act for fun or challenge, rather than external prods, pressures or rewards" Motivation Extrinsic & Intrinsic Internalisation v Integration
    16. 16. Motivation continuum Internalisation Amotivation / unwillingness Passive compliance Active personal commitment Ryan and Deci, 2000
    17. 17. Motivation continuum “Knowing how to promote more active and volitional (versus passive and controlling) forms of extrinsic motivation becomes an essential strategy for successful teaching.” Internalisation Amotivation / unwillingness Passive compliance Active personal commitment Ryan and Deci, 2000
    18. 18. Subway stairs www.youtube.com/v/2lXh2n0aPyw
    19. 19. Subway stairs What would this look like if it were all about points?
    20. 20. Samsung Pedometer • Goal • Feedback • Choice • Voluntary participation
    21. 21. So in a learning context... • levels, usually of increasing difficulty • scaffolded instruction to build competency • group-focus, community of peers • constant feedback • clear goal with clear obstacles/constraints • recognition for level completion • choice and strategy
    22. 22. So, in a learning context... Image: badges Organisation-centred User-centred Competency tracking Self-direction Guided/scaffolded path Feedback Completion recognition
    23. 23. Competency tracking
    24. 24. Scaffolding
    25. 25. Guided learning path
    26. 26. Feedback - delayed
    27. 27. Feedback - instantaneous
    28. 28. Feedback - goals/constraints
    29. 29. Feedback – progress and performance
    30. 30. Moodlerooms
    31. 31. Sources • Nicole Lazzaro. http://www.nicolelazzaro.com/the4-keys-to-fun/ accessed 23 June 2014 • Jane McGonigal "Thumb war" https://www.ted.com/talks/jane_mcgonigal_massively_multi_player_ thumb_wrestling accessed 23 June 2014 • Deterding et al, 2011. From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”. MindTrek’11, September 28-30, 2011, Tampere, Finland. • Nicholson, S. (2012, June). A User-Centered Theoretical Framework for Meaningful Gamification. Paper Presented at Games+Learning+Society 8.0, Madison, WI. • Ryan and Deci, 2000. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 54–67 (2000) 31
    32. 32. ® Thank you Kahiwa Sebire Solutions Engineer Kahiwa.Sebire@blackboard.com @thisiskahiwa
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