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  • 1. How to Reference The Harvard Referencing System Yale College, PGCE Year 1 Carys Davies 2007
  • 2. Why do we need to use reading in our work?
    • In order to be ‘a reflective practitioner’ (Sch ön,1991), we need to understand the theory of education and then reflect on how this informs our practice.
  • 3. The Harvard Referencing System
    • When you write an assignment you will need to refer to literature that you have read in order to support your argument or outline a theory. You must acknowledge the source of all works that you refer to by citing references.
    • Not acknowledging your sources, is called plagiarism.
  • 4. The Harvard Referencing System
    • References are essential for the following reasons:
    • To prove that you have researched your topic and that you have considered your ideas in terms of published educational material
    • To substantiate your ideas and arguments
    • To acknowledge the source of your information and ideas
    • To distinguish between your own opinions and those of others
    • To enable your readers to locate the course of your ideas and study the material themselves
  • 5. The Harvard Referencing System
    • This is most commonly used system of referencing:
    • Put the surname and year of the reference in brackets e.g. (Bell, 1999) in the body of your text where you have made use of someone’s work.
    • At the end of your work make a list entitled ‘References’ and give the full reference of all the works your have cited alphabetically: e.g.
    • References
    • Bell, J. (1999), Doing Your Research Project: A Guide to For First Time Researchers in Education and Social Science , Third Edition. Buckingham: Open University Press
    • Bowen, M. and Costello, P.J.M. (1996), The Rights of the Child . Cambridge: Independence Educational Publishers
    • Follow the punctuation and ordering exactly
  • 6. Activity -Place the following into a paragraph, and then write it out in the correct format for the reference list:
    • ‘ Referencing is incredibly important as it distinguishes what are other people’s ideas and allows us to consider whether we agree or disagree with them.’ Page 2
    • How to Reference
    • by
    • Carys Davies
    • Published
    • Yale College Publishers, Wrexham
    • 2008
  • 7. The Harvard Referencing System: references in the text
    • Examples of incorporating references in your text :
    • The original conclusions (Williams, 1990) have now been questioned (Reynolds, 1994).
    • If the author’s name occurs naturally you can add the date in brackets.
    • The original conclusions have been questioned by Reynolds (1994) and Roberts (1995).
    • If you use a direct quote, you must include the page number.
    • I agree with the views of Roberts (1995, p.363) who suggests that ‘the most significant issue is student behaviour.’
  • 8. The Harvard Referencing System: references in the text
    • Where there are 2 authors, both should appear in brackets:
    • A recent study (Williams and Reynolds, 1996)
    • If there are 3 or more authors, only the first should appear and you should use the term ‘et al’
    • In a recent report by Smith et al (1996)
    • When an author has more than one work in the same year, label the dates with a, b, c etc
    • Dillon (1999a)
  • 9. The Harvard Referencing System: references in the text
    • Internet References should be incorporated into your text as follows:
    • Teaching Thinking is a journal ‘dedicated to promoting critical and creative thinking’ (Imaginative Minds, 2004, www.teachthinking.com )
  • 10. The Harvard Referencing System: the reference list
    • There is a strict convention about how references should appear in the reference list.
    • They must be alphabetically listed
    • The correct punctuation is important
    • The use of italics is important as it tells us what type of text the source material is.
    • No ‘et al’ should be used, the full details of all authors must be supplied
  • 11. The Harvard Referencing System: the reference list
    • Books
    • Each author’s name and all initials
    • The year of the publication in brackets, followed by a comma
    • The title of the book in italics
    • The edition, if more than the first
    • The place of publication
    • The publisher’s name
    • Use (ed.) or (eds.) if the book has been compiled by an editor or editors.
    • Andrews, R. (ed.) (1989), Narrative and Argument . Milton Keynes: Open University Press
    • Bell, J. (1999), Doing Your Research Project: A Guide to For First Time Researchers in Education and Social Science , Third Edition. Buckingham: Open University Press
    • Bowen, M. and Costello, P.J.M. (1996), The Rights of the Child . Cambridge: Independence Educational Publishers
  • 12. The Harvard Referencing System: the reference list
    • Journals
    • Each author’s name and initials
    • The year of publication in brackets, followed by a comma
    • The title of the article in single inverted commas
    • The title of the journal in italics
    • The volume number and part number or month of the issue
    • The number of the first and last pages of the article
    • Castles, J. (2004), ‘Persistence and the adult learner: factors affecting persistence in Open University students’, Active Learning in Higher Education , Vol. 5, No. 2, pp.166-179
  • 13. The Harvard Referencing System: the reference list
    • Internet Sources
    • Only use internet sources when you know who actually produces it. For example, using TES online (Time Educational Supplement) is a reputable source. A teacher’s blog may not be.
    • Cite in the usual way but also add the date you accessed the site.
    • National Primary Trust (undated), Birmingham Children’s University, www.cup.powernet.co.uk
    • Electronically accessed 3 October, 2006.
  • 14. Referencing – Good Practice
    • Referencing is not just about citing the source!
    • e.g. Cohen (1992), studied indoctrination in the classroom
    • So what! Integrate the argument and use Cohen to support your point, not to provide a point in itself.
    • The concerns I have regarding imposing my own opinion on students in the classroom are reinforced by Cohen (1982, p.86) who feels that ‘everything that goes on in the ordinary classrooms of apparently liberal societies is in fact indoctrination.’
    • This is effective reflective writing –using references and reading to illuminate your own teaching practice.
  • 15. Activity Two
    • Have a go at amending the paragraph into the Harvard system.
    • Discuss how the references have been integrated into this paragraph. Why is this style of writing effective?
  • 16. Integrating the LLUK standards
    • You will also have to integrate the LLUK professional standards for teaching into your evaluations and reflective journals.
    • These need to be:
    • Purposefully used and integrated into the body of the work
    • Formally referenced at the end
  • 17. Activity
    • Example:
    • Paragraph on safety:
    • Safety at work is an important topic in my vocational area and students study a module on safety at work. I believe that this is an important unit of study but that also our work environments also have to follow these procedures stringently as AS6 Professional Values states that teachers should be ‘committed to agreed codes of practice and the maintenance of a safe environment.’ It is not enough to theorise, students need to see safety procedures in operation in order for them to understand how they work in the vocational environment. AP6.2 also reinforces the importance of this practice, stating that teachers should maintain ‘a learning environment which conforms to statutory requirements.’ This also applies to more broadly to safety as an emotional right, the ‘promotion of equality.’ This is not covered in the core unit of the safety at work module, and I believe it should be as safety can also be interpreted as being free from bullying at work.