Crane safety technical

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Crane safety technical

  1. 1. SAFETY IN CRANEOPERATIONS
  2. 2. CRANESMOBILECRANETOWERCRANEGANTRYCRANEOVERHEADTRAVERSECRANECRANE WITHHEAVY LIFTATTACHMENTCRAWLERMAUNTEDWHEELMOUNTEDFORKLIFTSSEMIGANTRYCRANECANTILEVERGANTRYCRANETYPES OF CRANETYPES OF CRANE
  3. 3. CRAWLER MOUNTED LATTICE BOOMCRANES - NOMENCLATURE
  4. 4. CALCULATING THE SIDE CLEARENCEAND HEAD ROOM
  5. 5. CALCULATING THE SIDE CLEARENCEAND HEAD ROOMrRAD CO BDCOBACABDCOB X ACAB
  6. 6. SAFE USAGE OF CRANESAFE USAGE OF CRANEVARIOUS LOAD TO BE CONSIDERED:1. VERTICAL FORCES DUE TO LOAD /WEIGHT OF CRANE2. HORIZONTAL INERTIA3. SLEWING FORCES4. WIND FORCES5. SIESMIC FORCES
  7. 7. STABILITY OF THESTABILITY OF THECRANECRANECRANE ACT AS A LEVERC.W.wFULCRUMTHE FULCRUM IS NOT A POINTCONTACT. AREA OF CRAWLERSACTS LIKE THIS
  8. 8. CRANE ACT AS A LEVERSTABILITY OF THESTABILITY OF THECRANECRANE
  9. 9. FOUR PARAMETERS ARE IMPORTANT1. OPERATING RADIUS2. HEIGHT3. BOOM LENGTH4. WEIGHT OF THE LIFT
  10. 10. FOUR PARAMETERS ARE IMPORTANTr
  11. 11. TIPPING DUE TO IMPROPER GROUNDCONDITION
  12. 12. TIPPING DUE TO OVERLOADINGr
  13. 13. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS OF CRANESSTABILITY OF CRANE AGAINST TOPPLING:STABILITY CONSIDERATION IS THE MAINCONCEPT CONTROLLING LOAD RATING IN ACRANE. HENCE THE ELEMENTS WHICHCONTRIBUTE TO ACT AGAINST STABILITYSHOULD BE KNOWN :IT IS GENERAL PRACTICE, THAT BASED ONSTABILITY THE CRANE RATING ARE SET AS APERCENTAGE OF TIPPING LOAD AND IN CASE OF‘TATA CRANE’ ALL RATINGS INDICATE, 75% OFTIPPING LOADS
  14. 14. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS OF CRANESTHE TIPPING STAGE ONCE REACHED, THE CRANEMAY START TILTING.WHEN THE CRANE STARTS TILTING, OPERATORIS IN A VERY DIFFICULT POSITION TO CONTROLTHE PROBABLE ACCIDENT BECAUSE THE TILTINGMOVEMENT IS FAIRLY RAPID.THIS FOLLOWS THE LOAD GETTING OUT OFRADIUS, MORE AND MORE AND ULTIMATELYLEADING TO THE ACCIDENT.
  15. 15. OPTIONS OF THE OPERATOR1. TO DROP THE LOAD WHICH POSES SERIOUSTHREAT. THE OPERATOR SHOULD POSTPONETHIS OPTION UNTIL IT APPEARS THAT OVER-TURNING OF THE CRANE IS INEVITABLE2. BOOMING IN (HOISTING THE BOOM) QUICKLYCAN RECOVER STABILITY BUT THIS REQUIRESVERY FAST ACTION FROM THE OPERATOR.
  16. 16. CRANE BOOM FAILURE•BOOM SUSPENSION IS REQUIRED WHENLENGTH OF THE BOOM IS MORE THAN 70 FT.•WITH MAXIMUM BOOM LENGTH AND GANTRY INFOLDING POSITION - CRANE SHOULD NOTTRAVEL.•WITH GANTRY LOW (FOLDING POSITION) NOLOAD SHOULD BE LIFTED
  17. 17. FROZEN LOAD HANDLINGTHE LOAD WHICH IS FROZEN ON THE GROUNDSHOULD BE LOOSENED UP BY OTHER MEANSNOT BY USING CRANE POWER.IN THE TOP MOST PART BUCKLING TENDENCYIS OBSERVEDBOOM SHOULD NOT BE LOADED BY OTHERLOAD OTHER THAN DESIGNATED LOAD
  18. 18. FROZEN LOAD HANDLING
  19. 19. CONSEQUENCES OF FROZEN LOADHANDLING
  20. 20. BOOM OVER CAB ACCIDENTBOOM BACK STOP DOES NOT STOP BOOMFROM GOING BACKWARDS, BUT IT HELPS TO :1. PREVENT THE OPERATOR’S CABIN FROMBEING DAMAGED - WORKING AS A WEDGE2. WHILE TRAVELLING WITH LOAD ON UNEVENSURFACE IT PROVIDES CUSHIONING
  21. 21. BOOM OVER CAB ACCIDENTREASONS:1. IMPROPER ADJUSTMENT OF CLUTCH.2. OPERATOR’S FAILURE TO DISENGAGE THECLUTCH.OPERATOR CAN SEE THE BOOM BACK STOPAND ASSESS THE CONDITION TO TAKE ACTION
  22. 22. BOOM BACKSTOP
  23. 23. “BOOM - OVER - CAB” ACCIDENT
  24. 24. PREVENTION OF “BOOM - OVER - CAB” ACCIDENT1. MANY PEOPLE MISTAKENLY FEEL THAT BOOM BACKSTOPPROVIDED ON A CRANE WILL PREVENT BOOM-OVER-CABOCCURRENCE.THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN POSSIBLE ONLY IF THE BOOM IS PULLEDTOWARDS THE CAB WITH FAIRLY LOW LEVEL PULLS AND A DEVICEPROVIDED IN THE BOOM HOIST CLUTCH, TO SLIP WHENENCOUNTERED LOAD RESISTANCE, BEYOND CERTAIN SAFEAMOUNT OF PULLS, WITH SIMULTANIOUS ALERT SIGNAL TOOPERATOR FOR CORRECTIVE CONTROL ACTION.HENCE ‘TATA’ CRANES ARE FURNUSHED WITH BOOM HOIST KICK-OUT IN ADDITION TO BOOM BACK STOPS. THE BOOM HOIST CUT-OUTSTOPS THE LIFTING MOTION WHEN THE BOOM REACHES CERTAINPREDECIDED ANGLE. A FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OF THIS TYPE WOULDPREVENT OVER LIFTING OCCURRENCE. THE CRANE OPERATORSHOULD ENSURE THAT THE BOOM HOIST KICK-OUT DEVICE IS INOPERATIVE CONDITION ON DAILY BASIS.
  25. 25. PREVENTION OF “BOOM - OVER - CAB” ACCIDENTHOWEVER THE POSSIBILITY OF BOOM-OVER-CAB ACCIDENTIS STILL NOT COMPLETELY RULED OUT AND REMAININGFACTORS WHICH COULD CAUSE SUCH AN ACCIDENT ISDEPENDENT ON OPERATOR’S JUDGEMENT. THE CONDITIONCAUSING SUCH AN ACCIDENT ARE AS UNDER:1. DROPPING OF A HEAVY LOAD SUDDENLY OR ACCIDENTLYWITH BOOM AT NEAR VERTICAL ANGLE OR SUDDEN FAILUREOF HOIST ROPE.2. WHEN TRAVELLING ON ROUGH TRAVEL PATHS CAUSINGEXCESSIVE BOUNCE
  26. 26. BOOM KICK OUT- FOR TATA CRANEHOW IT FUNCTIONS:WHEN THE HYDRAULIC KICK OUT SWITCH ISDEPRESSED DUE TO BOOM OVER-HOISTING, THEOIL UNDER PRESSURE FROM THE COMPENSATOR,IS RETURNED BACK TO ZERO PRESSURE OF THERESERVOIR LINE, THEREBY DISENGAGING THEBOOM HOIST CLUTCH.
  27. 27. THE PURPOSE OF BOOM BACKSTOPS IS THEREFORELIMITED TO FOLLOWING1. TO GIVE VISUAL INDICATION TO CRANEOPERATOR THAT HE IS REACHING UNSAFE ANGLE.2. IN CASE OF BOOM-OVER-CAB ACCIDENTOCCURING, THE DAMAGE TO MACHINE IS LIMITEDTO BENDING OF BOOM WHICH WOULD ARCH OVERTHE DECK MACHINERY, AVOIDING A DIRECT HIT ONTHE MACHINE.3. TO ABSORB MINOR BOUNCING ON THE BOOM,RAISED CLOSE TO MAXIMUM ANGLE WHEN THECRANE IS MOVING WITH LOAD.
  28. 28. SAFETY RULES FOR CRANE OPERATORS1. NEVER PICK UP A LOAD BEYOND THE RATEDLOAD CAPACITY AT THE GIVEN ANGLE AND THELENGTH OF THE BOOM2. NEVER MOVE THE LOAD OR THE CRANEUNLESS CLEARED BY THE SIGNALER ON THEJOB. THIS IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT WHEN THELOAD IS HANDLED BY MORE THAN ONE CRANE.3. WHEN THERE ARE SEVERAL PERSONS ON THEJOB OBEY SIGNAL FROM ONLY THE PERSONASSIGNED AS THE SPOTTER (SIGNALLER). OBEYON EMERGENCY STOP SIGNAL GIVEN BY ANYONE.
  29. 29. 4. WHEN RAISING, LOWERING OR SLEWINGTHE LOAD, PLEASE ENSURE THAT IT WOULDSAFELY CLEAR ADJACENT STOCK PILES ORMACHINERY.5. NEVER LEAVE THE CRANE, WITH LOADSUSPENDED.SAFETY RULES FOR CRANE OPERATORS
  30. 30. SAFETY RULES FOR THE HOOK ON HELPER1. BEFORE BEGINNING EACH SHIFT, CHECKSLINGS, CHAIN, HOOKS ETC.2. WHEN CRANE IS TRAVELLING, WALK AHEADOF THE LOAD. NEVER PERMIT ANYBODY UNDERTHE LOAD.

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