Shock tactics –Better effect on theaudience and very strong motivator
Fear Appeals Very common in marketing and every day life Persuasive information evoking fear or concern Frightening negative descriptions with negative or painful consequences People pay attention to message Adopting recommendations in the message Category of emotional appeals
Extended Parallel Process Model Fear = multidimensional Messages could lead to 2 opposing mechanisms: Danger control (message regarded as serious and recommendation in the ad is followed) Fear control (physical defense mechanism reducing fear leading to resistance) Positive reaction: perceived self-efficacy is higher than the perceived threat
Threat and recommendation Threat on a moderate level (not too strong to force ―freezing‖, strong enough to be taken seriously) Recommendations are good, recognizable, realistic, convincing Emotion not the most important component description and recommendations have to be worked out well Pattern of fear (fear only, fear-relief)
Vulnerability Extent to which a person things he is vulnerable Largest effect in behavior when person thinks he is vulnerable If not: no effect by information about serious consequences Often misperceptions, denial, misunderstanding of the threat E.g. AIDS prevention for college students
Target audience Different people fear different things Consider response of target audience Promotion people Prevention people Different reactions depending on culture, age, gender etc. Study with Canadian and Chinese smokers
Disgust as enhancing factor Fear + disgust = emotions of avoidance Fear: avoidance reaction when threat is imminent Disgust: immediate action after threat Experiment with different groups, based on questionnaire Result: disgust provides a positive enhancing boost to fear appeals
Tips from former smokersTargeting smokers ages18 to 34, it featuredformer smokers whowere horribly disfiguredand scarred fromsmoking relating theirown personal stories.
Check yourself before youwreck yourself with a stranger,because you dont know whochecked in before you.– spots, for the AIDS Council
Lauren Luke is anexpert at coveringthings up—which iswhy shes the perfectspokeswoman for acampaign urging theopposite when itcomes to domesticviolence.
References Bachman, K. (2012). Feds Anti-Smoking Fear Campaign Scares Up Quitters: 50,000 dump the habit. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012, from http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/feds-anti-smoking-fear-campaign- scares-quitters-141682. Bachman, K. (2012). Fear Factor: Feds Launch New Anti-Smoking Campaign: Ads mimic blocked tobacco warning labels. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012 from http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/fear-factor- feds-launch-new-anti-smoking-campaign-138975. Belch, G. E., & Belch, M. A. (2007). Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Cullers, R. (2012). Think Twice Before Foursquaring That Stranger, Say AIDS Ads: Who checked in before you?. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012 from http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/think-twice-foursquaring-stranger-say-aids- ads-144627. De Pelsmacker P., et al. (2009). Marketing Communications: A European Perspective. New York: Prentice Hall. Laroche, M., et al. (2001). A cross-cultural study of the persuasive effect of fear appeal messages in cigarette advertising: China and Canada. International Journal of Advertising, 20(3), 297-317. LaTour, M. S. & Pitts, R. E. (1989). Using Fear Appeals in Advertising for AIDS Prevention in the College-Age Population. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 9(3), 5-14. Mayfield, Z. (2006). Fear Appeal Messages and Their Effectiveness in Advertising. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/fear-appeal-messages-their-effectiveness-advertising-31626.html. Nelfa (2011). The Appeal of Fear Appeals. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012 from http://nelfa.wordpress.com/2011/01/14/the-appeal-of-fear-appeals/. Nudd, T. (2012). Ad of the Day: Refuge Lauren Luke covers up cuts and bruises in BBHs well-placed domestic- violence PSA. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012 from http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/ad-day-refuge- 141551. Fill, C. (2009). Marketing Communications: Engagement, Strategies, and Practice. Harlow: Prentice Hall. SWOV (2011). SWOV Fact sheet: Fear-based information campaigns. Retrieved Oct 20, from http://www.swov.nl/rapport/Factsheets/UK/FS_Fear_appeals.pdf. Weinreich, N. (2006). Making Fear-Based Campaigns Work. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012 from http://blog.social- marketing.com/2006/06/making-fear-based-campaigns-work.html. Witte, K. & Allen, M. (2000). A Meta-Analysis of Fear Appeals: Implications for Effective Public Health Campaigns. Health Educ Behav, 27(5), 591-615. doi: 10.1177/109019810002700506. Young People’s Response to Intended Shocking Road Safety Messages (2007). Retrieved Oct 20,2012 from http://www.slideserve.com/cher/fear-appeals.
Images Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Shawns Ad. Retrieved Oct 23, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/resources/ads/tips-ad-shawn-full-v1a.pdf. Evaxebra (2008). Bloodbath. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/evaxebra/2908893510/sizes/l/. Hawk, Thomas (2006). The Calm After the Show. Retrieved Oct 23, 2012 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/155918164/sizes/l/in/photostream/. JessArt (2009). Frightened. Retrieved Oct 23, 2012 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/36671572@N04/4142165844/sizes/l/in/photostream/. Martin, David (2009). Shoot him, now that you can!!!. Retrieved Oct 23, 2012 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/salaboli/3370155708/sizes/z/in/photostream/. Shandi-lee (2010). Pieces. Retrieved Oct 20, 2012, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/shandilee/5022057355/sizes/l/. Wiseacre photo (2006). Through the mouth of your eye through the eye of the needle its easier for me to get closer to heaven than ever feel whole again. Retrieved Oct 23, 2012 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/wiseacre/175479093/sizes/l/in/photostream/. Woplu (2009). Queuing. Retrieved Oct 23, 2012 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/wklemp/3375764665/sizes/l/in/photostream/.
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