Incubation Period A person does not develop AIDS as soon as he or she becomes infected with HIV. The interval between infection with HIV to onset of the disease, AIDS is between 3 and 10 years. During this incubation period the person may not have any symptoms and, therefore, may not be aware that he or she is infected. This contributes to the spread of HIV, since the person can transmit the infection to others without realizing it. For children the incubation period is much shorter because their immune systems are not fully developed. Most children who are infected at birth develop AIDS and die within five years.
The chart above shows the distribution of reported AIDS cases by age and sex since 1986. Each vertical bar shows the number of reported AIDS cases in a particular five-year age group. Males are shown on the left and females on the right. More than 75 percent of AIDS, and therefore of the resulting AIDS deaths occur to adults between the ages of 20 and 45. Since this is the most economically productive part of the population, these deaths constitute a serious economic burden. This is also the age when investments in education are just beginning to pay off. These deaths also have severe consequences for children since most people in this age group are raising young children. Male and female cases are about equal. This is because HIV is predominantly transmitted through heterosexual contact. The peak ages for AIDS cases are 25-29 for females and 30-34 for males. Young women in the age groups 15-19 and 20-24 are more than twice as likely to have AIDS as males in the same age group. About 10 percent of reported AIDS cases occur in children under five years of age. Most of these cases are due to mother-to-child transmission. The absence of many AIDS cases in the 5-14 year old age group indicates that infection is not spread by mosquitoes or casual contact such as shaking hands.
Saying &quot;NO&quot; to sex has many advantages! Avoid Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). These diseases are spread by sexual contact. Avoid Pregnancy. Pregnancy will change your life. It can make it hard for you to finish school - and to get a good job. The only sure way to avoid pregnancy is not to have sex. Keep Religious or Moral Values. Many people feel it's important to be a virgin until marriage. Abstaining from sex is a way to be true to these values. Boost Your Self-Esteem. The best way to build your self-esteem (how you feel about yourself) is to treat yourself with respect. Don't let others pressure you to do anything you're not ready for. Abstinence Isn't Forever. If you decide to abstain, it doesn't mean you'll never have sex - it just means you've decided to wait.
Deciding to say &quot;NO&quot; is easy - but saying &quot;NO&quot; may not be. Practice your responses with a friend or parent today. Tips for Success Be assertive, learn to speak up for yourself. Use &quot;I&quot; statements, use positive body language, stay calm, and most of all don't give in to pressure. Set your limits before you get into a situation where you may be pressured to go even further. Practice saying &quot;NO&quot; as if you really mean it. Refuse to talk about the subject anymore. Talk about your feelings, don't make the person guess how far you'll go. Don't use alcohol and other drugs as they can make it hard for you to say &quot;NO&quot; when you want to. Reach out to others to get the facts about sex from an informed adult.
The only real protection against AIDS today isn’t condoms. It’s what I call true love . It’s a married man and woman loving and serving God, loving and serving each other and loving and caring for their children with all their heart and being – and not letting anything or anyone violate that family of love. Each family member lives for the sake of others and the family lives for the sake of the community. AIDS can’t possibly enter into that kind of family. It can’t touch their children who would value and save their sexual love till marriage. If we have a world full of such families, what do you suppose would happen to AIDS and other STD’s?” Dr. Ahmed said. “I think they would disappear,” Tunde said. “You bet they would! No one would be infected by them.” True Love and living for the sake of others will cut HIV/AIDS transmission to ZERO. Learning true love is a life-long task, and constant education is needed to realize that purity is so important, and it can be lost in one thoughtless second.
Interreligious & International Federation for World Peace Healthy Lifestyle SeriesLiving AIDS Free:A Zero-Transmission Lifestyle
Magic Johnsonappeared to be in greatphysical shape. So, hisannouncement that hewas HIV infected wasa complete surprise formany people. Why?Because he did notlook at all sick.
1. HIV enters blood stream through a mucus membrane or a wound. 2. The virus inserts itself into a white blood cell nucleus (left), incapacitates the cell and reproduces itself, then buds out into the blood stream (below). 3. After months oryears, the number ofHIV increases and thewhite blood cell countdecreases. Theimmune system isweakened. Te tbok o A I D S Patho gy ( F e 20) , x o f lo b. 02 T he I nter P athology L abor y net ator
HIV - The Master of Disguise AIDS No Wellness - Illness Opportunistic Symptoms Symptoms Diseases •Fatigue •Cancer •Diarrhea •Malaria Invisible •Weight Loss •Typhoid Hidden •Persistent Fever •Night Sweats •Pneumonia •Tuberculosis •Itchy Skin Rash •Dementia •Swollen Lymph •Rashes & Thrush Nodes •Meningitis 1-10 years or more 1 or more years 1 or more yearsWhite Blood Cell (CD4 Lymphocytes) Count (per microliter) > 500 200 – 500 < 200 Death
Tip of theFull-Blown AIDS Iceberg Opportunistic Diseases AIDS Reportable AIDS T4 cell counts < 200 Visible Symptoms T4 cell count Hidden appear between 200 & 500 No Symptoms, but Infectious Can Infect Others Unknowingly HIV Infection
Alarming Increase in HIV Infection Worldwide 45 Million EstimatedHIVInfectionsWorldwide Millions 1980 2002 World Health Organization
Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, End 2001Living with HIV/AIDS 40 millionNewly infected in 2001 5 millionAIDS deaths in 2001 3 millionAIDS deaths 24.8 million from beginning of epidemicOrphans 14 millionDaily Infections 14 thousand UNDP 2002
Deaths from HIV/AIDS during 2001 Western Europe Eastern Europe & 8 000 Central Asia North Africa 23 000 North America East Asia & Pacific & Middle East 15 000 30 000 South 35 000 Caribbean & South-East Asia 40 000 Sub-Saharan 400 000 Africa 2.2 Latin America Australia 60 000 million & New Zealand <100 Total: 3 millionThe World Health Report 2001, WHO
Leading Causes of Death in Africa, 2000 25.0 22.6 20.0% of 15.0 10.1 9.1Total 10.0 6.7 5.5 4.3 3.6 3.1 2.9 Maternal 5.0 2.3 conditions 0.0 HIV/ Malaria Perinatal Tuber Cerebrovascular AIDS conditions culosis disease Lower Diarrhoeal Measles respiratory disease Ischaemic infections Heart Source: The World Health Report 2001, WHO 01 Ju ly 2 002 s lid e n u m b e r S S A-38 disease
HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa, End 2001 2001 20 – 39% 10 – 20% 5 – 10% 1 – 5% 0 – 1% trend data unavailable outside region 01 Ju ly 2 002 s lid e n u m b e r S S A-4
HIV Prevalence in Military Personnel in AfricaNigeria: 11% among peacekeepers returningfrom Sierra Leone and Liberia vs 5.8% in adultpopulationSouth Africa: 60-70% in military vs 20% inadult population Nigeria AIDS bulletin No 15, May 20, 2000; The Mail & Guardian,8 Pretoria, March 31, 2000; 01 Ju ly 2 002 s lid e n u m b e r S S A-1 UNAIDS/WHO 1999 estimate
Africa’s Infection Rate 50x - 100x Higher. Why? Weakened Stigma►HIV Immune Testing Rare System Infectious Social Poverty Climate Economic HIV Impure MedicalWidesprea Water d STDs Rampant Work Migration Poor Medi-cal Why? Migration to Care CitiesMalnutritio Custom Multiple Sex n Partners Sugar Genital Daddies Mutilation Polygamy
SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTIN D IV ID U A HOUS EHOL C O M M U N IT L D Y• L o w s e lf - • Im p o v e r is h • P o ve rty im a g e me nt • In f r a s t r u c t u• S u ic id e • F a m ily c r is is re• Ang e r, • C a re d e t e r io r a t v io le n c e e xpe ns e s es• D e p r e s s io • S in g le • D e a th ra te n pa re nt up• A lie n a t io n • C h ild r e n , • L a b o r c r is is• G u ilt , e ld e r ly • H o m e le s s n s ha me Head of ess,• W it h d r a w a H o u s e h o ld s tre e t l • W id o w s , c h ild r e n• S t ig m a orpha ns • C h ild la b o r ,
How Do You Get AIDS? Non- Sexual 15%85% or more 15% or less Sexual 85% Prof. Olikoye RansomeKuti,Also, barbing & shaving, manicure,ear piercing, tattoos, circumcision Former NigerianAdam’s Healthcare Encyclopedia Minister of Health
Sex with an Infected Partner PHOTO: Alain N.-Sygma Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia 1976 Yearbook.• Prostitution is a major route of HIV transmission• Studies show high rates of HIV infection
From Mother to Child P4/5• 15% to 45% of babies born to HIV mothers become infected• 1500 babies are born with HIV infection each day• 1200 babies die of AIDS each day• Testing of mother & early treatment can reduce infections by two thirds UNAIDS 2002
Your Risk Increases if You:• Have sex outside a committed relationship• Have sex with partner who has not had an HIV test.• Have sex with multiple partners. The more partners, the higher the risk.• Have sex with a partner who has had multiple relationships (even if you don’t know that).• Increase sexual activity because of a false sense of security using condoms, especially if used incorrectly.
You Don’t Get AIDS by:→ Sneezing, coughing→ Simple kiss or embracing→ Insect bites→ Sharing cups, plates, utensils→ Shaking hands or embracing→ Working or playing together→ Normal social contact→ Crowded buses, public baths→ Using telephones
Our Attitude Toward People with HIV • Casual social contact OK • Acceptance at work; need income • Need love & concern, not rejection • When sick, need care • Family needs community support BUT • Be informed for best support, care • Avoid contact with body fluids
Explosive Growth of STDs• In 1960s only 2 common STDs, both curable: Gonorrhea and Syphilis• Now, 2 dozen STDs, some deadly, some incurable• Condoms: limited or no protection• 16-to-24-year-olds most infected group Salmonellosis MolluscumChlamydia Genital Herpes Contagiosum Hepatitis A & B Shigellosis Chancroid Human Papilloma Lymphogranu- Ureaplasmal Virus Syphilis Venereum loma Infections Human Immuno- Amebiasis deficiency Gonorrhea Granuloma Giardiasis Virus Inguinal Campylobacter Cytomegalovirus
AIDS Also Kills Dreams Afro-beat king, Fela Anikulapo-Kuti, became infected and then died from complications of AIDS. His many fans still miss him. Newswatch, 1997Kay Brown, 19, an honour student hoping to enter themilitary, was infected by and then abandoned by herboyfriend. “My career plans were destroyed,” she said. Newsweek 1992 Cornelius Monaheng, infected when he was 24, has dedicated his life to educating young people about the dangers of sex, drugs and alcoholKrista Blake was infected at age 16 by someone whodid not tell her that he was infected. At age 20, shedropped out of college and broke off her engagement.She died at age 22. Newsweek 1992
Protection Against HIV: What are Your Choices?Abstinence...Zero TransmissionBe Faithful...Zero TransmissionCondoms......Less Transmission
Get an HIV TestIf infected: If not infected:• Get help • Change habits• Protect others • Prepare for true love
Safer Sex? P hoto credit: W H O/ U B G BThe o ne o a po lar bar distribu wr f pu ting co m ndo s.How much protection do latexcondoms provide in actual use?
Do Condoms Work?•“There is no scientific evidence that condoms prevent thetransmission of most sexually transmitted diseases.”•Studies show that condoms reduce the risk of transmissionof HIV and gonorrhea in men.•Studies are inconclusive about whether condoms reducethe risk of transmission of gonorrhea in women, chlamy-dia, trichomoniasis, genital herpes, syphilis, &chancroid•Studies say there is no evidence condoms reduce the riskof transmission of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)•More than 100 studies fail to prove that condoms preventor even reduce the transmission of most STDs.
How Effective are Condoms?•“Overall effectiveness for reducing sexual transmissionof HIV through consistent use of condoms isapproximately 80%.”•“Condoms appear to be marginally less effective forreducing HIV transmission than for preventingpregnancy.”Source: Global Health Council, 2002, http://www.globalhealth.org/assets/publications/condoms.pdf•In use by teenagers, condom failure is around 14% (i.e.one in seven).Fu H, Darroch L et al Contraceptive failure rates: New Estimates from the National Survey of FamilyGrowth Fam Plann Persp1999 31 56-63•Therefore, “safe sex” with a condom is not safe.Abstinence and committed marriage are the only trueforms of “safe sex.”Gene Rudd, MD, Associate Executive Director, Christian Medical and Dental Associations, Bristol, TN
Sex Educators Don’t Trust Condoms. Should You?“I asked [800 sex educators] if they knew that a person carried the [HIV] virus, would they have sex, depending on a condom for protection? No one raised their hand.” Source: Dr. Theresa Crenshaw, past president of the American Society of Sex Educators and Therapists, and member of the Presidential AIDS Commission
Condoms Offer False Sense of Security They remove your natural reservations about premarital sex Fear of Fear of Worry about AIDS and Pregnancy Parents’ STDs Disapproval Source: Louis Harris, American Teens Speak, 1986
Percentage of Sexually Experienced Girls in South Africa Who Say …“I have been forced to “I am afraid of sayinghave sex.” no to sex.” Agree 39%No Yes 33%Disagree 61% 55% Disagree 7% 60% Agree 39% 6%“There are times I dont want to have sex, but I do because my boyfriend Insists on having sex.” Source: Kaiser Family Foundation/KLA (2000) South African National Youth Survey 01 Ju ly 2 002 s lid e n u m b e r S S A-5 1
You Don’t Need to Say “Yes” to Sex• Abstinence is doing without something.• You can abstain from lots of things, such as certain foods, alcohol and other drugs, and sex.• You can abstain from sex for lots of different reasons, such as to protect your health, to stick to your religious or moral values or to take control of your own life. NYC Dept of Health STD Control Program
You Might Decide NOT to Have Sex Because:•You want to wait until youre married•It would upset your parents if they found out•You just dont feel ready to have sex•Youve already had sex, but decided it was a mistakeRemember: Its never too late to abstain from sex! You can stop right now. NYC Dept of Health STD Control Program
Who has the best sex?• Swinging Singles?• Cohabiters?• Married?• Married & Faithful?
Saying "NO" to Sex Has Many Advantages! • Avoid Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) like HIV/AIDS. • Avoid Pregnancy. • Keep Religious or Moral Values. • Boost Your Self-Esteem. • Abstinence isnt Forever. • Keep your most precious gift for your future spouse. NYC Dept of Health STD Control Program
Tips for saying “No!”Deciding to say "NO" is easy – but actually saying "NO" may not be. Practice your responses with a friend or parent today. Tips for Success• Be assertive, learn to speak up for yourself.• Set your limits before you get into a challenging situation.• Practice saying "NO" as if you really mean it.• Talk about your feelings, dont make the person guess how far youll go.• Dont use alcohol and other drugs. NYC Dept of Health STD Control Program
Learn How to Say “No!”“If you really loved me, “If you really loved me, youyoud have sex with me.” wouldnt pressure me.”“Everybodys doing it.” “Thats not true. Im not doing it and Im somebody.”“If you wont do it, Ill find “If thats all I mean to you, thensomeone who will.” maybe you should find someone else!”“Dont you trust me?” “It has nothing to do with trust. I just dont feel right about having sex.”“Its the only way to prove “I didnt think I had to proveyoure a man (or woman)!” anything to you.” NYC Dept of Health STD Control Program
Friendship ≠ Sex“We might not get another “Right now, Im willing to takechance.” that chance.”“I thought you loved me!” “I do, but I thought you respected me!”“Whats wrong with you?” “Theres nothing wrong with choosing to wait.”“I think you owe it to me.” “I dont think I owe you anything.”“If I dont relieve this “Thats a myth. Besides, if Itension, Ill be in physical have sex before Im ready, Ipain.” could be emotionally hurt.” NYC Dept of Health STD Control Program
You’re in Charge!• Its your body;• Dont be pressured into having sex.• Stay in control - dont use alcohol or other drugs.• Make the smart choice, say "NO" to sex - for now! NYC Dept of Health STD Control Program
Sexual Organs sin g! re sp asN o T y o fM o pe rty se Pr Sp ou tu re Fu
Media’s Sexualized Messages In today’s culture advertisers enhance the appeal of their products by associating them with sex. If you don’t value your own life, no-one else will either - certainly not Hollywood, nor the Media!
Too late tochange his past...But not too late tochange your future!E ven if you’ve made mistakes, theyar in your past. You can de e cideright no to begin a new futur w e.
A.C. Gr e e n , NBA S t a r is saving sex for marriage C opyr 1 994, USA We e d. ight eknP hotography by L ar y N ichols. r How about you?
Become a Person of Character like A.C. GreenBy actively developing such virtues as honesty,integrity, endurance, respect for others, becomingmore responsible, and living for the sake of others,you’ll have what it takes to: – Save sex for later by creating boundaries, – Accomplish your short & long term goals, and – Prepare to create a happy marriage and family – Learn about love, relationships, and marriage
Problem of Modern EducationThe problem of contemporary education, minimum level of focus on character development:3. Education for mastery4. Education in norms5. Cultivation of the heart
Balanced EducationCharacter education balances the moral, emotional, social and academic levels of education3. Education for mastery4. Education in norms1. Cultivation of the heart
Moral Goals of Education1. Mature Character2. Loving relationships and family3. Contribution to society
Cultivation of the Heart Experiences of love Moral examples Practice of caring
Moral Goal-Mature Character Loving and caring heart Self control Lives for the sake of others Words and deeds are closely related
First Dimension of Education Cultivation of the heart Development of mature character Foundation for other levels of education
Education in Norms Training in proper behavior Rules and responsibilities For respect and harmony
Education for Character- Balances Love and Rules Ethics need to facilitate loving relationships and social harmony The family is the crucible of character Teachers need to support the efforts of parents in developing character Rules need to be implemented in a loving and caring fashion
Moral Goal: Loving Relationships and Family Strong marriages Effective parenting Ethical practice Altruism
Second Dimension of Education Education in norms Loving relationships and family Moral and ethical education-basis of technical education
Education for Mastery Academic education Technical education Education in the arts
Moral Goal-Contribution to Society Technical achievement Community service Sustainable environment
Third Dimension of EducationEducation for masteryContribution to societyConcern for the environment
Character Education Based on Universal Values Traditional and contemporary values Spiritual and material Eastern and western
Universal Values Criteria Reversible Generalizable Compelling to the conscience
Universal Values CriteriaObjective benefitsTranscend culturesEmbodied as virtues
Virtues listThese virtues are voted for and used more consistently in character education initiatives in the US: RESPECT RESPONSIBILITY HONESTY CARING
Consensus Model for Character Education Initiative Representatives from the school, home and community need to be a part of and support the CE initiative Administrators, teachers, cafeteria workers, bus drivers, student representatives, parents, social workers, business leaders and government representatives need to meet and vote on which virtues will comprise the CE initiative
The Virtue of Respect• Treat others with respect; follow the Golden Rule• Dictionary definition “To have regard for or appreciation of a person’s worth; to honor, to esteem, to be courteous and considerate to”• Be tolerant of differences
How Do We Become a Respectful Person? Show courtesy and be considerate of the feelings of others Don’t threaten, hit or hurt anyone Deal peacefully with anger, insults and disagreements
Self Respect Before you can respect others, you need to respect yourself Acceptance of positive and negative character traits Realistic goals to improve problems An “honoring” of ourselves, involves holding ourselves in a positive light, regardless of our mistakes, weaknesses, and problems
Proactive or ReactiveRead the following statements aloud and decide which are proactive and which are reactive. Write a P or R in the blank area.2. I have to do it right away _____3. I prefer to be more responsible _____4. There’s nothing I can do about it _____5. I control my thoughts and feelings _____
Proactive and ReactiveWrite a P or R in the blank space:2. My friend made me do it _____3. I’m not responsible for my actions _____4. It’s out of my hands _____5. I choose to wait a few minutes _____6. My life is out of control _____7. I will carry out my plan _____
You’re in ChargeWrite 5 proactive statements and 5 reactive statements not already mentioned. Label each statement with a P and R.2. __________________________________3. __________________________________4. __________________________________5. __________________________________6. __________________________________
Character Traits of TV CelebritiesChoose three TV programs that you frequently watch and analyze an actor/actress on each of these programsName of character________Program_______Deceitful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TruthfulSarcastic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sense of humorCorrupt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Good