WHAT IS STRESS? Stress is your mind and body’s response or reaction to a real or imagined threat, event or change. The threat, event or change are commonly called stressors. Stressors can be internal (thoughts, beliefs, attitudes or external (loss, tragedy, change).
EUSTRESSEustress or positive stress occurs whenyour level of stress is high enough tomotivate you to move into action to getthings accomplished.
DISTRESSDistress or negative stress occurs whenyour level of stress is either too high ortoo low and your body and/or mindbegin to respond negatively to thestressors.
Work Stress and Its ManagementStressA dynamic condition in which an individual isconfronted with an opportunity, constraint,or demand related to what he or she desiresand for which the outcome is perceived tobe both uncertain and important.
ConstraintsForces that prevent individualsfrom doing what they desire.DemandsThe loss of somethingdesired.
Potential Sources of Stress Environmental Factors – Economic uncertainties of the business cycle – Political uncertainties of political systems – Technological uncertainties of technical innovations – Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security
Organizational Factors – Task demands related to the job – Role demands of functioning in an organization – Interpersonal demands created by other employees – Organizational structure (rules and regulations) – Organizational leadership (managerial style) – Organization’s life stage (growth, stability, or decline)
Potential Sources of Stress (cont’d) Individual Factors – Family and personal relationships – Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity – Personality problems arising for basic disposition Individual Differences – Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the individual’s future. – Greater job experience moderates stress effects. – Social support buffers job stress. – Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress. – Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job stress.
Consequences of Stress High Levels of StressPhysiological Psychological Behavioral Symptoms Symptoms Symptoms
Psychological/ subjective The subjective or intrapersonal effects of stress are feelings of anxiety, Boredom Nervousness Depression Fatigue and Anger
Physiological consequences The physiological effects can be seen in Increased heart and pulse rate, High blood pressure, Dryness of throat, Excessive sweating, Headache
Behavioral consequencesThe behavioral effects are manifested in such things as: Accident proneness, Drinking, Excessive eating, Smoking, Impulsive behaviors, Depression, and withdrawal behaviors. Low productivity Absenteeism Turnover
A Model of Stress
Inverted-U Relationship between Stress andJob Performance