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Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?
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Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm?

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Who maintains fruit tree diversity and why? Which socioeconomic factors or farming practices are associated with a high level of agricultural biodiversity. Bioversity International scientist Hugo …

Who maintains fruit tree diversity and why? Which socioeconomic factors or farming practices are associated with a high level of agricultural biodiversity. Bioversity International scientist Hugo Lamers presents findings on fruit tree conservation in Asia at the 29th International Horticulture Congress.

http://www.bioversityinternational.org/research-portfolio/conservation-of-crop-diversity/managing-crop-diversity-on-farm/

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  • The benefits of fruit trees can be distinguish in three type. Major benefit of diversity is its function as a global public good; it is the fundamental source for new plant species and varieties for the future. Besides tropical fruit tree diversity does play an important role on a smaller landscape level through the provision of eco-system services such as improved pollination or stabilizing the level of pests & diseases. This we can call local public goods. Finally fruit tree diversity functions as a private good that provides income, food & nutritional diversity and non-food items and helps farm households to manage economic, agronomic or climate risks.
  • A valid question to answer is why we should conserve plant genetic resources on-farm or in its natural habitat? Is ex-situ conservation in gene banks not much easier and effective? There are three main reasons why to include an on-farm/in-situ approach and one additional reason specific for fruit trees. First, without on-farm or in-situ you will gradually loose the global public good for the long future, as only in nature and on-farms the evolutionary process that creates new diversity will be secured. Secondly, we will also gradually loose the vital functions fruit trees play in eco-systems and related services such as pollination or as forage crop. Thirdly, without an on-farm and in-situ strategy you will loose the knowledge that is associated with the species and varieties about its uses, values and characteristics. Although genebanks try to document these, in practice this data is often basic, incomplete and very fast outdated. Changing consumer preferences and climate conditions requires constant updates of this knowledge which is only achieved through an on-farm/in-situ approach. Regarding fruit trees there is one more aspect, as fruit tree seeds are so-called recalcitrant, which means that their seeds loose germinations power within several weeks in a genebank cold storage. Furthermore, field genebanks require maintenance and always lack space.
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    • 1. Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm? Hugo Lamers, Francesco Caracciolo, TM Gajanana et al 21 August 2014, International Horticulture Conference, Brisbane, Australia Mango growers in Malihabad, UP, India
    • 2. Outline • Introduction and purpose • Research question • Methodology • Data and results • Conclusions and recommendations
    • 3. Introduction • Increasing interest for on-farm conservation programs next to ex situ conservation • Often assumed that crop diversity is maintained by the poor • Which social and economic factors or farm practices of households can explain or are highly associated with a high level of on-farm diversity
    • 4. in partnership with The Tropical Fruit Tree Project
    • 5. On-farm and in situ conservation through Community Biodiversity Management How to intervene? CBM • 4 countries • 22 sites • 36 communities • 15,000 households
    • 6. Three types of benefits from TFT diversity • Fundamental source for new seedling material through open pollination and human & natural selection • Ecosystem services (pollination, lower pest & disease pressure) • Risk management (economic, agronomic, climate) • Source of food items (nutritional diversity) • Source of non-food items • Source of income
    • 7. Why on-farm and in situ conservation of PGR? • Sustains the evolutionary process to create new diversity • Sustains ecosystem services and beneficial interactions with other species • Sustains the cultural and traditional knowledge that is associated with the species or varieties • Recognizes farmers’ rights - farmers as breeders • Fruit tree species are recalcitrant • Field genebanks are expensive and lack space
    • 8. Who maintains fruit tree diversity on farm? And why?
    • 9. Methodology 1. Household questionnaire • Random sampling of approx. 10% of the fruit farmers in each community • Total of 944 respondents • Intraspecific diversity of mango, family characteristics, assets, farm practices, income, market distance and use of services (microfinance, technical assistance) 2. Semi-structured interviews with ‘custodian farmers’ • Households who maintain most diversity and knowledge • Identified by researchers, development workers or fellow villagers
    • 10. Sites • 5 sites • 18 communities • 7,000 Households Selection indicators • Range of agroecosystems • Traditional farming area with low incomes • Fruit trees important for livelihoods • Availability of local institutions
    • 11. Results 1-.4-.2 0 .2.4 WealthIndex Amravati Chittoor Malihabat Pusa Sirsi 012345 Richnessintraspecificmangifera Amravati Chittoor Malihabat Pusa Sirsi 05 101520 -2 0 2 4 6 Wealth index Richnessintra-specific_mangifera
    • 12. Results 2 • The wealth index affects positively both the diversity indexes • Intraspecific diversity affects positively the wealth index; however there is no evidence of the effect of Simpson index on the wealth index • Weighted orchard age affects positively the intraspecific diversity of mango, there is no effect on Simpson index • Factors affecting intraspecific diversity of mango are: household location, received technical assistance (+). • Factors affecting the Simpson index are: household location, received technical assistance (+) irrigation (+) number of female household members (+) weeding (-) and market distance (-)
    • 13. Results 3 36% 52% 62% 74% 85% 86% 91% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% cultural… hobby income adaptation forefathers loss of diversity home use Why do you maintain a wide range of different fruit tree species and varieties at your farm? 35% 53% 12% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% No Yes Don’t… I earn more income if I replace and grow commercial types
    • 14. Conclusions • Mango diversity maintained most likely by wealthier households in traditional agricultural regions • Motivations of custodian households are not only private and economic but also common and social – secure crop diversity, heritage from forefathers • Different profiles for ‘users’ and ‘custodians’ of fruit tree diversity
    • 15. So what? • Policy makers, donors and practitioners often link crop diversity directly to poverty • To improve impact and effectiveness of interventions Recommendations • Need for tailored interventions to custodians and users • How to facilitate beneficial linkages between both groups
    • 16. Thank You

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