Sensory evaluation of Vitamin A rich bananas


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A presentation given by Bioversity International's Beatrice Ekesa at the International Horticultural Congress, Brisbane, August 2014.

Beatrice Ekesa is a post-doctoral research fellow at Bioversity International, working on Diet Diversity for Nutrition and Health. Beatrice currently leads two research initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa looking at using agricultural diversity in diets to help prevent micronutrient deficiencies, particularly in women and children. Beatrice focuses her work in populations where banana forms an important part of the diet.

Read more about this work here:

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  • If you need a specific CRP logo, replace the general CGIAR logo at the upper right.
  • The prevalence in East and central African exceeds the 15% WHO threshhold
  • The first table (on top) represents the cultivars on trial while the lower table represents the reference local varieties. The cultivars selected for trial are those with more than average levels of pVACs (RAE >333 µg/100gdw), when grown in their countries of origin
  • The cooking varieties compared well with the local varieties, the local dessert Gros michel was prefered more as compared to the two desserts Lai and To’o.
  • Plantain Apantu was not significantly different the local Musheba after boiling, roasting and pan frying.
    When boiled, Lahi (cooking) was not significantly different from the plantains: Apantu, Bira and Musheba.
    The mean scores for the dessert cultivars Lai (3.7) and To’o (3.0) rated as fair were significantly different from the local cultivar Gros Michel (4.6
  • The cooking varieties compared so well with the local varieties
  • Plantain cultivars: local Musilongo had significantly higher means than Apantu & Bira after all the 3 cooking methods: boiling, roasting & panfrying
    Cooking cultivars: no difference between the mean scores of Lahi and local Vulambya when roasted with peel
    Musilongo, Apantu and Lahi were the most appreciated cultivars by the panelists with > 80% rating good and very good when roasted without peel and pan fried
    Lai was the best performing trial dessert cultivar with a mean score of 4.26 ± 0.59
    No significant difference between its overall evaluation mean score and that of the local Kitika Sukari.
  • Pan fried cultivars were preferred in the order Gisahira > Muzuzu > Bira > Apantu > Pelipita > Lahi.
    However, local Gisahira was only significanlty higher mean for only one attribute: overall evalaution
    There was no significant difference between the scores of the plantain cultivars Apantu, Bira and Muzuzu for aroma, texture in hand, texture in the mouth, and overall evaluation.
    Bira was also similar to Gisahira for the attributes: appearance, aroma and texture in the hand.
    Gisahira, Apantu, Muzuzu and Bira were the most appreciated by 85 – 93%.
    While Pelipita and Lahi were acceptable to 61% and 57% respectively.
    No significant difference was observed between the mean scores by the male and female participants after pan frying Muzuzu, Lahi, and Gisahira. The males gave significantly higher scores for the aroma of Bira; aroma dn texture in the hand of Apantu. Pelipita was the exception as the females had significantly higher scores for the texture in the hand.
  • Apantu was best performing plantain, No significant difference with local Muzuzu after boiling, roasting and panfrying
    Following pan frying no significant difference between apantu, Bira and Muzuzu
    For cooking cultivars, the local Gisahira was preferred to Lahi and Pelipita after all 3 cooking methods
    No significant differences between Lahi and Pelipita after roasting and pan frying
    The local dessert cultivars Kamaramasenge and Poyo (mean of 4.4) were preferred to To’o and Lai (means of 3.6-3.8)
  • I would like to acknowledge the famers who took part in this study, I alo acknowledge Bioversity international especially the A4NH and RTB program, Harvestplus and CIALCA.
  • Sensory evaluation of Vitamin A rich bananas

    1. 1. Sensory evaluation of Vitamin-A rich Banana cultivars on trial in Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo Beatrice Ekesa, Deborah Nabuuma, Inge Van den Bergh 19 August 2014, International Horticultural Congress, Brisbane
    2. 2. Goal • Improve the micronutrient status of vulnerable populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, through banana-based food systems - Vitamin A
    3. 3. Introduction • Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa • In East and Central Africa the prevalence of VAD >40% WHO threshold of 15% • Bananas are a major staple in the region • Also a good source of micronutrients
    4. 4. Trial cultivars and reference local cultivars Accession name Genome Subgroup Type Country of origin Apantu AAB Plantain Cooking Ghana Pelipita ABB Pelipita Cooking Philippines Bira AAB Pacific Plantain Cooking PNG Lahi AAB Pacific Plantain Cooking Hawaii Sepi AA nd Cooking PNG Hung Tu AA nd Dessert PNG To'o AA nd Dessert PNG Laï AAA Red Dessert Thailand Accession local name Genome Subgroup Type Country localised Muzuzu Plantain Cooking Burundi Gisahira AAA-EA EAHB Cooking Burundi Kamaramasenge AAB Kamaramasenge Dessert Burundi & North Kivu Poyo Dessert Dessert Burundi Musilongo AAB Plantain (French Horn) Cooking North Kivu-DRC Vulambya AAA-EA Lujugira-Kitika Cooking North Kivu-DRC Kitika Sukari Dessert Dessert North Kivu-DRC Musheba AAB Plantain (French) Cooking South Kivu-DRC Barhebesha AAA-EA Lujugira-Kitika Cooking South Kivu-DRC Gros Michel Dessert Dessert South Kivu-DRC
    5. 5. Methodology • 3 sites: Burundi (2 sub-sites) South Kivu, DRC (3 sub-sites) North Kivu, DRC (3 sub-sites) • Dessert cultivars: Tested when ripe and served raw • Cooking cultivars: Boiled with/ without peel Roasted with/ without peel Pan fried
    6. 6. Methodology cont… • Ranking based on a five-point hedonic scale: 1 - Very bad 2 – Bad 3 - Fair 4 - Good 5 – Very good  Attributes: Appearance (Peel and pulp) Peeling ease Aroma Texture (in hand and mouth) Taste Overall evaluation  Panel-local informally trained farmers 120-150/region (50/50 men/women)
    7. 7. Post- harvest treatment Banana variety Peel appear ance Ease to peel Pulp appearance Aroma Texture in hand Texture in mouth Taste Boiled without Peel Apantu 3.92a 4.07a,b 3.70a 3.92a,b 3.97a Bira 3.84a 4.13a,c 3.93b 3.78a 3.57 b,c Musheba 3.84a 3.89b 3.73a 4.00b 3.98a Lahi 3.94a 4.27c,d 3.78a,b 3.77a 3.71b Pelipita 3.56b 3.65e 3.07c 3.34c 3.47c Barhebesha 4.21c 4.35d 4.26d 4.29d 4.30d Roasted Apantu 3.92a,b 3.99a 3.71a 3.92a 3.97a Musheba 4.03a 3.87a 3.73a 3.97a 4.03a Bira 3.73b 3.87a 3.51a 3.41b 3.50b Pan Fried Apantu 4.17a 4.14a 3.92a 4.17a 4.19a Musheba 4.17a 4.11a 3.72a 4.08a 4.25a Bira 3.94b 4.18a 3.76a 3.72b 3.84b Dessert Lai 3.71a 3.41a 3.72a 3.80a 3.48a 3.58a 3.73a To'o 3.43b 3.28a 2.95b 3.50b 3.02b 2.85b 2.80b Gros Michel 4.53c 4.44b 4.41c 4.45c 4.33c 4.55c 4.59c Results- South Kivu DRC
    8. 8. Boiled without peel Roasted without peel Pan fried Dessert Apantu 4.01a 4.07a 4.21a - Bira 3.70b,c 3.60b 3.92b - Musheba 3.99a 4.09a 4.24a - Barhebesha 4.37d - - - Lahi 3.87a,b - - - Pelipita 3.55c - - - Lai - - - 3.72a To'o - - - 3.02b Gros Michel - - - 4.63c Results: Overall evaluation – South Kivu
    9. 9. Post-harvest handling Banana variety Peel appearance Peeling ease Pulp appearance Aroma Texture in hand Texture in mouth Taste Boiled without peel Apantu - - 3.89a 4.05a 3.83a 3.95a 4.03a Musilongo - - 4.17b 4.23a,b 4.04d 4.25d 4.33d Bira - - 4.11b 4.07a 3.80a,b 3.71b 3.63b Lahi - - 4.0a,b 4.02a,c 3.73a,b 3.88a,b 3.95a Pelipita - - 3.15c 3.33d 3.23c 2.94c 2.92c Vulambya - - 4.44d 4.42b 4.26e 4.32d 4.49d Wung'tu - - 3.03c 3.10d 3.07c 3.00c 2.83c Shilangi - - 3.53e 3.82c 3.67b 3.29e 3.27e Roasted with peel Lahi 4.77a 3.83a 4.53a 4.17a,b 4.07a,b 4.47a 4.53a Shilangi 4.18b 4.11a,b 3.57b 3.98a 3.77a 3.00b 2.74b Vulambya 4.30b 4.26b 4.32a 4.38b 4.08b 4.33a 4.58a Roasted without peel Apantu - - 4.27a 4.33a 3.99a 4.09a 4.33b Bira - - 3.68b 3.89b 3.67c 3.55b 3.50a Musilongo - - 4.47a 4.42a 4.21b 4.42c 4.57c Lahi - - 3.60b 3.83b 4.00a,b 3.83a,b 3.70a Wung'tu - - 2.80c 3.33c 2.97d 2.73d 2.93d Pelipita - - 3.11c 3.46c 3.02d 3.13e 3.14d Results: North Kivu DRC
    10. 10. Overall evaluation Boiled without peel Roasted without peel Roasted with peel Pan fried Dessert Apantu 4.01a 4.26b - 4.09a - Musilongo 4.33d 4.46c - 4.47c - Bira 3.76b 3.56a - 3.83b - Lahi 3.98a,b 3.83a 4.60a 4.00a,b - Shilangi 3.33e - 2.88b - - Vulambya 4.43d - 4.55a - - Pelipita 3.00c 3.10d - 2.77d - Wung'tu 3.00c,e 2.87d - 2.73d - Sepi - - - - 3.13a To'o - - - - 3.60b Kamaramasenge - - - - 4.60c Kitika Sukari - - - - 4.36d Lai - - - - 4.26d Results: Overall evaluation – North Kivu  All cultivars showed a significant correlation between the mean scores for taste and those for overall evaluation
    11. 11. Postharvest handling Banana varieties Appearance (pulp) Aroma Texture in hand Texture in mouth Taste Overall evaluation Boiled without peel Apantu 3.47a 3.73a,c 3.43a,b,c 3.67a,c 3.90a,c 3.83a,c Bira 3.69a 3.56 a,c 3.51b 3.23b 3.03b 3.44b,d Muzuzu 3.97b 3.75c 3.78a 3.99a,d 4.09a 3.97a Lahi 3.37a 3.07b 3.10c 3.07b 3.13b 3.13b Gisahira 4.21c 4.13d 4.03d 4.22d 4.19a 4.09a Pelipita 2.82d 3.41a,b 3.30b,c 3.63c 3.76c 3.57c,d Roasted with peel Bira 3.69a 3.86 3.62 3.24 3.41a 3.59a Lahi 3.41a 3.86 3.55 3.62 3.97b 3.79a,b Gisahira 4.28b 4.19 4.06 4.48 4.26b 4.23c Pelipita 3.39a 3.93 3.72 3.99 4.26b 3.99b Roasted without peel Apantu 4.03 4.00a 3.83a 3.97a 4.10a 4.00a Muzuzu 3.84 3.97a 3.87a 4.09a 4.22a 4.06a Bira 3.64 3.53b 3.41b 3.36b 3.21b 3.48b Pan fried Pelipita 3.23c 3.48c 3.40a 3.60b,c 3.71a 3.57b Results: Burundi
    12. 12. Boiled without peel Roasted without peel Roasted with peel Pan fried Dessert Apantu 3.83a,c 4.00a - 3.90a - Muzuzu 3.97a 4.06a - 4.07a - Bira 3.44b,d 3.48b 3.59a 4.04a - Lahi 3.13b - 3.79a,b 3.47b - Gisahira 4.09a - 4.23c 4.21c - Pelipita 3.57c,d - 3.99b 3.57b - To'o - - - - 3.83a Kamaramasenge - - - - 4.43b Poyo - - - - 4.40b Lai - - - - 3.64a Results: Overall Evaluation – Burundi
    13. 13. Conclusion  Cultivars most preferred (>50% (scored good and very good) and compared well against local cultivars were Burundi: Apantu, Bira, Pelipita and Lai South Kivu: Apantu, Bira, Lahi and Lai North Kivu: Apantu, Bira, Lahi and Lai • Preference with regards to sensory attributes showed no difference between men and women • Tested cultivars have high possibility of adoption within existing farming systems and diets
    14. 14. In partnership with:
    15. 15. Thank you