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Reaching food and nutrition security:
 

Reaching food and nutrition security:

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Agricultural biodiversity – the variability of crops and their wild relatives, trees, animals, arthropods, microbes and other species that contribute directly or indirectly, to food production – ...

Agricultural biodiversity – the variability of crops and their wild relatives, trees, animals, arthropods, microbes and other species that contribute directly or indirectly, to food production – is fundamental for the long-term sustainability and resilience of agriculture.
Most research in recent decades has been concerned with increasing production through the increased use of external inputs and management of production, in ways that render agriculture more uniform. These approaches are increasingly recognized as having significant adverse consequences including land degradation, pollution and the loss of ecosystem services.
Alternative approaches are urgently needed to sustainably feed the growing population and adapt to global challenges such as climate change.
Bioversity International has been at the forefront of global scientific efforts to collect, conserve and use agricultural biodiversity for more than 35 years.
Read more about Bioversity International’s research-for-development portfolio and strategic priorities.
http://www.bioversityinternational.org/research/

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  • COVER SLIDETo change the picture: Right click on the photo Click on change pictureIf you need a specific CRP logo, replace the general CGIAR logo at the upper right.
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  • Hunger or undernourishment: Almost 1 billion people suffer from hunger or lack of food. Undernutrition is directly or indirectly responsible for 3.5 million young child deaths every year, and at least 35% of the disease burden in under 5 year old children. Severe acute malnutrition contributes to the deaths of 1 million children under five worldwide each year. Hidden hunger (due to micronutrient deficiencies): Micronutrient deficiencies can contribute to high rates of morbidity and mortality and even moderate levels of deficiency can have detrimental effects on human health and economic growth. Young children and women are among those most at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. The three most common forms of micronutrient malnutrition are iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency. Obesity (overnutrition): More than 1 billion people are overweight globally, and this number is rising quickly and dramatically everywhere. In fact, in terms of numbers, obesity is now mainly a problem of the poor everywhere. Increasingly in low income countries, under- and overnutrition exist side-by-side along with micronutrient deficiencies (the triple burden).Citations:http://www.unscn.org/en/home/why-nutrition-is-important.php#double_burden_of_malnutrition  [1][1] Lim, SS. et al. (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990—2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet 2012;380:2224http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2812%2961766-8/abstract Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequencesRobert E Black, Lindsay H Allen, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Laura E Caulfield, Mercedes de Onis, MajidEzzati, Colin Mathers, Juan Rivera The Lancet  19 January 2008 (Volume 371 Issue 9608 Pages 243-260 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61690-0) http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)61690-0/abstract
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  • Our Dwindling Food VarietyAs we've come to depend on a handful of commercial varieties of fruits and vegetables, thousands of heirloom varieties have disappeared. It's hard to know exactly how many have been lost over the past century, but a study conducted in 1983 by the Rural Advancement Foundation International gave a clue to the scope of the problem. It compared USDA listings of seed varieties sold by commercial U.S. seed houses in 1903 with those in the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory in 1983. The survey, which included 66 crops, found that about 93 percent of the varieties had gone extinct. More up-to-date studies are needed.
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  • As part of the Landscapes for People, Food and NatureIntiiative, Bioversity International and Ecoagriculture Partners are conducting a Global Review of integrated landscape management initiatives around the world. The review seeks to identify examples of landscape approaches that are trying to find a balance between sustainable agriculture, conservation and livelihood security. The current contribution from Bioversity is focusing on East, Southeast and South Asia, which includes: identifying examples of initiatives (>300), conducting surveys, and selecting 10-15 candidates for further in-depth interviews, to investigate what works, what doesn’t, and why. Contribution to strategic priorities: ABD for agroecosystem stability and resilience, Integrating across livelihoods and sustainability, In situ ABD conservation on farms and in the wild
  • Not simple and more importantly – what does this look like?
  • Bioversity has implemented a major project on in situ conservation of CWR and developed a global CWR portal which allows access to information about CWR in the participating countries. The project developed the capacity in the 5 countries in implementation conservation activities, raised awareness about CWR at polciy maker level and also internationally. It documented the conservation status of CWR for over 35 priority crops.
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Reaching food and nutrition security: Reaching food and nutrition security: Presentation Transcript

  • Reaching food and nutrition security:The untapped potential of agricultural biodiversityEmile Frison, Director General, Bioversity InternationalThe World Bank, 26 March 2013
  • The challengeswe face
  • Feeding a growing populationBy 2050...World population will growto 9.2 billion = growth of 37%Food production must increaseby more than 70% ...and be sustainable
  • Triple burden ofmalnutrition• Hunger or Undernutrition : Almost 1 billion people suffer from hunger and 3.5 million young children die of undernutrition every year.• Hidden hunger: Young children and women are among those most at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies.• Overnutrition and obesity: More than 1.2 billion people are overweight globally. This number is rising quickly and dramatically everywhere.• Increasingly in low income countries, under- and overnutrition exist side-by-side along with micronutrient deficiencies (the triple burden). 4
  • Increasing contribution of NCDs to cause of deathRural Bangladesh (Matlab area, 1986–2006)(Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity)Source: http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/19/2301 5
  • Climate changeTemperatures rise up to 2.5 degrees CChanges in growing conditionsNew pests and diseasesWater scarcity and desertification
  • Entirely new climates?• Global warming creates new climates• Coolest summers in 2090 will be warmer than the hottest summer now.
  • Climate change: more extreme eventsLess predictable seasons, greater risks…
  • Increasing reliance on few plants 300,000 •Known plant species 100,000 •Used by humankind 30,000 •Edible 7,000 •Used as food at local level 120 •Important at national scale 30 •Provide 90% of plant calories 3 •Provide 60% (rice, wheat, maize) 9
  • Loss of agricultural biodiversity
  • How can agriculturemeet these challenges?We need to adapt...Agricultural systems thatproduce more and better foodunder harsher conditionswhile protecting the environmentIf we want to focus on the needsof the poor and hungry we need a different paradigm
  • Better use of agricultural and forest biodiversityand agro-ecological intensificationIn order to simultaneously:• Improve smallholder livelihoods• Enable resilient ecosystem services• Provide better nutrition and health• Create system sustainability.
  • Better use also requires conservation• To complement ex situ conservation with on-farm conservation of crop landraces important for smallholders and in situ conservation of crop wild relatives and forest tree biodiversity.• To develop a global framework for availability: – Information – Supportive policies
  • Agriculturalbiodiversity forimprovedlivelihoods
  • Creating more opportunities for Neglected and Underutilized Species (NUS)Dried vegetablesand fruits Pressure-popping Noodles made from sorghum and millets 15
  • Shaded coffee intercropped with bananasfor greater productivity in Latin America• In Colombia, >80% of plantains produced in mixed systems with coffee, cocoa, cassava or fruit trees and contribute 10% to 20% to income. (Espinal 2005; Castellon 2010, Rajala 2010, Martinez 2011)• In East Africa, mixed systems are less common, but economic benefits as compared to monocrop are significant. (van Asten et al., 2011) 16
  • Tropical fruit tree diversity:multiple strategies to ensure benefits tosmallholder farming communities• Piloting good practices that reduce risk and increase productivity• Identify and improve access of best trees and information• Increase the demand for the material marketing information, diverse products and value addition• Ensure rights and provide recognition to custodian farmers and their networks• Consolidate roles of smallholders farmers as conserver, innovator and promoter on community based approaches (CBM; PPB, CSB, FFS etc.)
  • Creating more opportunities for Neglected andUnderutilized Species (NUS)New uses for traditionalcrops: EnsetTraditional use is limited. Butthrough innovation, new valueadded, new use and marketfor NUS created. Growing Enset for animal feeding (Ensete sp) 18
  • Agricultural andforest biodiversityfor agro-systemstability, resilienceand ecosystemservices
  • Agricultural and forest biodiversity for ecosystemservices: improving ecosystem function• Nutrient cycling and soil fertility• Pollination• Water management• Erosion control• Pest and disease regulation• CO2 sequestration and climate regulation
  • Disease management through diversification: cultivar mixture against rice blast in China• Row interplanting of susceptible glutinous rice together with resistant hybrid rice• Re-introduction of traditional glutinous rice varieties (formerly replaced by blast-resistant rice hybrids)• Lesser use of fungicides, reduced production cost; higher profit, yield increase of glutinous rice.• Farmer’s adoption of the practice: 1997: 15ha 2002: 260,000ha Continued expansion 21
  • Diversity and field resistance:Higher varietal richness less variance and damage Richness x Disease Index 120 Disease Damage for Maize N Leaf Blight 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Variety Richness HH Richness vs HH Disease Damage for Maize N Le Peng et al., 2010, unpublished data 22
  • Farmers’ management of genetic diversityPrevents dilution of the stress resistance characteristics of local varieties Participatory plant breeding to improve disease resistance in the local cold tolerant rice and barley landraces in situ in high mountain agricultural sites in Nepal Sthapit, Jarvis, Skinner, Murray, 2012 23
  • Participatory plant improvement with poor farmersin Nepal: use of pro-poor traits• Breeding goal set by farmers: - Improve taste of Mansara landrace rice and productivity - Retain its traits for specific adaptation to marginal conditions (poor soils)• Continue to select and maintain seed of segregating lines under target niches until preferred traits are fixed-address G x E interaction 24
  • Minimizing risk for unpredictable environmentalconditions in Burkina Faso Unpredictable rainfall Variety diversity Site1 Site 2 Site 34-5 traditional sorghum varieties per farm(1.2 ha) and 23 per community with any twoplants drawn at random within a farm differedin 69% (within a community 91%)(Sawadogo et al., 2005 and 2006)
  • Broadening the genetic base of crop cultivation and empoweringfarmers for climate change adaptation through crowdsourcing Citizen science approach scales out participatory crop research.
  • Systematic review of integrated landscapes in Asia
  • Agricultural andforest biodiversity,dietary diversity,sustainable dietsand humannutrition
  • Nutrient diversity requirements A. Ideal diet: dark gray; lack of B. Nutrient composition of 3 food crops protein and micronutrients: light shown as % of daily requirement: Corn: gray. dark gray; Black beans: light gray; Pumpkin: black line. (DeClerck et al., 2011)
  • The nutrition transitionSimplifiction of diets:• Increased fats, sugarsand processed/refinedfoods•Energy rich but nutrientpoor
  • What is a Sustainable Diet? Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations. They are: • protective and respective of biodiversity and ecosystems • culturally acceptable • accessible • economically fair and affordable • nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy …while optimizing natural and human resources.INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM: BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE DIETS UNITED AGAINST HUNGER,3-5 NOVEMBER 2010, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS, ROME 31
  • Agricultural biodiversity for nutritionPromoting the use of agricultural biodiversity to provide affordable,nutritionally-rich food sources which contribute to dietary diversity andimproved nutrition and health.What has been tried in agriculture to improve nutrition?• Fortification of commodities• Biofortification of staple products• Home gardening of fruits and vegetables• Animal programmes to increase animal source proteinsAgricultural biodiversity (traditionalfoods, varieties…) is under-researched
  • Traditional African leafy vegetables (ALV) in Kenya• Local ALV - nutritious, affordable, IMPACT adapted to local growing conditions Of those growing ALVs, half of and cultural traditions. them (52%) participated in marketing.• Identifying key issues hindering Two-thirds of households increased their incomes, while half cultivation, conservation and marketing had increased their consumption. of traditional ALV in Nairobi peri-urban (Gotor and Irungu, 2010) areas.
  • Minor millets in India• High in iron and calcium• High tolerance to drought more productive than other grains.• Worked with 200 farming families to increase production and marketing of three minor millets. IMPACT• By training the women in quality Monitored farmers increased standardization, packaging and production, yields by 70%. Processing the millet into malt new millet based recipes developed into added value, and increased popular snack foods, which led to income, with some women tripling their profits by selling only the increased sales of millet-based products malt. and malt in urban markets. (Yenagi et al., 2010)
  • Exploiting existing diversity •Case study: Pro-vitamine A content Utin Jap Cavendish EAHB Plantain Source: Davey et al., 2009
  • Value chains andinstitutionalinnovationssupporting use ofagricultural andforest biodiversity
  • Multiple values of agricultural and forestbiodiversity Total Economic Value of agricultural biodiversity = DUV + IUV + OV + BV + XVDUV IUV OV BV XVDirect Use Indirect Use Values Option Bequest ExistenceValues Values Values ValuesFood Agroecosystem (for an Satisfaction SatisfactionAnimal feed resilience; uncertain arising from arising fromFibres Symbiotic/synergistc future) passing knowing that aFuel effects specific genetic specific geneticConstruction Maintenance of geneflow, resources/ resource /materials evolutionary processes, diversity on to diversity existsTraction and indigenous knowledge futuretransport and culture, soil and generationsSource of income water quality, pollinatorsPrivate Goods Public Goods
  • Multi-chain approach to value chain and livelihooddevelopment Context political – legal – institutional – macroeconomic – market – cultural Market-oriented Off- agricultureRemittances farm Local-regional markets labor House- hold assets + International market Subsistence agriculture Gender-differentiated approach to identify best-bet options for ensuring food, nutrition and income
  • Enhancing private values for the poor through innovations across the value chain Elimination of drudgery makes millets viable options and more attractive food for households. Develop new dishes and identify most suitable diversity.(Padulosi et al., 2009)
  • Integrating acrosslivelihoods,nutrition andsustainability
  • Integrating across outcomes Productivity 5 4 3 Ecosystem services Diet diversity provision 2 1 0 Income generation Resilience Equitable AVL example participation Optimal
  • Conservation andavailability ofagricultural andforest biodiversity
  • In situ conservation, on farms and in thewild, of agricultural and forest biodiversity: ensures the continued evolution and adaptation to changing conditions
  • In situ conservation of crop wild relatives throughenhanced information management and field application• Capacity building and conservation actions• Public awareness• National Information Systems• International Information System• Manual of In Situ Conservation Five megabiodiverse country partners: Armenia, Bolivia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan Wild relatives of 35 priority crops
  • Enhancing capture of public value for the poorthrough PACS• Targeting areas of high agricultural biodiversity and high poverty to maximize impact• Establishing of monitoring systems, baselines, conservation goals• Identifying least-cost providers 400 Hilo (B) Janko Witulla (P) (P) for max impact of limited a 350 inu qu sa Huallata (B) 300 Mi conservation budgets US$/farmer 250 200 Chillpi Blanco (B) Kanchis (B) Noveton (B) Chullpi Anaranjado (P) Cuchi Wila (P)• Identifying combinations of 150 market, public, private sources 100 50 for sustainable financing. 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 no of farmers
  • Agricultural biodiversity fairs and use of Andeancrops: promotion, documentation, exchange• Promoting sharing of diversity and knowledge• Recognition to custodian farmers• Visibility, documentation, monitoring, networking.
  • Increased conservation of target crops andassociated indigenous knowledge • Output: Documentation of traditional crops and associated IK, their agromorphological traits (focus in Coromata Media and Santiago de Okola, Bolivia). • Outcome: Contribution to the valorization and use enhancement of target crops and reintroduction of lost diversity in its original area. 47
  • Conservation of Prunus africana, threatened by harvest of medicinal bark • Analysis of patterns of variation in genotype and chemotype • Phylogeographic study • Development of conservation and management guidelines • Mapping of priority conservation zones based on diversity from Priority zones for in situ conservation of genetic diversity chloroplast and nuclear DNA analysis of Prunus africanaCollaboration with Austrian University and member countries of the Subsaharan Network on Forest Genetic Resources (SAFORGEN)
  • Networking, information exchange and researchon tools to control illegal logging• 50% of timber exports from the Amazon, Central Africa, South-East Asia are illegal & threaten tree resources• Regulatory controls in importing countries• EUROPE: FLEGT Action Plan; Public Procurement Policies, Timber Regulation• USA - Lacey Act• Many protected timbers can be mistaken for legally harvested tree species because of similar wood anatomy
  • Networking, information exchange and researchon tools to control illegal logging DNA, an integrated “barcode” for Stable isotopes can differentiate between species, is not susceptible to locations of origin manipulation Protected Beobachtungen (Achsen F1 und F2: 98,76 %) Echtes Mahagoni Westindisches Mahagoni (Swietenia macrophylla) (Swietenia mahagoni) 5 S. macrophylla S. mahagoni 500 10-026-FMU 10-007-FMU 400 300 F2 (22,55 %) 10-003/004-FMU 200 00-004-FMU 0 -8 -3 2 100 10-026/051FMU bp 10-004-FMU -5 F1 (76,21 %) 00-004-FMU 10-003/004-FMU 10-004-FMU 10-007-FMU 10-026-FMU 10-026/051FMU ZentroideIroko and Sapelli from concessions in Cameron (DA Rotating: D, 18O, 13C, 15N, 34S)
  • Improving theavailability ofplant geneticresources• Information: need to know what is where• A supportive policy environment
  • Global Web Portal(s) for Related Agrobiodiversity Germplasm ex situ PGR and in situ/on farm ABD PlatformsGeographical Atlases Related ABD Monitoring & Use GBIF Internet of PGR Accessions  FAO, ITPGRFA PID/SMTA, WIPO systems Publishing Toolkit  GBIF, GeoBON, Conservation Int’l (IPT)  Breeding & Agroecological information  Other Global ABD monitoring systems PGR/ABD Registries  National (NBPGR, GRIN, etc.)  Regional Networks (e.g. EURISCO)  Crop-Specific (e.g. MGIS, IRIS, etc.) Mobile Phone Data Collection GBIF IPT in situ/on farm PGR Data Standards ex situ PGR Agrobiodiversity Data  Global data identifiers Genebank MIS  Descriptors  Crop Ontology  GRIN-Global  Web service formats  Other Genebank MIS: e.g. SDIS
  • Impact of policies on different actors’ abilityto use germplasm • Demonstrating of countries’ interdependence on crop diversity. • Understanding processes through which genetic resources are exchanged between different actors• Proposing policy recommendations forfacilitated exchange of genetic resources 53
  • Thank youwww.bioversityinternational.org