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Dietary diversity through biodiversity in food systems

Dietary diversity through biodiversity in food systems



Dietary diversity through biodiversity in food systems - Bruce Cogill, Programme Leader, Diet Diversity for Nutrition and Health, Bioversity International. This presentation is based on one delivered ...

Dietary diversity through biodiversity in food systems - Bruce Cogill, Programme Leader, Diet Diversity for Nutrition and Health, Bioversity International. This presentation is based on one delivered at the Sackler Institute of Nutrition Science Conference, Academy of Sciences, New York on 26 March 2014.

Read more about Bioversity International's work on Diet Diversity for Nutrition and Health - http://www.bioversityinternational.org/research-portfolio/diet-diversity/

Visit the official conference website here: http://www.nyas.org/Events/Detail.aspx?cid=0bd1adec-c31f-42aa-a09c-3de8d8abd93a



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  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1995) VH Heywood (ed) Global biodiversity assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridgehttp://humanbeingsfirst.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/cacheof-unsustainables_un_global_bio_div_assess_95_pages.pdf
  • 1. Cadotte MW, Dinnage R, Tilman D (2012) Phylogenetic diversity promotes ecosystemstability. Ecology 93(sp8):S223–S233.2. Gamfeldt L, et al. (2013) Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found inforests with more tree species. Nat Commun 4:1340.3. Hooper DU, et al. (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: A consensusof current knowledge. Ecol Monogr 75:3–35.4. Zhang Y, Chen HYH, Reich PB (2012) Forest productivity increases with evenness,species richness and trait variation: A global meta-analysis. J Ecol 100(3):742–749.5. Hooper DU, et al. (2012) A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driverof ecosystem change. Nature 486(7401):105–108.Agricultural biodiversity matters:Reduce pests and diseasesAdapt to climate changeBuild markets and livelihoodsContribute to ecosystems and forests
  • Taken from presentation by Scholes at the CSIR Natural Resources and Environment Global Land Programme Open Science Congress Plenary 4 Tempe, Arizona October 2010 http://www.glp2010.org/Documents/keynotes_pdfs/Scholes.pdfScholes, R, R Biggs, C Palm & A Duraiappah 2010 Assessing State and Trends in Ecosystem Services and Human Well-being In: Ash, N et al (eds) Ecosystem Services and Human Wellbeing: A manual for Assessment Practitioners. Island Press, Washington DC Food and nutrition security is the product of many variables including material factors:Ecosystems provide food, through natural or managed landscapesand other supporting, regulating and provisioning services crucial to food system functioning (water, etc.).When biodiversity is altered, the functions provided are likewise altered.Econutrition is a concept that can optimize biodiversity and other ecosystem services in order to improve nutrition in a sustainable way.Example of the mesoamerican three sisters (Maize, beans and squash)Adapted from Original presentation source: Ecosystem Sustainability, agricultural biodiversity and diet quality: a system approach for assessing sustainability. Thomas Allen. 2013.
  • Edited first bullet to include plant-derived
  • 2012 CGIAR investment portfolio across CRP programs
  • http://intranet.catie.ac.cr/intranet/posgrado/InvestCienciaGestionConocimiento/2009/Copia%20de%20Fabrice%20de%20Clerck2009/Deckelbaum.et.al(2007).pdfEconutrition: Implementation models from the Millennium Villages Project in Africa by Richard J. Deckelbaum, Cheryl Palm, Patrick Mutuo, and Fabrice DeClerckFood and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 4 2006
  • 1) UK = 253$ per week2) Italy (Sicily) = 260$ per week3) Ecuador (Tingo) = 32$ per week4) Chad (Breidjing Camp) = 1$ per weekFrom the Hungry Planet (2007): http://www.menzelphoto.com/books/hp.php
  • http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_Overweight_Males_2008.pnghttp://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_Overweight_Females_2008.png
  • http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10531-013-0614-1 Biodiversity and ConservationFebruary 2014, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 267-288Biodiversity and human health: evidence for causality?Rupert Lloyd Hough
  • Lo et al. Dietary diversity and food expenditure as indicators of food security in older Taiwanese. Appetite (58) 2012. Total dietary diversity was was inversely associated with: all-cause mortality (Kant 1993), cardiovascular disease risk factors (Azadbakht et al. 2005), hypertension (Miller et al. 1992), colon cancer (Fernandez et al. 1996, Fernandez et al. 2000), rectal cancer (Fernandez et al. 1996), bladder cancer (Isa et al. 2013), gastric cancer (La Vecchia et al. 1997), oral and pharyngeal cancer (Levi et al. 1998) and squamous cell cancer of the esophagus (Lucenteforte et al. 2008). Increased dietary diversity is associated with improved blood lipid profiles in frail elderly men in the US (Bernstein et al. 2002). However, other studies found no significant association between total dietary diversity and Type 2 Diabetes (de Koning et al. 2011), colon cancer (Slattery et al. 1997, McCann et al. 1994), rectal cancer (Fernandez et al. 2000), and breast cancer among women (Franceschi et al. 1995). Ickowitz et al. (2013) Dietary quality and tree cover in Africa Global Environmental Change. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378013002318Dabalen and S. Paul/ (2014) Effect of Conflict on Dietary Diversity :Evidence from Cote d’Ivoire. World Development Vol 58 (2014).In the 2014 Nordic Dietary Recommendations: file:///G:/Background%20Docs/Paper%20Hort%20Sackler/Nordic%20Council%20Dietary%20Recommendations_2014.pdfThe current scientific evidence indicates that a micronutrient-and fibre dense dietary pattern should be adopted in order to promote the future health and wellbeing in Nordic populations.The dietary pattern should include natural fibre-rich foods such as vegetables (e.g. dark-green leaves, fresh peas and beans, cabbage, onions, root vegetables, and fruiting vegetables), pulses, fruits, berries, nuts, seeds, and whole grains as well as fish and seafood, vegetable oils, vegetable oil-based fat spreads, and low-fat dairy products. Such dietary patterns, especially if low in energy density and combined with physically active lifestyles, will reduce the risk of weight gain in the population. In contrast, dietary patterns characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, and food products made from refined grains and sifted flour as well as those high in sugar, salt, and saturated and trans-fatty acids are associated with adverse health effects and chronic diseaseDietary guidelines: USA (2015) http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015.aspBrazil from Marion Nestle http://www.foodpolitics.com/2014/02/brazils-new-dietary-guidelines-food-based/The guide’s three “golden rules:”Make foods and freshly prepared dishes and meals the basis of your diet.Be sure oils, fats, sugar and salt are used in moderation in culinary preparations.Limit the intake of ready-to-consume products and avoid those that are ultra-processed.The ten Brazilian guidelines:Prepare meals from staple and fresh foods.Use oils, fats, sugar and salt in moderation.Limit consumption of ready-to-consume food and drink productsEat regular meals, paying attention, and in appropriate environments.Eat in company whenever possible.Buy food at places that offer varieties of fresh foods. Avoid those that mainly sell products ready for consumption.Develop, practice, share and enjoy your skills in food preparation and cooking.Plan your time to give meals and eating proper time and space.When you eat out, choose restaurants that serve freshly made dishes and meals. Avoid fast food chains.Be critical of the commercial advertisement of food products.Alimentação saudável deriva de sistema alimentar sustentável Padrões saudáveis de alimentação são possíveis apenas em sistemas alimentares que protegem e respeitam o ambiente natural de onde os alimentos são obtidosA informação esclarece consumidores e empodera cidadãos A informação é essencial para que consumidores façam melhores escolhas e para que cidadãos atuem politicamente para conformar ambientes promotores da alimentação saudávelGWheat, rice and maize > ½ the world’s food energy and provide up to 70-80% of energy for a person’s diet daily in the developing world.These cereals are high in carbohydrates so they do provide energy, have low to moderate protein but are low in micronutrients; often poor quality and overprocessed. Because these are the foods that are largely consumed daily, most suffer from limited diet diversity with profound micronutrient, protein and essential fat deficiencies. This also leads to poor child undernutrition due to Poor infant and young child feeding sources – stunting and poor developmentFurther, Due to heavy milling, many nations fortify refined flours;Unprocessed grains are often considered “poor man’s food” or not preferredAsian Green Revolution: Significant increase in production of wheat and rice but many of the secondary food grains such as pulses and millets were not emphasized. India is one of the worst states of undernutrition and carries the heaviest burden.
  • all-cause mortality (Kant 1993), cardiovascular disease risk factors (Azadbakht et al. 2005), hypertension (Miller et al. 1992), colon cancer (Fernandez et al. 1996, Fernandez et al. 2000), rectal cancer (Fernandez et al. 1996), bladder cancer (Isa et al. 2013), gastric cancer (La Vecchia et al. 1997), oral and pharyngeal cancer (Levi et al. 1998) and squamous cell cancer of the esophagus (Lucenteforte et al. 2008).
  • According to the region, there is more or less biodiversity available in the landscape and these different species and varieties offer us their nutrient profiles that we can combine to contribute to optimal health and nutrition. But even in high biodiverse regions such as Kisangani, DRC or Southern Benin, what we often see, is that only a small part of the available biodiversity is actually being used, because of lack of knowledge on how to use the species or lack knowledge on their nutrition composition, because of non-functioning markets or the foods being too expensive, wild foods being too far away in the forest, seasonality, etc. Cultural perceptions and/or food taboes as well as individual food choices will further decrease the amount of the accessible biodiversity actually being used. Finally a range of other factors such as nutrient interactions, water and sanitation, activity level, morbidity, etc. will interfere with the consumed biodiversity and determine its impact on nutrition and health. Our AIM is to improve the use of the available biodiversity and widen the inner circle to improve nutrition and health outcomes through e.g. nutrition education, value chain development for biodiverse products, domestication of wild foods, leveraging and promoting cultural values relying on healthy foods, promoting positive behavior, increasing knowledge on biodiversity and local foods, generating food composition information, etc.
  • A carotenoidis a precursor of Vit A, in plants weonlyfindtheseprecursors, only in animal foodswefindVitamin A as suchPaper Beatrice available as background informationpVACs: pro vitamin A carotenoids ; BC=Betta carotene ; AC=Alpha carotene ; RE=Retinal equivalent;SD=Standard deviationRDA=Recommended Dietary allowances; Bioac=Bioaccessibility
  • Table of nutritional values for quinoa compared to other major staple grains:Quinoa highest content in protein and fat, But especially interesting is the content in all 10 essential amino acides (amino acids we have to have from our food, our body cannot make them out of other elements), as well as the balance of these amino acides in comparision with the balance in which our body needs them => resulting in the highest protein factor.
  • Food is more thanjust the sum of nutrients, -whole of diet perspective rather than from a single food, single nutrient approach considering the diversity within species, between species and between different ecosystems. In addition to the well-known nutritional elements such as vitamins and minerals, there are other elements, e.g. pharmacological elements we often do not know very well that do play their role in our nutrition and health. Furthermore many nutrient deficiencies do not come alone, but often in combination, causing multiple micronutrient deficiencies and it is also more and more acknowledged that all these nutrients interact with each other to play their different physiological roles. -be able to look to undernutrition, as well as increasing rates of overnutrition and its related diseases such as diabetes and other non communicable diseases. More and more evidencethatdietarydiversityisleading to better nutrition outcomes in youngchildren and womenFoodscloselylinkedwith culture, identity, heritage
  • Hoffman (2003) and Burlingame (2004)
  • Hoffman (2003) and Burlingame (2004)

Dietary diversity through biodiversity in food systems Dietary diversity through biodiversity in food systems Presentation Transcript

  • Dietary diversity through biodiversity in food systems Bruce Cogill, Ph.D. Bioversity International March 26th, 2014
  • 2 What is biodiversity? ‘The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part including diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems’ (UNEP 1995) Species interact at the physical and chemical level to make up ecosystems – forests, wetlands, etc. We speak of food systems, dietary patterns, diets, food groups, foods, nutrients etc.
  • 3 Contributes to ecosystems and forests Reduces pests and disease issues Builds markets and livelihoods Builds resilience to climate change Why biodiversity matters
  • 4 Ecosystem services Ecosystem services (also called environmental services or nature’s services) are benefits provided by ecosystems to humans, that contribute to making human life both possible and worth living Traditional ecosystem services include: o crop pollination o pest and disease control o nutrient dispersal and cycling o seed dispersal o crop pollination o carbon sequestration and climate regulation o waste decomposition and detoxification
  • 5 Biodiversity contribution to supporting ecosystem services Source: Scholes presentation (2010) o Food and nutrition security is the product of many variables o Ecosystems provide food, through landscapes and other supporting, regulating and provisioning services o The role of Econutrition: biodiversity + ecosystem services
  • 6 Diet variety loss o The world has over 50, 000 edible plants. Just three of them, rice, maize and wheat, provide 60 percent of the world's plant-derived food energy supply o Of these 50,000, only a few hundred contribute significantly to food supplies o Although there are over 10,000 species in the Gramineae family, few have been widely introduced into cultivation over the past 2 000 years o Cereals are high in carbohydrates so they do provide energy, have low to moderate protein but are low in micronutrients; often poor quality and over processed.
  • 7 Yields, prices or nutrient outputs Agricultural practices have been aimed at increasing production while decreasing costs -- Intensification Recently, preserving the environment has become a more prominent goal In 2012, CGIAR invested around 30% ($US213m) on rice, maize and wheat research program and around 1% ($US7.4m) on Dryland Cereals (sorghum, millets, barley, etc) Maximizing food quality and safety of farming systems has not been a primary objective of modern agriculture….
  • 8 Food systems, food environments and econutrition Interrelationships among nutrition, human health, agriculture and food production, environmental health , and economic production
  • Ecuador Sicily UK Chad 9
  • 10 Comparison of national overweight prevalence for females and males
  • 11 Why biodiversity and dietary diversity/nutrition? o Lack of clear definition of what is meant by biodiversity o Modelling is challenging with complex pathways and limited or different levels of data o Lots of studies associating environmental change and dietary diversity (e.g. trees) o Better examples of biodiversity and modelling risk at HH and ecosystem level Bioversity International/ P.Bordoni
  • 12 Causality - biodiversity and nutrition o Challenges in understanding the linkages, pathways and potential hypotheses we face to understand the role of biodiversity in human nutrition and health (Hough 2014) o Reductionist approach to nutrition with focus on single nutrients and foods (Hoffman 2003 and Burlingame 2004)
  • 13 o Rely on anecdotal and individual studies lack the epidemiological or ecological evidence to link biodiversity and health o The needs for “holism” combined with the reductionist approach is much needed o ‘Whole of Diet’ approach rather than a ‘nutrient by nutrient’ or ‘single food approach’ o This relies heavily on better frameworks and tools drawing from the systems research and complexity science o More challenging to do and communicate but necessary if we are to climb out of the reductionist hole….. Causality - biodiversity and nutrition cont....
  • 14 Diversity = nutritional adequacy o Dietary guidelines (WHO, national (Nordic, Brazil), corporate (Barilla), academic and NGO (Livewell Plate, WWF) o Dietary diversity measure is a proxy for micronutrient intake and diet quality (Arimond and Ruel 2004; Kennedy et al. 2007; Rah et al. 2010; Savy et al. 2008, etc.) o Epidemiological studies link dietary diversity to health nutrition outcomes (many studies) o Biodiversity and dietary diversity less clear (see Tree cover and Dietary Diversity, Ickowitz et al. 2013) o There was a recent study of Food Consumption Scores and Conflict in Cote d’Ivoire
  • 15 o Beneficial effects in protecting against chronic disease and mortality o Inversely associated with: all-cause mortality cardiovascular disease risk factors hypertension colon cancer rectal cancer bladder cancer gastric cancer oral and pharyngeal cancer, and squamous cell cancer of the esophagus o Studies found no significant association between total dietary diversity and Type 2 Diabetes, colon cancer, rectal cancer, and breast cancer Dietary diversity – at the whole diet level has been found to be associated with: BioversityInternationalM.Tagliaferri
  • Individual choices Nutrition and health outcomes Nutrient interactions Morbidity Water & Sanitation …. Accessibility Culture 16 Environment & lifestyle
  • 17 Biodiversity Good nutrition and health Cultural Identitiy Food taboos Income Knowledge Barriers Incentives Value chains Markets Values Morbidity housing Water and sanitation Nutrient interactions Anti-nutrients Etc… Policies Can the consumer demand for nutritious and healthy foods stimulate biodiversity conservation ?
  • 18 Supple- ments Nutrient Dense/Therapeutic Fortification Staple Foods Oils Biofortification of Staple Foods Food, diet diversity and quality based solutions Treating and preventing under and overnutrition – from pills to improved diet and livelihoods September 2013 Nutrition Marketing Diversity Programme, Bioversity International
  • 19 Bananas and beta-carotene Cavendish Common Variety <5 µg/100g pro-Vit A carotenoid <8500 µg/100g pro-Vit A carotenoid South Pacific banana varieties Source: Burlingame, FAO (2013) and Bioversity International
  • 20 Diversity in bananas: Carotenoid content and in vitro bioaccessibility of East African banana-based dishes o Consumption of 200g (~ 2 fingers) of boiled EAHB and AAB plantains would meet at least 14% and 30% of Vit A Recommended Dietary Intakes of a child < 5years o The Musa fruit has potential of making substantial contribution to nutrition Ekesa et al. (2012). Bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids in bananas (Musa spp.) and derived dishes in African countries. Food chemistry 133, 1471-1477. o Principal carotenoids in both raw and processed Musa fruit are trans beta carotene (t-BC), trans α-carotene (t- AC) o Pro Vitamin A Carotenoids in the boiled AAB-plantains and AAA-EAHB cultivars ranged from 357.6 to 2570.1 µg per 100 gram of fresh matter o In vitro bioacessibility of beta carotene in boiled AAA- EAHB and AAB plantains was 28.9% and 16.61% respectively
  • Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) Quinoa was an almost forgotten, ancient nutritious grain from the Andes Became quite popular in Western markets over the past 10 years But only very few of the 3000 existing varieties made it into (international) commercial circuits Quinoa, raw Rice, white, long grain, raw Corn, sweet, yellow, raw Wheat, hard red winter, raw energy (kcal) 368 365 86 327 protein 14,12 7,13 3,27 12,61 total lipid 6,07 0,66 1,35 1,54 carbohydrate 64,16 79,95 18,7 71,81 Essential Amino acids tryptophan 0,167 0,083 0,023 0,160 threonine 0,421 0,255 0,129 0,365 isoluecine 0,504 0,308 0,129 0,458 leucine 0,840 0,589 0,384 0,854 lysine 0,766 0,258 0,137 0,335 methionine 0,309 0,168 0,067 0,201 phenylalanine 0,593 0,381 0,150 0,592 valine 0,594 0,435 0,185 0,556 arginine 1,091 0,594 0,131 0,595 histidine 0,407 0,168 0,089 0,285 protein factor 4,000 3,820 2,440 3,590 Source: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 26 Quinoa – a case of moving from niche to commodity
  • 22 Fork to Farm: A New Environmental and Agriculture Paradigm
  • 23 Whole of Diet approach o Triple burden of malnutrition => Whole of Diet approach o Populations need a diverse diet composed of cereals, tubers, roots, legumes, fruits, vegetables, nuts, animal source foods incl insects to fully meet the multiple requirements in macro and micro nutrients for good nutrition and a healthy life o Cultural identity & biocultural heritage o Read DL Katz andS Meller “Can we say what diet is best for health?” Annual Review of Public Health 2014. 35:83-103 Ecosystems Species Genetics Proteins Vitamins Minerals Carbohydrates Lipids Anti-nutrients Anti-oxidants Pharmacologically active substances
  • o We need to climb out of the reductionist hole o A Whole of Diet Approach -- Foods are more than just the sum of nutrients, agricultural systems more than the sum of crops => whole of diet / landscape approaches are needed o Bioversity International and the CGIAR is working towards optimizing the use of the available biodiversity to provide quality diets, decent incomes and sustainable production systems while conserving biodiversity for future generations o We need better tools, such as linear programming, to identify nutrient gaps, and optimize the choices of foods across the seasons to close gaps Concluding observations I M.Tagliaferri Bioversity International
  • o Local populations often harbour a wealth of knowledge on biodiversity which in combination with good science can be leveraged to obtain alleviate poverty and conserve precious resources o Strong evidence of the importance of dietary diversity and dietary quality with links to both over and undernutrition and some diet related NCDs o Less evidence of links between biodiversity and dietary diversity. This is due to the lack of standard measures, data and the challenges of modellng complex systems. There are plenty of anecdotes and case studies but attribution remains a challenge o Given public, private sector and even some policy interest in the importance of diversity, especially given diet transition and rising diet related non communicable diseases, there is a strong need to: a) generate better evidence b) develop and get agreement around measurement of biodiversity c) look for opportunities to monitor policies and programmes that link biodiversity and nutrition, and d) engage with teaching and other aspects to improve training and capacity Concluding observations II
  • www.bioversityinternational.org Bruce Cogill, Ph.D