Biodiversity and nutrition

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Presentation given at a symposium for Nutrition sensitive forest policy and landscape management, during the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation 2014, 20-24 …

Presentation given at a symposium for Nutrition sensitive forest policy and landscape management, during the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation 2014, 20-24 July 2014, Cairns Australia

www.bioversityinternatonal.org

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  • 1. Biodiversity and nutrition Bruce Cogill, Ph.D. 21 July 2014 SYMPOSIUM: Nutrition-sensitive forest policy and landscape management Bioversity International/R.
  • 2. 2 Dietary Guidelines tell us something • Diversity is key now sustainability • WHO (2003) ≥ 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day • Other examples • Brazil Food Guide • Health Council Netherlands • Swedish National Food Council • Nordic Council • Australia guidelines
  • 3. 3 Supple- ments Nutrient Dense/Therapeuti c Fortification Staple Foods Oils Biofortification of Staple Foods Food, diet diversity and quality based solutions Treating and preventing under and overnutrition – from pills to improved diet and livelihoods September 2013 Nutrition Marketing Diversity Programme, Bioversity International
  • 4. 4 Diet variety loss o The world has over 50, 000 edible plants. Just 3 of them, rice, maize and wheat, provide over 50 percent of the world's plant-derived food energy supply o 12 crops and 5 animal species contribute to 75% of the world’s energy supply o Cereals are high in carbohydrates so they do provide energy, have low to moderate protein but are low in micronutrients; often poor quality
  • 5. 5 Causality - bidirectional Biodiversity –> diet diversity –> diet quality nutrition/health o Challenges in understanding the linkages, pathways and potential hypotheses we face to understand the role of biodiversity in human nutrition and health (Hough 2014) o Reductionist approach to nutrition with focus on single nutrients and foods (Hoffman 2003 and Burlingame 2004)
  • 6. 6 Some of the Challenges to Understanding the Relationships and Action o Complex o Lack of clear definition of what is meant by biodiversity o Modelling is challenging with complex pathways and limited or different levels of data o Lots of studies associating environmental change and dietary diversity o Better examples of biodiversity and modelling risk at household and ecosystem level Bioversity International/ P.Bordoni
  • 7. Individual choices Nutrition and health outcomes Nutrient interactions Morbidity Water & Sanitation …. Accessibility Culture 7 Environme nt & lifestyle
  • 8. 8 Diversity = nutritional adequacy o Dietary guidelines (WHO, national (Nordic, Brazil), corporate (Barilla), academic and NGO (Livewell Plate, WWF) o Dietary diversity measure is a proxy for micronutrient intake and diet quality (Arimond and Ruel 2004; Kennedy et al. 2007; Rah et al. 2010; Savy et al. 2008, etc.) o Epidemiological studies link dietary diversity to health nutrition outcomes (many studies) o Biodiversity and dietary diversity less clear o Different sources of evidence
  • 9. 9 o Protect against Micronutrient Deficiencies and Promotes Child Nutrition and Growth o Beneficial effects in protecting against chronic disease and mortality o Inversely associated with: • all-cause mortality • cardiovascular disease risk factors • hypertension • colon cancer • rectal cancer • bladder cancer • gastric cancer • oral and pharyngeal cancer, and squamous cell cancer of the esophagus o Some studies found no significant association between total dietary diversity and Type 2 Diabetes, colon cancer, rectal cancer, and breast cancer Dietary diversity BioversityInternationalM.Tagliaferri
  • 10. 10 METHODS: Measuring Intake and Dietary Diversity • 24 hr recall is GOLD Standard and is used for Surveillance, Epi, Research with mixed results • 24 hr recall characterizes population or group intake NOT Individual Intake • One 24 hr recall does NOT indicate usual or habitual Intake of an individual or a group -- need multple days also FF and DD measures
  • 11. o Evidence of the importance of dietary diversity and dietary quality with links to both over and undernutrition and some diet related NCDs o Less evidence of links between biodiversity and dietary diversity. Due to the lack of standard measures, data and the challenges of modeling complex systems. There are plenty of anecdotes and case studies but attribution remains a challenge o Given public, private sector and even some policy interest in the importance of diversity, especially given diet transition and rising diet related non communicable diseases, there is a strong need to: a) generate better evidence b) develop and get agreement around measurement of biodiversity, diet diversity and intake c) look for opportunities to monitor policies and programmes that link biodiversity and nutrition, and d) engage with teaching and other aspects to improve training and capacity Concluding observations
  • 12. 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation 2014, 20-24 July 2014, Cairns Australia SYMPOSIUM: Nutrition-sensitive forest policy and landscape management b.cogill@cgiar.org For more info: www.bioversityinternational.org