Agrobiodiversity for people's livelihoods in central asia


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A recent project in Central Asia focused on conservation of the unique high diversity of wild and cultivated fruit species in Central Asia and enhancing farmers’ production and livelihood strategies. Read more about Bioversity International’s work in Asia Pacific Oceania

Thanks to all the partners and funders who supported the project.

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  • Increased Knowledge Crop diversification and sustainable agriculture Dietary and cultural diversity (better lifelong health, lower mortality, decrease in diseases, culinary preferences, local food, traditions ) Marketing and adding value (increase of income, access to fresh, high-quality local food products) Preservation of traditional knowledge and skills on cultivation and use
  • Agrobiodiversity for people's livelihoods in central asia

    1. 1. 17 March 2011 Maccarese, Italy Agrobiodiversity for people's livelihood in Central Asia
    2. 2. Central Asia
    3. 3. <ul><li>The Region by N.I. Vavilov is one of centres of origin and domestication of globally important crops: </li></ul><ul><li>Cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit trees </li></ul><ul><li>Forages </li></ul>Agrobiodiversity
    4. 4. Constrains in Agriculture Development <ul><li>Drought (150-200 mm of annual precipitation) in combination with high air temperature (+45 o C) and lack of water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Salinity (50% in Uzbekistan) </li></ul><ul><li>Drying of the Aral Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and non-wood forest products contributes about 30% of the Region’s economy </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat and cotton are the major agricultural commodities </li></ul>
    5. 5. Constrains in Agriculture Development <ul><li>Lack of arable lands (0.8 ha/capita in average) </li></ul><ul><li>Low soil fertility (40% of organic matters is withdrawn every year) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of fertilizers ( reduce by 73%) </li></ul><ul><li>Transition from large collective farms to small individual farms </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of small mechanization </li></ul><ul><li>Poor seed production system </li></ul><ul><li>(governments support only cotton and wheat) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Project “In Situ /On farm Conservation and Use of Agrobiodiversity in Central Asia” Partner Countries Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of the unique high diversity of wild and cultivated fruit species in CA </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of farmers’ production and livelihood strategies </li></ul>
    7. 7. Project Components <ul><li>Policy and legislation: Providing options to policy-makers for strengthening legal and policy frameworks; increase awareness on agrobiodiversity value </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and methodologies: Assessing, documenting and managing local varieties of horticulture crops and wild fruit species in a sustainable way; </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building: across all relevant aspects to strengthen diversity conservation at local, national and regional levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration and partnership: Promote broad stakeholder participation in agrobiodiversity management to ensure sustainability project activities </li></ul>
    8. 8. Target Crops <ul><li>Apple </li></ul><ul><li>Apricot </li></ul><ul><li>Almond </li></ul><ul><li>Grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>Pear </li></ul><ul><li>Pistachio </li></ul><ul><li>Pomegranate </li></ul><ul><li>Fig </li></ul><ul><li>Walnut </li></ul><ul><li>Mulberry </li></ul><ul><li>Sea-buckthorn&Currant </li></ul>
    9. 9. Increased knowledge <ul><li>Distribution and diversity level </li></ul><ul><li>Planting material multiplication (seed) system </li></ul><ul><li>Management (conservation and use) practices </li></ul>
    10. 10. Increased knowledge <ul><li>Diversity level: </li></ul><ul><li>In situ – Promising forms </li></ul><ul><li>Walnut ( Juglans regia ) – 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Pistachio ( Pistacia vera ) – 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Apple ( Malus sieversii ) – 27 </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry plum ( Prunus cerasifera ) – 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Apricot (Prunus armeniaca ) -16 </li></ul>
    11. 11. Increased knowledge <ul><li>Diversity level: </li></ul><ul><li>On farm – local varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Grapevine - 160 </li></ul><ul><li>Apple – 145 </li></ul><ul><li>Apricot – 143 </li></ul><ul><li>Pear – 32 </li></ul><ul><li>Pomegranate – 26 </li></ul><ul><li>Mulberry – 15 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Increased knowledge 65 demonstration plots in farmers’ orchards (430 local varieties): <ul><li>Kazakhstan – 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Kyrgyzstan -7 </li></ul><ul><li>Tajikistan -14 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkmenistan – 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Uzbekistan - 22 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Increased knowledge <ul><li>Kazakhstan – 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Kyrgyzstan -7 </li></ul><ul><li>Tajikistan - 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkmenistan – 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Uzbekistan - 16 </li></ul>54 nurseries (800, 000 saplings annually)
    14. 14. Richness of Fruit tree varieties in Central Asia (5 countries)
    15. 15. Total number of Fruit tree varieties used (or the pool of available fruit tree diversity) in different production management spaces in Central Asia (5 countries)
    16. 16. Mean household richness (all varieties) in Home Gardens and Orchards
    17. 17. Household Richness vs Evenness Above the line: Higher dominance with much richness at low frequencies: Below the line: More even frequency distribution of fruit varieties:
    18. 22. Capacity Building <ul><li>Target groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers and local communities </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers and instructors </li></ul><ul><li>Policy makers </li></ul><ul><li>Forest officers </li></ul>
    19. 23. Capacity Building <ul><li>5 Regional Training Centres: </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakhstan – Socio-economic studies </li></ul><ul><li>Kyrgyzstan – Walnut GR </li></ul><ul><li>Tajikistan – Apricot GR </li></ul><ul><li>Turkmenistan – Pomegranate </li></ul><ul><li>Uzbekistan – Molecular Markers </li></ul><ul><li>8 National Training Centres </li></ul><ul><li>Annually: </li></ul><ul><li>300 farmers and forest dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>30 researchers and policy makers </li></ul>
    20. 24. Partnership and collaboration <ul><li>Collaboration and partnership between scientists and farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration among farmers (Farmers’ Association) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration between countries in the region </li></ul>
    21. 25. Strengthened Policy <ul><li>In situ Conservation: </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals on establishment and extension of protected areas </li></ul><ul><li>Wild fruit species are included in the List of valuable wood species of national Forest Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Law “Conservation of crop genetic resources” in Tajikistan </li></ul><ul><li>Law “Conservation of plant genetic resources” in Kazakhstan </li></ul>
    22. 26. Strengthened Policy <ul><li>On farm Conservation: </li></ul><ul><li>Government’s subsidies to the farmers, growing fruit crops in Kazakhstan </li></ul><ul><li>Programme on supporting fruits and grapes production in Uzbekistan </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers’ Rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Roster of local varieties of fruit crops and farmers-custodians of these varieties in Uzbekistan </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal on patenting farmers’ varieties of fruit crops in Tajikistan </li></ul>
    23. 27. Strengthened Policy <ul><li>Access and sharing benefits in free and restricted access : </li></ul><ul><li>Model Agreements: </li></ul><ul><li>Planting material and germplasm of local varieties of fruit crops maintained in demonstration plots and nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit crops cultivation and management technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional knowledge of farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Information on distribution and diversity level </li></ul><ul><li>Training manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Policy recommendations </li></ul>
    24. 28. Public Awareness <ul><li>PA materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Leaflets and posters </li></ul><ul><li>Articles in papers and journals </li></ul><ul><li>TV and radio interviews, press conferences, mass media tours </li></ul><ul><li>Round table discussions with farmers and local authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Agro-theatre performances </li></ul><ul><li>Video-films on the project crops and farmers-custodians </li></ul>
    25. 29. THANK YOU