Species conservation strategies Leucaena salvadorensis : genetic variation and conservation David Boshier
No Population, Country # trees in population 1 Nueva Esparta, El Salvador 16 2 San Antonio, Honduras 224 3 Rio Nacaome, Ho...
Nueva Esparta  El Salvador © DH Boshier  © DH Boshier
Calaire  Honduras  © DH Boshier  © DH Boshier
San Antonio Honduras Rio Nacaome Honduras © DH Boshier  © DH Boshier
© CE Hughes
L. leucocephala  self compatible L. salvadorensis self incompatible © CE Hughes © CE Hughes
Conservation alternatives <ul><li>preservation of actual diversity </li></ul><ul><li>conservation of evolutionary potentia...
How big is “big enough”? <ul><li>50/500  rule (Franklin 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>50 -   inbreeding depression to acceptable...
Where should we conserve? <ul><li>In situ   - reserve system of undisturbed, protected areas within natural distribution (...
Conservation of biodiversity  in situ :  trees as a paradigm  <ul><li>ideal reserve model </li></ul><ul><li>emphasis: larg...
Conservation of biodiversity  ex situ : methods and limitations  <ul><li>seed banks  -  problems of regeneration </li></ul...
<ul><li>us e ful, but resources limit application to few species  ( usually commercial) </li></ul><ul><li>last gasp holdin...
a large number of individuals of many species have long ago ceased being ecologically (and evolutionarily) reproductive; t...
Where should we conserve? <ul><li>In situ   - reserve system of undisturbed, protected areas within natural distribution (...
Conservation of biodiversity in practice:  circa situm  as a necessity? <ul><li>Majority of conservation  in situ  outside...
Conservation of alleles <ul><li>common - rare  what proportion? </li></ul><ul><li>widespread - localised what scale? </li>...
Widespread   vs   locally common  alleles <ul><li>frequency  </li></ul><ul><li>Pop 1 2 3 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Allele a 0.50...
Figure 2.  Genetic similarities (Nei unbiased genetic distance) between L. salvadorensis populations
Table 4.  Gene flow (Nm - number of migrants per generation) below black diagonal  and geographic distance (in km) above b...
Leucaena salvadorensis <ul><li>Conservation strategies – four groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El Salvador  (country specific ...
Leucaena salvadorensis each group summarise on wall chart paper <ul><li>Remember  </li></ul><ul><li>need a conservation ob...
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1.1 leucaena salvadorensis_teachers_presentation

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Forest Genetic Resources is a new training guide from Bioversity International. This presentation is from Module One - Species Genetic Conservation and relates to Case study 1.1, Leucaena salvadorensis: genetic variation and conservation.

To read more about the training guide and download materials, visit: http://old.bioversityinternational.org/fgr_training_guide/homepage.html

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  • Slide 2 – map and table from exercise showing species distribution and population sizes (also slides 9-10).
  • Slides 3 to 5 – photos of specific L. salvadorensis populations – they illustrate the lack of forest in the landscape and the maintenance of trees on farms by farmers. The Nueva Esparta population consists of only 16 trees found on one farmer’s land. Of these, three are old trees, the rest much younger suggesting much lower effective population size.
  • Slides 3 to 5 – photos of specific L. salvadorensis populations – they illustrate the lack of forest in the landscape and the maintenance of trees on farms by farmers. The Nueva Esparta population consists of only 16 trees found on one farmer’s land. Of these, three are old trees, the rest much younger suggesting much lower effective population size.
  • Slides 3 to 5 – photos of specific L. salvadorensis populations – they illustrate the lack of forest in the landscape and the maintenance of trees on farms by farmers. The Nueva Esparta population consists of only 16 trees found on one farmer’s land. Of these, three are old trees, the rest much younger suggesting much lower effective population size.
  • Slides 6 to 7 – show how self-incompatibility leads to low pod production in L. salvadorensis , compared to the self-compatible L. leucocephala and consequent weediness issues for the latter.
  • Slides 6 to 7 – show how self-incompatibility leads to low pod production in L. salvadorensis , compared to the self-compatible L. leucocephala and consequent weediness issues for the latter.
  • Slide 8 – shows the genetic basis for the self-incompatibility (SI) mechanism in L. salvadorensis. The teacher can explain that the system (gametophytic SI) depends on SI alleles. Large numbers of SI alleles are present in most populations, so most crosses are compatible and produce seed (NB: this is optional depending on whether the class is capable of dealing with this level of complexity ).  
  • Slide 9 – covers alternative objectives for conservation – the teacher must stress the need for students to first define an objective for their strategy. It is very common for students to not define a strategy or to forget to explain what it is. Without this, it is impossible to judge the efficacy of a conservation strategy. Objectives should be pertinent and realistic and avoid the ‘‘operation was a success, but the patient died” syndrome i.e. we carried out all activities successfully, but it did nothing to help.
  • Slides 10 to 11 – cover the issue of population size. Relate these to the population sizes in Table 1(Case Study) and how overlapping generations mean that the effective population sizes of these remnants will be lower than the census number.
  • Slides 10 to 11 – cover the issue of population size. Relate these to the population sizes in Table 1(Case Study) and how overlapping generations mean that the effective population sizes of these remnants will be lower than the census number.
  • Slides 12 to 15 – summarise different approaches to conservation and associated problems. The emphasis should be on their complementary nature, rather than either/or . The emphasis will, however, shift depending on the characteristics of the species and the population of concern.
  • Slides 12 to 15 – summarise different approaches to conservation and associated problems. The emphasis should be on their complementary nature, rather than either/or . The emphasis will, however, shift depending on the characteristics of the species and the population of concern.
  • Slides 12 to 15 – summarise different approaches to conservation and associated problems. The emphasis should be on their complementary nature, rather than either/or . The emphasis will, however, shift depending on the characteristics of the species and the population of concern.
  • Slides 12 to 15 – summarise different approaches to conservation and associated problems. The emphasis should be on their complementary nature, rather than either/or . The emphasis will, however, shift depending on the characteristics of the species and the population of concern.
  • Slides 16 to 18 – introduce the idea and debate around whether trees found in agricultural landscapes may be important for conservation of some species (sometimes known as circa situm conservation) and the negative view that they are not (for more detail see introduction to Unit 2: Trees Outside of Forests).
  • Slides 16 to 18 – introduce the idea and debate around whether trees found in agricultural landscapes may be important for conservation of some species (sometimes known as circa situm conservation) and the negative view that they are not (for more detail see introduction to Unit 2: Trees Outside of Forests).
  • Slides 16 to 18 – introduce the idea and debate around whether trees found in agricultural landscapes may be important for conservation of some species (sometimes known as circa situm conservation) and the negative view that they are not (for more detail see introduction to Unit 2: Trees Outside of Forests).
  • Slides 19 to 20 – allow the teacher to present the concept of common/rare and widespread/localized alleles (see Box 1 below).
  • Slides 19 to 20 – allow the teacher to present the concept of common/rare and widespread/localized alleles
  • Slide 21 – allows the teacher to explain what the dendrogram in the exercise shows: i.e. which populations are more closely related genetically to each other. You can point to the idea that this can help in prioritising which populations to conserve.
  • Slide 22 – allows the teacher to explain the significance of Table 4 and Figure 3 for the exercise i.e. the geographic distances between each of the populations, how small they are in most cases and that the overall distribution only covers 160 km. Figure 4 uses the data from Table 3 and shows that gene flow decreases with distance between the populations. The concept of one migrant per generation (Nm&gt;1) being sufficient to prevent population differentiation can be introduced and used to help decide conservation priorities.
  • Slides 23 to 24 – allow the teacher to go over what the students should do in the exercise. The teacher should stress: a) the need to be specific in what the strategy includes – students tend to be too general in their recommendations; b) the need to prioritise – students tend to recommend doing everything, failing to recognise that resources for actions are extremely limited; c) they should indicate what information/evidence they have used to justify each recommended action; d) they need to present a convincing case that would sway a donor/government to give them funds and/or enact policy/legislation to conserve the species.
  • Slides 23 to 24 – allow the teacher to go over what the students should do in the exercise. The teacher should stress: a) the need to be specific in what the strategy includes – students tend to be too general in their recommendations; b) the need to prioritise – students tend to recommend doing everything, failing to recognise that resources for actions are extremely limited; c) they should indicate what information/evidence they have used to justify each recommended action; d) they need to present a convincing case that would sway a donor/government to give them funds and/or enact policy/legislation to conserve the species.
  • 1.1 leucaena salvadorensis_teachers_presentation

    1. 1. Species conservation strategies Leucaena salvadorensis : genetic variation and conservation David Boshier
    2. 2. No Population, Country # trees in population 1 Nueva Esparta, El Salvador 16 2 San Antonio, Honduras 224 3 Rio Nacaome, Honduras 120 4 La Garita, Honduras 500 5 La Galera, Honduras 181 6 Calaire, Honduras 700 7 Charco Verde, Honduras 79 8 San Juan Limay, Nicaragua >1000 © CE Hughes
    3. 3. Nueva Esparta El Salvador © DH Boshier © DH Boshier
    4. 4. Calaire Honduras © DH Boshier © DH Boshier
    5. 5. San Antonio Honduras Rio Nacaome Honduras © DH Boshier © DH Boshier
    6. 6. © CE Hughes
    7. 7. L. leucocephala self compatible L. salvadorensis self incompatible © CE Hughes © CE Hughes
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Conservation alternatives <ul><li>preservation of actual diversity </li></ul><ul><li>conservation of evolutionary potential </li></ul><ul><li>mantain options for future generations, while satisfying present needs </li></ul>
    10. 10.
    11. 11. How big is “big enough”? <ul><li>50/500 rule (Franklin 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>50 - inbreeding depression to acceptable level </li></ul><ul><li>500 - sufficient for new variation from mutation to replace that lost by genetic drift refers to effective population size ( N e ) rather than survey numbers ( N ) – so may need many more! in trees N e smaller than N due to: overlapping generations, dioecy, asynchronous flowering, fecundity differences between individuals </li></ul>
    12. 12. Where should we conserve? <ul><li>In situ - reserve system of undisturbed, protected areas within natural distribution ( ecosystem based ) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Ex situ - artificial maintenance of populations outside natural distribution ( species based ) </li></ul>In situ - Ex situ
    13. 13. Conservation of biodiversity in situ : trees as a paradigm <ul><li>ideal reserve model </li></ul><ul><li>emphasis: large, continuous, protected areas </li></ul><ul><li>limitations: location, size, security, biology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>movement of animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extensive distribution of many species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gene flow between populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>upland, non agricultural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>essential but not sufficient </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Conservation of biodiversity ex situ : methods and limitations <ul><li>seed banks - problems of regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>plantations - changes in gene frequencies, few populations </li></ul><ul><li>botanical gardens - deficiencies for gene pool conservation </li></ul>© RBG Kew © RBG Kew
    15. 15. <ul><li>us e ful, but resources limit application to few species ( usually commercial) </li></ul><ul><li>last gasp holding for highly endangered species </li></ul><ul><li>complimentary to other approaches </li></ul>Conservation of biodiversity ex situ : methods and limitations
    16. 16. a large number of individuals of many species have long ago ceased being ecologically (and evolutionarily) reproductive; they flower but set no seed, or if they set seed, the seedlings never lead to recruitment of adults. © DH Boshier © DH Boshier These are the living dead Janzen 1986
    17. 17. Where should we conserve? <ul><li>In situ - reserve system of undisturbed, protected areas within natural distribution (ecosystem based) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex situ - artificial maintenance of populations outside natural distribution (species based) </li></ul><ul><li>Circa situm - conservation within altered agricultural landscapes, within natural distribution </li></ul>
    18. 18. Conservation of biodiversity in practice: circa situm as a necessity? <ul><li>Majority of conservation in situ outside of reserves emphasises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trees outside of forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>role of indigenous/local communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>role of forest and land administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compatibility between resource management systems and conservation objectives </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Conservation of alleles <ul><li>common - rare what proportion? </li></ul><ul><li>widespread - localised what scale? </li></ul><ul><li>widespread localised </li></ul><ul><li>common easy key </li></ul><ul><li>rare (<0.05) sample size luck </li></ul>
    20. 20. Widespread vs locally common alleles <ul><li>frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Pop 1 2 3 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Allele a 0.500 0.320 0.450 0.550 </li></ul><ul><li>b 0.250 0.030 0.050 0.050 </li></ul><ul><li>c 0.230 0.400 0.450 0.350 </li></ul><ul><li>d 0.020 0.250 0.050 0.050 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Figure 2. Genetic similarities (Nei unbiased genetic distance) between L. salvadorensis populations
    22. 22. Table 4. Gene flow (Nm - number of migrants per generation) below black diagonal and geographic distance (in km) above black diagonal between L. salvadorensis populations (details in Table 1). Correlation between gene flow and geographic distance: r = - 0.17 Figure 3. Relationship between gene flow between populations (Nm – number of migrants per generation) and geographic distance (km); based on data from Table 4
    23. 23. Leucaena salvadorensis <ul><li>Conservation strategies – four groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El Salvador (country specific strategy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honduras (country specific strategy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicaragua (country specific strategy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAO (international perspective) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Leucaena salvadorensis each group summarise on wall chart paper <ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>need a conservation objective </li></ul><ul><li>prioritise actions – resources are limited </li></ul><ul><li>list the localised but common alleles? </li></ul><ul><li>list problems by type </li></ul><ul><li>- genetic, which pops. too small? which are different? </li></ul><ul><li>- other types of problems </li></ul><ul><li>which conservation methods - in situ , ex situ , circa situm ? </li></ul><ul><li>who ? will do, what ? w here ? </li></ul><ul><li>how will you pay for it? </li></ul>

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