2. The Nucleus <ul><li>The nucleus is the center of the cell which contains the cells DNA and is often known as the control center of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>It sends instructions to ribosomes which put proteins together. </li></ul>nucleus
3. The membrane separates the cell from the outside world as well as compartments inside the cell that help protect important processes. It is a thin membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell which controls what comes in and out of the cell. This characteristic is called being semi permeable, meaning that it only lets certain things in and certain things out. Water, for example, is able to go through the cell membrane while other materials are not. Cell Membrane
4. Ribosomes Ribosomes make the proteins in the cell by connecting one amino acid to another. The nucleus tells them how to make proteins and which ones to make. Ribosomes are found floating through the cytoplasm or on the endoplasmic reticulum.
5. Lysosomes hold enzymes for digestion in the cell. They float around the cytoplasm breaking down complex molecules such as proteins. The lysosome comes from the Golgi apparatus which gets enzymes from the endoplasmic reticulum which later make up a lysosome.
6. <ul><li>Mitochondria are spherical organelles in the cytoplasm that create energy for the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Powerhouse of the cell” </li></ul><ul><li>Have two membranes (most other organelles only have one) </li></ul>
7. <ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Definition-hairl ike organelles that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves as means of propulsion. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of arms on one cell </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter in length </li></ul><ul><li>Different direction of force </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Definition-a long, whip like extension of certain cells or unicellular organisms that function as a means of locomotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Has only one or two arms attached to the cell surface </li></ul><ul><li>Longer </li></ul>cilia flagella
8. The rigid outer layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells. It maintains the shape of the cell and serves as a protective barrier. The cell wall is made out of a specialized sugar called cellulose which provides framework for the cell to survive .
9. The cytoplasm is the Jelly-like material inside the cell membrane that organelles such as mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum are contained in. Cytoplasm is found in all cells and is also used for storage.
10. <ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Definition-tube shaped protein structures that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, providing structural support and assisting in cellular locomotion and transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Thick, strong spirals of thousands of subunits </li></ul><ul><li>Rounder, tube shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul><ul><li>Definition-minute fibers located throughout the cytoplasm of cells, functioning primarily in maintaining the structural integrity of a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Long, thin, stringy proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Work with microtubules to form the structure that allows a cell to hold its shape </li></ul>microfilaments
11. <ul><li>Exist only in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Have a double membrane surrounding them </li></ul><ul><li>The primary function of plastids is to synthesize and store food </li></ul><ul><li>Generally spherical or ovular in shape </li></ul>
12. A cavity within the cytoplasm surrounded by a single membrane and containing fluid, food, or metabolic waste. In plant cells there is one very large vacuole, in animal cells there are small, specialized vacuoles. The vacuole holds on to anything the cell might need like more food or water and the waste is broken down and eventually sent out of the cell.
13. The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle consisting of a network of membranes within the cytoplasm involved in protein synthesis and transport in cellular materials. The rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to the outside. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has none. It works as a packaging system with the Golgi apparatus ribosomes.
14. Chloroplasts are plastids in the cells of green plants that contain chlorophyll and creates glucose through photosynthesis. When energy from the sun hits a chloroplast, the chlorophyll uses that energy to combine CO2 and water to make sugar for the cell. Chloroplasts are usually disk shaped and can orient themselves in the cell to vary their exposure to sunlight.
15. The Golgi Apparatus is a packing organelle similar to the endoplasmic reticulum. It has one membrane and processes macromolecules for transportation elsewhere in the cell.
16. The nucleolus is located inside the nucleus as a sub organelle. The nucleolus is a spherical ball of protein that’s main job is the production and assembly of ribosomes.
17. <ul><li>Centriole </li></ul><ul><li>A cell near the nucleus in the cytoplasm that aids in cell division. There’s two in every animal cell. Cetrioles are made of microtubules arranged in a specific way. </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>The internal framework of a cell, composed of a network of filaments extending through the cytoplasm. It provides structural support and tra nsportation for the cell. </li></ul>Sources: Dictionary.com Biology4kids.com http://sun.menloschool.org/~cweaver/cells/c/plastids/ http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/golgi.htm All visited 10/14/07 centriole