http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r96hhTmNCX0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reproductie Campbell Ch 29, 30 & 38
Reproductie Klonaal Seksueel
Reduced (usually microscopic), dependent on surrounding sporophyte tissue for nutrition Reduced, independent (photosynthet...
Flowering plants arrived relative late in evolution, but diversified tremendously
Varens <ul><li>Gametofyten (n) en sporofyten (2n) zijn gescheiden organismen in wisselende generaties </li></ul>
Gametophyte ( n ) Gamete from another plant n n Mitosis Gamete FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS Mitosis Spore n n 2 n Zygote Mitosis ...
Spores Sporangium Sporophyte Longitudinal section of Sphagnum  sporangium (LM) Gametophyte Gametophytes, sporophytes and s...
Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Protonemata ( n ) “ Bud” “ Bud” Male gametophyte ( n ) Female gametophyte ( n ) Gametopho...
Mossen <ul><li>Sporofyten groeien op de gametofyten.  </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductie via sporen na meiose in (2n) sporofyt ...
Artist impression carbonivorous forest (>300 MY ago)
Flowering plants arrived relative late in evolution, but diversified tremendously
Reduced (usually microscopic), dependent on surrounding sporophyte tissue for nutrition Reduced, independent (photosynthet...
Gymnospermen - naaktzadigen Vroeg in evolutie – domineerden mesozoïsche ecosystemen  Nu vooral nog aanwezig als naaldbomen...
Europese larix
Douglas spar
Welwitschia
Welwitschia Ovulate cones
Microsporangium (2 n ) Microsporocytes (2 n ) Pollen grains ( n ) Pollen cone Microsporangia MEIOSIS Mature sporophyte (2 ...
Angiospermen  - bedektzadigen  - bloemplanten Hebben echte bloemstructuren en vruchten Zaden typisch omgeven door een vruc...
Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits?
Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits? <ul><li>Increase chances of seed-dispersal (fruits) </li></ul>
Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits? <ul><li>Increase chances of seed-dispersal (fruits) </li></ul><ul><li>Incre...
Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits? <ul><li>Increase chances of seed-dispersal (fruits) </li></ul><ul><li>Incre...
Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits? <ul><li>Increase chances of seed-dispersal (fruits) </li></ul><ul><li>Incre...
Barbs Seeds within berries Wings Features for seed dispersal
Fig. 38-11b Tumbleweed Dispersal by Wind Winged fruit of maple Dandelion “parachute” Winged seed of Asian climbing gourd
Coconut Dispersal by Water
Fig. 38-4a Abiotic Pollination by Wind Hazel staminate flowers (stamens only) Hazel carpellate flower (carpels only)
 
Fig. 38-4f Long-nosed bat feeding on cactus flower at night Pollination by Bats
Anther Pollen tube Germinated pollen grain ( n ) (male gametophyte) Ovary Ovule Embryo sac ( n ) (female gametophyte) Egg ...
Monocot Characteristics Eudicot Characteristics Vascular tissue usually arranged in ring Veins usually parallel Veins usua...
Anther Barley Stigma Ovary Filament Monocotylen
Monocotylen Dade Palm Orchid
Dicotylen Zucchini flowers California poppy Pyrenean oak
Bloeiregulatie Shoot apical meristem (SAM)    Floral Meristem Interne regulatie ABC model
 
 
ABC model of flower development How does such a complicated and varied organ as a flower, form from one meristem? <ul><li>...
Sepals Petals Stamens Carpels A B C A  +  B gene activity B  +  C gene activity C  gene activity A  gene activity (a) A sc...
Active genes: Whorls: Stamen Carpel Petal Sepal Wild type Mutant lacking  A Mutant lacking  B Mutant lacking  C (b) Side v...
Sepals Petals Stamens Carpels A B C A  +  B gene activity B  +  C gene activity C  gene activity A  gene activity (a) A sc...
Arabidopsis  –model Proof is in the mutants Proo
Krizek & Fletscher, 2005, Nature wildtype ap2 pi ag Proof is in the mutants    Few genes can already control flower devel...
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Plantenbiologie college 11

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  • Figure 29.1 How did plants change the world?
  • Figure 30.2 Gametophyte/sporophyte relationships in different plant groups
  • Figure 29.5 Derived traits of land plants
  • Figure 29.5 Derived traits of land plants
  • Figure 29.8 The life cycle of a moss
  • Figure 29.16 Artist’s conception of a Carboniferous forest based on fossil evidence
  • Figure 30.2 Gametophyte/sporophyte relationships in different plant groups
  • Figure 30.5 Gymnosperm diversity
  • Figure 30.5 Gymnosperm diversity
  • Figure 30.5 Gymnosperm diversity
  • Figure 30.5 Gymnosperm diversity
  • Figure 30.6 The life cycle of a pine
  • Figure 30.9 Fruit adaptations that enhance seed dispersal
  • Fig. 38-1
  • Figure 38.2 An overview of angiosperm reproduction
  • Figure 30.13 Angiosperm diversity
  • Figure 30.13 Angiosperm diversity
  • Figure 30.13 Angiosperm diversity
  • Differentiatie van cellen. Waarvandaan en waartoe?
  • Differentiatie van cellen. Waarvandaan en waartoe?
  • Figure 35.34 The ABC hypothesis for the functioning of organ identity genes in flower development
  • Figure 35.34 The ABC hypothesis for the functioning of organ identity genes in flower development
  • Figure 35.34 The ABC hypothesis for the functioning of organ identity genes in flower development
  • Krizek &amp; Fletscher, 2005, Nature
  • Plantenbiologie college 11

    1. 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r96hhTmNCX0
    2. 25. Reproductie Campbell Ch 29, 30 & 38
    3. 26. Reproductie Klonaal Seksueel
    4. 27. Reduced (usually microscopic), dependent on surrounding sporophyte tissue for nutrition Reduced, independent (photosynthetic and free-living) Gametophyte Sporophyte (2 n ) Sporophyte (2 n ) Gametophyte ( n ) Sporophyte Example Gametophyte ( n ) Dominant Dominant Dominant Reduced, dependent on gametophyte for nutrition Mosses and other nonvascular plants Ferns and other seedless vascular plants Seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) PLANT GROUP Gymnosperm Angiosperm Microscopic female gametophytes ( n ) inside ovulate cone Microscopic male gametophytes ( n ) inside pollen cone Sporophyte (2 n ) Sporophyte (2 n ) Microscopic female gametophytes ( n ) inside these parts of flowers Microscopic male gametophytes ( n ) inside these parts of flowers Seksuele reproductie
    5. 28. Flowering plants arrived relative late in evolution, but diversified tremendously
    6. 29. Varens <ul><li>Gametofyten (n) en sporofyten (2n) zijn gescheiden organismen in wisselende generaties </li></ul>
    7. 30. Gametophyte ( n ) Gamete from another plant n n Mitosis Gamete FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS Mitosis Spore n n 2 n Zygote Mitosis Sporophyte (2 n) Alternation of generations
    8. 31. Spores Sporangium Sporophyte Longitudinal section of Sphagnum sporangium (LM) Gametophyte Gametophytes, sporophytes and sporangia of a moss
    9. 32. Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Protonemata ( n ) “ Bud” “ Bud” Male gametophyte ( n ) Female gametophyte ( n ) Gametophore Rhizoid Spores Spore dispersal Peristome Sporangium MEIOSIS Seta Capsule (sporangium) Foot Mature sporophytes Capsule with peristome (SEM) Female gametophytes 2 mm Raindrop Sperm Antheridia Egg Archegonia FERTILIZATION (within archegonium) Zygote (2 n ) Embryo Archegonium Young sporophyte (2 n ) Moss life cycle
    10. 33. Mossen <ul><li>Sporofyten groeien op de gametofyten. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductie via sporen na meiose in (2n) sporofyt  (n) sporen. </li></ul>
    11. 34. Artist impression carbonivorous forest (>300 MY ago)
    12. 35. Flowering plants arrived relative late in evolution, but diversified tremendously
    13. 36. Reduced (usually microscopic), dependent on surrounding sporophyte tissue for nutrition Reduced, independent (photosynthetic and free-living) Gametophyte Sporophyte (2 n ) Sporophyte (2 n ) Gametophyte ( n ) Sporophyte Example Gametophyte ( n ) Dominant Dominant Dominant Reduced, dependent on gametophyte for nutrition Mosses and other nonvascular plants Ferns and other seedless vascular plants Seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) PLANT GROUP Gymnosperm Angiosperm Microscopic female gametophytes ( n ) inside ovulate cone Microscopic male gametophytes ( n ) inside pollen cone Sporophyte (2 n ) Sporophyte (2 n ) Microscopic female gametophytes ( n ) inside these parts of flowers Microscopic male gametophytes ( n ) inside these parts of flowers
    14. 37. Gymnospermen - naaktzadigen Vroeg in evolutie – domineerden mesozoïsche ecosystemen Nu vooral nog aanwezig als naaldbomen Typisch mannelijke en vrouwelijke kegels voor reproductie Zaden niet omgeven door een vrucht Bestuiving en zaadverspreiding door wind
    15. 38. Europese larix
    16. 39. Douglas spar
    17. 40. Welwitschia
    18. 41. Welwitschia Ovulate cones
    19. 42. Microsporangium (2 n ) Microsporocytes (2 n ) Pollen grains ( n ) Pollen cone Microsporangia MEIOSIS Mature sporophyte (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Key MEIOSIS Surviving megaspore ( n ) Pollen grain Megasporocyte (2 n ) Ovule Integument Ovulate cone FERTILIZATION Pollen tube Female gametophyte Sperm nucleus ( n ) Egg nucleus ( n ) Archegonium Seedling Seeds Seed coat (2 n ) Food reserves ( n ) Embryo (2 n ) Megasporangium (2 n ) Gymnosperm life cycle
    20. 43. Angiospermen - bedektzadigen - bloemplanten Hebben echte bloemstructuren en vruchten Zaden typisch omgeven door een vrucht Meest wijdverspreid en divers van alle planten Bestuiving en zaadverspreiding op diverse wijzen Stamen Anther Filament Stigma Carpel Style Ovary Receptacle Sepal Petal (a) Structure of an idealized flower
    21. 44. Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits?
    22. 45. Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits? <ul><li>Increase chances of seed-dispersal (fruits) </li></ul>
    23. 46. Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits? <ul><li>Increase chances of seed-dispersal (fruits) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase chances of pollination (flowers) </li></ul>
    24. 47. Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits? <ul><li>Increase chances of seed-dispersal (fruits) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase chances of pollination (flowers) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase specificity of potential pollinators </li></ul>
    25. 48. Why invest so much energy in flowers & fruits? <ul><li>Increase chances of seed-dispersal (fruits) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase chances of pollination (flowers) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase specificity of potential pollinators </li></ul><ul><li>Increase effectiveness of pollinators </li></ul>
    26. 49. Barbs Seeds within berries Wings Features for seed dispersal
    27. 50. Fig. 38-11b Tumbleweed Dispersal by Wind Winged fruit of maple Dandelion “parachute” Winged seed of Asian climbing gourd
    28. 51. Coconut Dispersal by Water
    29. 52. Fig. 38-4a Abiotic Pollination by Wind Hazel staminate flowers (stamens only) Hazel carpellate flower (carpels only)
    30. 54. Fig. 38-4f Long-nosed bat feeding on cactus flower at night Pollination by Bats
    31. 55. Anther Pollen tube Germinated pollen grain ( n ) (male gametophyte) Ovary Ovule Embryo sac ( n ) (female gametophyte) Egg ( n ) Sperm ( n ) Zygote (2 n ) Seed Seed Embryo (2 n ) (sporophyte) Simple fruit Germinating seed Mature sporophyte plant (2 n ) (b) Simplified angiosperm life cycle Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) FERTILIZATION
    32. 56. Monocot Characteristics Eudicot Characteristics Vascular tissue usually arranged in ring Veins usually parallel Veins usually netlike Vascular tissue scattered Leaf venation One cotyledon Embryos Two cotyledons Stems Roots Pollen Root system usually fibrous (no main root) Pollen grain with three openings Taproot (main root) usually present Pollen grain with one opening Floral organs usually in multiples of three Flowers Floral organs usually in multiples of four or five Angiosperms monocots dicots
    33. 57. Anther Barley Stigma Ovary Filament Monocotylen
    34. 58. Monocotylen Dade Palm Orchid
    35. 59. Dicotylen Zucchini flowers California poppy Pyrenean oak
    36. 60. Bloeiregulatie Shoot apical meristem (SAM)  Floral Meristem Interne regulatie ABC model
    37. 63. ABC model of flower development How does such a complicated and varied organ as a flower, form from one meristem? <ul><li>ABC model of flower development: </li></ul><ul><li>different combinations of transcription factors determine tissue identity </li></ul>
    38. 64. Sepals Petals Stamens Carpels A B C A + B gene activity B + C gene activity C gene activity A gene activity (a) A schematic diagram of the ABC hypothesis Carpel Petal Stamen Sepal
    39. 65. Active genes: Whorls: Stamen Carpel Petal Sepal Wild type Mutant lacking A Mutant lacking B Mutant lacking C (b) Side view of flowers with organ identity mutations A A A A C C C C B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C A A A A A A A A B B B B B A A A A B
    40. 66. Sepals Petals Stamens Carpels A B C A + B gene activity B + C gene activity C gene activity A gene activity (a) A schematic diagram of the ABC hypothesis Carpel Petal Stamen Sepal
    41. 67. Arabidopsis –model Proof is in the mutants Proo
    42. 68. Krizek & Fletscher, 2005, Nature wildtype ap2 pi ag Proof is in the mutants  Few genes can already control flower development AP1 AP2 A AP3 PI B AG C

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