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A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
A Strategic Priority at Embrapa
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A Strategic Priority at Embrapa

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Presentation of Robert Michael Boddey for the “Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle” …

Presentation of Robert Michael Boddey for the “Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle”

Apresentação de Robert Michael Boddey realizada no “Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle”

Date / Data : May 14 - 15th 2009/
14 e 15 de maio de 2009
Place / Local: ABTLuS, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento: http://www.bioetanol.org.br/workshop3

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • 1. Sustainability of the sugarcane/bioethanol production cycle: A strategic priority at Embrapa. Robert Michael Boddey Research Scientist, Embrapa Agrobiologia http://johnbokma.com/mexit/2006/12/17/sugarcane-against-the-blue-sky.jpg Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle. Campinas, SP, May 15th, 2009 5/18/2009
  • 2. Brazilian Agriculture: before the 1970s Low agricultural production and productivity Production concentrated in the South and Southeast Accelerating Urbanization Poverty in the rural areas Food shortages (crises de abastecimento) Lack of specific knowledge of Tropical Agriculture International markets in expansion Poor institutional infrastructure (agricultural research, education, markets, communications, government institutions etc.) The task: move from a traditional agriculture to one based on science and technology.
  • 3. The National System of Agricultural Research Central administration 9 Thematic centres Labex EUA 13 Product centres Labex Europa 15 Eco-regional centres Labex Asia 3 Special services Embrapa Africa 17 State research systems Embrapa Venezuela
  • 4. Embrapa: General Information Established in 1973 Employees – 8,498 Scientists (total) – 2,153 Scientists (PhDs) – 1,615 (~75 %) Budget 2008 – ~R$ 1.4 billion Vinculada ao Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento
  • 5. V Plano Diretor : Stategic Objectives 2008-2001-2023 SO4: SO5: SO3: Contribute to the Intensify the Explore the advance of the development of biodiversity for the frontiers of SO2: technologies for development of knowledge and Attain a new the sustainable use products with a high SO1: competitive of the different added value for the incorporate this acquiredGuarantee technological biomes and the exploitation of new knowledge in newcompetitivity level in Agro- productive segments of the and emergingand integration of all market energy and technologies.sustainability of bio-fuels regions of BrazilBrazilianAgriculture 5/18/2009
  • 6. Innovation and Technology: Tropical Agriculture  Improved genotypes: Tropical Crops and Livestock Sandra Santos, Embrapa Pantanal – Soybean (photoperiod) – Maize/sorghum, P efficient, acid tolerant – Tropical fruits and adapted temperate fruits – - Zebu cattle, swine e poultry, etc • Improvement of pasture quality – Brachiaria (impacts on beef and dairy production) – Fibres and timber/cellulose (cotton, Eucalyptus) Paulo Kurtz, Embrapa Trigo 5/18/2009
  • 7. Innovation and Technology: Tropical Agriculture  Biological nitrogen fixation  Biological control of pests and diseasesSitophilus zeamais  Zero tillage Paulo Kurtz, Embrapa Trigo  Integration cropping/pasture/forestry Fernando 2006  Reduction of post-harvest losses  Agricultural mechanization  Precision agriculture  Agro-ecological zoning 5/18/2009
  • 8. Innovation and Technology: Actions with Economic Impact Cassava (40 t/ha), beans, maize, soya ... Paulo Kurtz Paulo Kurtz Fernando 2006Production systems and genetic improvement 5/18/2009
  • 9. Innovation and Technology: Actions with Social ImpactAldeias: Jaguapirú and Bororó Cotton Solutions: Barraginhas, ... Organic vegetable production Mini cotton mills Production systems Targeted public: Family agriculture, Settlements, Traditional and Indigenous Communities, Quilombos, ...Technologies for small scale agriculture:Programs: Mais Alimentos, Programa Balde Cheio, Septic tanks,Programs for Seeds and seedlings, Production quality ...
  • 10. Innovation and Technology: Actions with Environmental Impact1. Management, organization 2. Management and valorization 3. Integrated sustainable and Land-use monitoring. and economic evaluation of systems for impacted areas hydric and forest resources and for alternative uses Ulisses Silva Image VCP Image VCP J.A. araújo FilhoBrazil: The only country in the World that offers 2/3 of its territory for preservation 5/18/2009
  • 11. Innovation and Technology: Conservation of the Environment Castor oil crop Reduction in fossil energy inputs by substitution of agro-chemicals by biological processes (e.g. biological control of pests and diseases and biological N2 fixation) Integration of the bio-energy and food crops Dendê c/culturas intercalares’ Intercrops with African oil palm Ricardo lopes et al., CPAA Sustainable Agriculture for food and fuel Ricardo lopes et al., CPAA 5/18/2009
  • 12. Biofuels: Challenges and responses 5/18/2009
  • 13. Expansion of the area for Sugar cane production Soil Plant Climate  Traditional areas  Areas of expansion  Excluded areasProduction systems: criteria for sustainability 5/18/2009
  • 14. Matéria-prima para etanol: cana-de-açúcar “Of all of the liquid biofuels, only Brazilian ethanol produced from sugarcane has been consistently competitive in recent years, without the necessity of continuous subsidies”  Report of FAO - UNO, on the theme: “Helping to construct a world without hunger” Rome, June 2008. 5/18/2009
  • 15. Field N budget for a typical cane variety growing in São Paulo State (burned cane) Yield 84 tonnes/ha Total N (kg N /ha/yr) in: Cane stems ……………………… 42 kg Trash/senescent leaves*………. 52 kg Sugarcane and Flag leaves (left in field) ………. 62 kg maize with no N fertilizer on sandy Total aerial tissue ………………156 kg N-deficient soil (Seropédica, RJ) Removed by burning and exported to mill … 94 kg Added as N fertilizer 65 kg N/ha Balance = minus 29 kg N ha (not counting leaching, volatilization and erosion losses) Rainfall and dry deposition inputs estimated for Piracicaba as <9 kg N/ha# *More than 90 % lost on burning #Lara et al., 2003, Environ. Pollution 121: 389-399
  • 16. Biological N2 fixation in Brazilian cane varieties 1958 – Johanna Döbereiner & Aliades Ruschel find new species of N2-fixing bacteria associated with sugar cane (Beijerinckia fluminense) 1972 – N2-fixing (nitrogenase) activity detected associated with sugarcane roots (Dart, Day Döbereiner) 1974 – Day and Döbereiner, discovery of Azospirillum spp. associated with sugarcane (etc.). 1987 and 1992 – N balance and 15N-enriched fertilizer studies show large contributions of BNF to sugar cane in pots and a large tank (20 x 6 m – Lima, Urquiaga, Boddey, Döbereiner) 1986 – 1988 Discovery of two new “endophytic” N2 fixing bacteria – Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Baldani, Cavalcante, Döbereiner). 2001 – On-farm studies with 15N natural abundance show different cane varieties on different plantations able to obtain between 0 and 60¨% of their N from BNF (Boddey, Polidoro, Alves, Resende, Urquiaga). 2008 – Complete genome sequenced of G. diazotrophicus (FAPERJ) and Herbaspirillum seropedicae (UFPR et al.).
  • 17. Contribution of biological N2 fixation to differentsugarcane varieties determined with 15N isotope dilution and N balance* 35 N from N2 fixation 30 N accumulation (g N m ) N from soil -2 25 20 15 10 5 0 um 3 2 50 99 9 9 i -3 er 14 31 -8 -7 45 -1 -7 rb ne 47 56 -1 -2 52 71 ba CB 70 79 ta CB NA C SP on S. SP SP IA sp Sugarcane variety S.*Data from Urquiaga, Cruz & Boddey, 1992, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56:105-114
  • 18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Emission of GHGs during a journey of 100 km run by the same vehicle using three different fuels* Avoided Consumption Maximum GHGs Model Motor Fuel emission Km/L power kg CO2 (%) S10 single 2.8 turbo Diesel 13.5 140 CV 29.69 -- cabin S10 single 2.4 Pure gasoline 10.4 141 CV 35.10 0 cabin flexpower Brazilian S10 single 2.4 gasoline 9.5 141 CV 28.34 19 cabin flexpower (24% etanol) Ethanol S10 single 2.4 (sugarcane, 7.2 147 CV 6.92 80 cabin flexpower Brazil)The vehicle running ethanol from sugarcane emits only 20 % of theGHGs which it would emit using pure gasoline ORThe use of Brazilian bioethanol promotes a mitigation of 80 % of theGHGs emitted when the same distance is covered using pure gasoline
  • 19. Impact of GHG emissions of biological nitrogen fixationToday a mean of approximately 60 kg N fertilizer are applied per ha ofsugarcane. The manufacture, transport and application of this quantityof N fertilizer emits 270 kg CO2eq.On application to the soil, IPCC estimates that 1 % of the N (600 g) isemitted as N2O, equivalent to an emission of 292 kg CO2.Thus the total GHG emission = 562 CO2eq.Nearly all other countries in the world use between 150 and 200 kg Nfertilizer per ha. So BNF saves Brazil an emission from ~120 kg N (1100kg CO2eq) which would increase total GHG emission by 33 %.If further advances in BNF research results in the complete eliminationof N fertilizer then present GHG emissions will be reduced by 17 %.* Manufacture, transport and application of 1kg N fertilizer emits 4.5 kg CO eq of GHGs (IPCC, 2006) 2
  • 20. Impact of change from burned cane to green-cane harvesting Usina Cruangi, Timbauba, PE* Increase in soil C stocks on change to 100 green cane harvesting Cane burned Trash conserved Rainfall (mm) 1800 = ~300 kg C ha-1 yr-1 80 aa a over 16 yearsMean cane yield (Mg ha -1 ) a 1600 a 1400 Rainfall (mm) a a 60 a b a 1200 a a a b 1000 a a a b b a a 40 b 800 b b a 600 20 b 400 200 0 0 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 Year *Resende et al., 2006, Plant Soil 281: 337-349
  • 21. Comparison of emissions of GHGs from the manualharvesting of burned cane with the mechanized harvest of green (unburned) cane Emission source Emission CH4 N2O Fossil CO2 Total (g ha-1) (g ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg eq.CO2 ha-1) Manual harvest, burned cane 1. Cane burning 28,350a 735b - 1,865 2. Manual labour and transport - - 328 328 TOTAL 2.193 Mechanized harvest, green cane 1. Fuel for harvester (diesel) 5.7 1.1 141 142 2. GHGs for machine fabrication . - - 5 5 3. Manual labour and transport 152 152 4. Mineralization of residues 471.4 146 TOTAL 445a Based on IPCC (2006) methodology for the burning of 13.1 Mg ha-1 of agricultural residues at 80 % efficiency (2.7 kg CH4 Mg-1 burned).b Based on IPCC (2006) methodology for 13.1 Mg ha-1 of sugarcane residues (0.07 kg N2O Mg-1 burned).------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- At present ~60% of cane is burned for manual harvest. If burning is completely replaced by mechanized green cane harvesting the mitigation of GHG emissions increases from 80 to 87%
  • 22. Impact of GHG emissions on conversion of land to sugarcane production1 ha of sugarcane produces today ~6,500 Litres of ethanol which willfuel a journey by a pickup fuelled by 2.4 L flexfuel motor approximately46,800 km. This distance requires 4,500 L if pure gasoline is used.The total emission of GHGs (N2O, CH4 & fossil CO2) by the 6,500 L ofethanol = 3,300 kg CO2eq.The total emission of GHGs by 4,500 L of pure gasoline = 16,430 kgCO2eqThus the total avoided emissions (“Carbon sequestration”)of 1 ha of sugarcane used for bioethanol production = 13,200 kg CO2 ha-1 (3.6 Mg C ha-1) year-1.
  • 23. Impact on GHG emissions of conversion of land to sugarcane productionA low productivity pasture grazed at 0.7 animal units (AU) ha-1 is estimated to emit 2,840 kg CO2eq ha-1 year-1 (principally CH4 from rumen and N2O from urine etc.). If there is no change in soil C stocks the change in GHG emissions is from pasture to sugar cane 2,840 to 3,300 kg CO2eq.For the change from soybean/ maize cropping to sugarcane the extra GHG emission becomes 3,300 - 1,720 = 1,580 kg CO2eq.When land under crops or pastures isplanted to sugarcane the extra GHGemissions are unlikely to exceed 1.5 MgCO2eq year, which is minor compared tothe mitigation (>13 Mg ha-1 yr-1) promotedby bioethanol production
  • 24. Sugarcane Research challenges of the Future: Embrapa´s role- Improvement of soil management, fertilization, irrigation and control of plant insect and diseases.- New sugar cane varieties produced for their tolerance to hydric deficit and salinity through traditional plant breeding techniques or biotechnology (GMs).- Isolation and selection of cellulolytic microorganisms efficient for the hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production from bagasse and crop residues.- Monitoring of the impact of the use of residues of the ethanol industry in the soil C stock and GHG emission.- Optimization of the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to sugar cane crop, selecting efficient varieties for different climatic conditions.- Understanding of the functional genome of diazotrophic bacteria in the sugar cane crop.- Optimization of the production of sugar cane in the North and North-East of Brazil.
  • 25. Regional motivations for the production of biofuels North Northeast - Exploitation of local species - palms, babaçu, ... - Castor oil production by small holders – family agriculture - Recovery of degraded areas - Generation of electricity in - Introduction of other energy remote areas of difficult access crops - e.g. Jatropha - Boat fuel - Integrated crop/pasture/forestry production (ILPF) Agroenergy Central-west South/southeast -- Exploitation of abundant soybean oil - Improvement of air quality in urban areas by the substitution- Area for the expansion of sugar cane of diesel by biodiesel and other energy crops - Exploitation of soybean and other oils produced in the region- Reduction in costs of grain transport to the coast substitution of fossil diesel by biodiesel - Integrated crop/pasture/forestry- Integrated crop/pasture/forestry production (ILPF) production (ILPF)
  • 26. Obrigado! 5/18/2009
  • 27. More information from bob@cnpab.embrapa.br Recent publications available on-line 1. Soares, L. H. B.; Muniz, L. C.; Figueiredo, R. C.; Alves, B. J. R.; Boddey, R. M.; Urquiaga, S.; Madari, B. O.; Machado, P. L. O. A. Balanço energético de um sistema integrado lavoura-pecuária no Cerrado. Seropédica, RJ: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2007, 28p. (Embrapa Agrobiologia, Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, 26). Disponível on-line em: http://www.cnpab.embrapa.br/publicacoes/download/bot026.pdf 2. Soares, L. H. B.; Alves, B. J. R.; Urquiaga, S.; Boddey, R. M. Mitigação das emissões de gases efeito estufa pelo uso de etanol da cana-de-açúcar produzido no Brasil. Seropédica, RJ: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2009, 14p. (Embrapa Agrobiologia, Circular Técnica, 27). Disponível on-line em: http://www.cnpab.embrapa.br/publicacoes/download/cit027.pdf

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