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Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance
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Biofuels and Biomaterial Research in the Porter Alliance

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Presentation of Richard Murphy for the Workshop on Hydrolysis Route for Cellulosic Ethanol from Sugarcane. …

Presentation of Richard Murphy for the Workshop on Hydrolysis Route for Cellulosic Ethanol from Sugarcane.

Apresentação de Richard Murphy realizada no "Workshop on Hydrolysis Route for Cellulosic Ethanol from Sugarcane"

Date / Data : February 10 - 11th 2009/
10 e 11 de fevereiro de 2009
Place / Local: Unicamp, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento: http://www.bioetanol.org.br/workshop1

Published in: Technology
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  • 1. Biofuels and biomaterialresearch in the Porter AllianceDr Richard MurphyImperial College London Commercial in confidence – Imperial College London 2008
  • 2. Structure • Introduction to the Porter Alliance • Biomass yield • Biomass ‘quality’ • Sustainability and policy • Closing remarks Commercial in confidence – Imperial College London 2008
  • 3. The alliance with colleagues at Southampton University, York University and University of Cambridge Over 130 scientists, engineers, economists and policy experts.
  • 4. Mission Devise economically, socially and environmentally sustainable routes to the production of energy and materials from plants with a positive impact on climate change and energy security.
  • 5. Challenges• Increase biomass yields• Reduce threats to and from biomass• Increase processable biomass• Create optimised processing• Create flexible, modular biorefining• Create integrated delivery pipelines
  • 6. The integrated biorefinery Ragauskas et al. Science 311 (2006)
  • 7. Backing ligno-cellulosics• 80% of biomass is in lignin and cellulose• Perennial crops have low inputs and can support higher levels of biodiversity• If we could get at the sugar locked up in cellulose, the current world motor fuel energy consumption (1020 J/yr) might be met from 125 M ha (10% of global arable land)
  • 8. The integrated biorefinery Chain PhotosyntheticSolar radiation Efficiency Useful energy Efficiency100 Wm-2 ~ (25%) 0.25 Wm-2 ~ (1 %) Scope for 2-fold Scope for 3-fold Improvement improvementDunnett and Overall: scope for 6-fold improvement!Shah J.BiobasedMater. Bio. 1(2007)
  • 9. Consider the whole process chain BM 1 FEP 1 SC 1 BM 2 PC 1 FEP 2 SC 2 BM 3 PC 2 FEP 3 SC 3 BM 4 PC 3 FEP 4 SC 4 BM 5 PC 4 FEP 5 SC 5 BM 6 LEARNING Biomass Front-end Primary Secondary Classes Processes Conversions Conversions
  • 10. Costs will improve with R&D andcommercialisationFrom: The Royal Society report - Sustainable biofuels 2008
  • 11. The essential messages• There is a lot of headroom to make truly sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel• You must look at integrated processes to achieve this• We need to generate knowledge that will guide us in choosing the best processes
  • 12. Why the optimism ?1. Tractable R&D challenges and opportunities2. Significant reductions in GHG emissions are possible3. Assuring sustainable land use4. Many countries/regions can participate
  • 13. Structure • Introduction to the Porter Alliance • Biomass yield • Biomass ‘quality’ • Sustainability and policy • Closing remarks
  • 14. Biofuel crops and biomass sourcesare diverse Recognized interest Wheat (grain and straw) Willows (SRC) Oil seed Rape Poplars (SRC) Sugar Beet Miscanthus Sugar cane Biomass forestry Sweet sorghum Cassava Forestry/ processing residues Jatropha Post-consumer ‘waste’ biomass Future potential Bamboo Coconut Algae ‘Novel’ (previously uncultivated) species
  • 15. Approaches to achievinghigher yields Development pipeline for biofuel crops Increase yield Combat risks & limits• Growth & architecture • Marginal land• Duration of production • Resources• Selection & breeding • Climate change• Novel crops • Pests• Carbon capture • DiseasesIntegrated with sustainability and processing knowledge
  • 16. Generating more mass –Willow as an example Realistic UK target Angela Karp
  • 17. Accelerating biomass yield in Willow VIc 0.0 Ea taM aa g2 4 5.1 MAX1 MnHt03LARS MxDia03LARS MnHt05RRes MxDia06LARS 1 8.9 MAX4 2 4.3 W 11 47 2 4.4 W 98 8Many thin stems Fewer thick stems 4 3.4 fEa c tM a ac 1 0 4 5 0.5 VI_ 5c 5 8.4 fEa tc M a at_ 20 9 The more axillary branching (max) mutants in Arabidopsis have altered branching. Corresponding genes map to yield QTL in willow.
  • 18. Unique well established germplasm collections 1,300 accessions of willow (incl. 100 pure species) at Rothamsted Research 500 diverse poplars capturing wide natural diversityExtensiveperennial grasscollectionsincluding800 accessionsof Miscanthus @Rothamsted andIBERS
  • 19. Yield projections and modellingExample data on poplar locations/yield - TSEC-Biosys Project from:- Matt Ayott, Gail Taylor Southampton University Productivity map of Populus EC FP7 Projecttrichocarpa genotype ‘trichobel’, second rotation
  • 20. Model plants & systems biology Arabidopsis Targets for QTL genomics Knowledge base Poplar proteomics Gene discovery metabolomics Data integration Maize high resolution Prediction tools sampling Targets for Brachypodium molecular breeding
  • 21. New leads for improving biomass yield knockoutThorsten Hamann knockout wT wT The mutated gene is implicated The mutated gene in response to pathogen infection encodes a UDP glycosyl transferase
  • 22. Structure • Introduction to the Porter Alliance • Biomass yield • Biomass ‘quality’ and conversion • Sustainability and policy • Closing remarks
  • 23. More quantity is only part of the solution Increased and sustainable yield• Optimise cell wall composition – Systems biology approach – High throughput analytics – Regulating cell wall phenolics – Self-processing plants ? Increased and sustainable yield + optimised processability
  • 24. and… big does not necessarily mean sweet with Rothamsted Research Nick Brereton Total Glucose Yield (g) / Oven Dry Weight (g) - enzymatic hydrolysis, no pre-treatment 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00%An example in Willows 0.00% Miscanthus 7 month Tora 2yr old Bowles Hybrid 3yr old oldBowles hybrid releases its glucan High Biomass Medium Biomassmuch more readily than other Yielding Willow Yielding Willowvarieties, even though it does notproduce the greatest mass
  • 25. Willows contd.Natural variation is large in saccharification and ethanol potential yield. 0 Ethanol ltr ha-1 without Pretreatment J 1 orr 0 NOTE: No pre-treatment, Calculated ethanol yield J 9 orr 0 the ‘inherent’ 0 Bowles Hybrid enzymatic sugar release is being 0 investigated here 0 0 Willow genotype
  • 26. Miscanthus giganteus a b July to December c d e f During its annual growth there are large developmental changes in Miscanthus . How do these relate to saccharification ? g h by Muhammad Umer Ijaz PhD student, with Rothamsted ResearchPl
  • 27. Miscanthus giganteus contd. Also:- • variation with internode • fluctuation in Starch contentSaccharification potential (no pre-treatment) changes substantially over thedevelopment cycleHarvesting time influences ease of enzymatic hydrolysisHarvesting time is dictated by many constraints
  • 28. Microbes that release sugarfrom cell walls – pre-treatment with Mike Ray, Porter Institute Research Fellow and David Leak and Pietro Spanu We use fungi that depolymerise the wood cell wall
  • 29. Microbial pre-treatment contd. from pine sapwood • Up to 70% of glucan becomes available for enzymatic hydrolysis • Ferments to ethanol without inhibition • No harmful waste streams • Low energy inputs • Little GHG emission
  • 30. Experimental issues – Particle size Effect of particle size on glucose yield 45Glucose yield/ % ODW 40 35 >2000 µM 30 850-2000 µM 25 420-850 µM 20 15 250-420 µM 10 180-250 µM 5 0 100-180 µM with Dr Mike Ray, Porter Institute Research Fellow
  • 31. Experimental – Enzymatic hydrolysis • NREL recommends 96-168 hours • Most papers promoting high-throughput suggest 24 hours as sufficient with Dr Mike Ray, Porter Institute Research Fellow
  • 32. Experimental – Enzymatic hydrolysis Effect of incubation time on sugar yield 25 Glucose yield/ % ODW 20 Pine Spruce 15 Willow O 10 96 144 168 5 72 6 24 0 1 0 50 100 150 Time/ hours with Dr Mike Ray, Porter Institute Research Fellow
  • 33. Structure • Introduction to the Porter Alliance • Biomass yield • Biomass ‘quality’ • Sustainability and policy • Closing remarks
  • 34. Positively influencing GHG and soil carbon balancesUnderstanding ‘Direct’ & ‘Indirect Effects’ – Read (2007) Not all land use – Searchinger et al + Fargione et al (2008) change has to be – Galbraith (2005) ‘negative’ from Dr Jem Woods, Porter Institute
  • 35. Land availability Country Population Total Land Arable land Land Considered Suitable % Suitable % of for Crop Growth suitable used (2001-2005) - no - with constraints - constraints - 2005 (people) (1000 ha) (1000 ha) (1000 ha) (1000 ha) (%) (%)Brazil 186,831 853,363 58969 239,573 614,064 28% 25%China 1,312,979 934,949 142265 178,228 756,722 19% 80%India 1,134,403 306,140 159712 139,357 166,783 46% 115%Southern AfricaTanzania 38,478 93,819 9118 35,964 57,855 38% 25%South Africa 47,939 122,300 14753 31,154 91,075 25% 47%Mozambique 20,533 79,854 4270 48,043 31,811 60% 9%Zambia 11,478 74,837 5260 22,304 52,533 30% 24%Angola 16,095 123,776 3200 40,383 83,313 33% 8%UK 60,245 24,418 5728 9,888 14,530 40% 58%South East AsiaIndonesia 226,063 189,220 22600 79,444 109,776 42% 28%Malaysia 25,653 33,300 1800 16,495 16,805 50% 11%Total 3,080,697 2,835,976 427,675 840,833 1,995,267 30% 51%World 6,515,000 12,976,000 3,500,000 from Dr Jem Woods, Porter Institute
  • 36. Use of LCA in Porter Alliance BiofuelsR&D Sustainability and life Sustainability and life cycle analysis cycle analysis Fungi Fungi Butanologenic Butanologenic • Complexity of R&D Rumen microbes Rumen microbes recombinant recombinant bacteria bacteria opportunities and Miscanthus Miscanthus Willow Willow Ionic liquids Ionic liquids Long chain alkane // Long chain alkane alkanol producing alkanol producing possibilities – use process Switchgrass Switchgrass Developmental front Developmental front end processes end processes organisms organisms systems engineering and Poplar Poplar Direct fermentation Direct fermentation sustainability modelling Dilute acid // alkaline Dilute acid alkaline of oligosaccharides of oligosaccharides Sugar cane bagasse Sugar cane bagasse Forest residues Forest residues Mild thermal Mild thermal Developmental Developmental microbial microbial • LCA (+ other tools) to find the most Hydrothermal Hydrothermal ethanologens ethanologens Crop residues Crop residues Steam Steam Thermochemical Thermochemical Proprietary Proprietary microbial microbial ethanologens ethanologens environmentally sustainable routes ENERGY CROPS ENERGY CROPS FRONT END FRONT END PRIMARY PRIMARY PROCESSES PROCESSES CONVERSION CONVERSION Optimising yield Optimising yield Optimising Optimising Optimising Optimising accessible carbon accessible carbon conversion to conversion to biofuel biofuel
  • 37. Uses of LCA in policy – UK RTFO• The UK Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO) provides a mechanism to support the use of sustainable biofuels in the UK market• It assesses greenhouse gas emissions and other sustainability-linked criteria in an LCA context• The first Quarterly Report on this by the Renewable Fuels Agency was published in October 2008 see http://www.renewablefuelsagency.org/
  • 38. Supply chains and boundaries in the UK RTFOprocess Alternative Assessed ex post by land use RTFO Administrator Boundary for monthly Previous Cultivation & carbon intensity calculation land use harvest Feedstock Biofuel Biofuel Biofuel use transport production transport Waste material Excludes minor sources, from: Alternative • Manufacture of machinery or waste equipment management • PFCs, HFCs, SF6 Assessed separately Fossil fuel reference system E4TECH, 2007
  • 39. UK RTFO 1st quarterly report• Biodiesel dominates Data here are for whole blended fuel• Major biodiesel suppliers USA, UK &Germany• Major bioethanol suppliers Brazil, UKNote: data is for obligation year to date based on submitted monthly returns to theRFA. Final audit of this data occurs annually and revisions to the data may occurat any point up to that time. RFA will publish a comprehensive end of year dataset
  • 40. UK RTFO 1st quarterly reportThe methodology is indicating differential savings in GHGs –this is expected on the basis of LCA studiesNote: data is for obligation year to date based on submitted monthly returns to theRFA. Final audit of this data occurs annually and revisions to the data may occurat any point up to that time. RFA will publish a comprehensive end of year dataset
  • 41. UK RTFO 1st quarterly report Overall GHG savings were 44% vs a target of 40%Note: data is for obligation year to date based on submitted monthly returns to theRFA. Final audit of this data occurs annually and revisions to the data may occurat any point up to that time. RFA will publish a comprehensive end of year dataset
  • 42. UK RTFO 1st quarterly reportA ‘qualifying environmental standard’ is an existing certification schemethat meets an acceptable number of the seven RTFO sustainabilityprinciples (fuels from ‘wastes’ automatically comply)Note: data is for obligation year to date based on submitted monthly returns to theRFA. Final audit of this data occurs annually and revisions to the data may occurat any point up to that time. RFA will publish a comprehensive end of year dataset
  • 43. Structure • Introduction to the Porter Alliance • Biomass yield • Biomass ‘quality’ • Sustainability and policy • Closing remarks
  • 44. We also regard Integration asessential to progress Platform tools & Unique resources Systems Biology technologies Sustainability Processing Bio energy crops Knowledge base evaluation Integrated Biofuels Refinery Optimised bioenergy crops
  • 45. Integration – people, interests,skills, challenges
  • 46. Thank you - see more of us at• www.porteralliance.org.uk

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