Lund University Experience on Technology Assessment for 2nd Generation Bioethanol Production
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Lund University Experience on Technology Assessment for 2nd Generation Bioethanol Production

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Presentation of Guido Zacchi for the "Workshop Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery"...

Presentation of Guido Zacchi for the "Workshop Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery"

Apresentação de Guido Zacchi realizada no "Workshop Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery "

Date / Data : Aug 13 - 14th 2009/
13 e 14 de agosto de 2009
Place / Local: ABTLus, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento: http://www.bioetanol.org.br/workshop4

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Lund University Experience on Technology Assessment for 2nd Generation Bioethanol Production Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lund University Experience onTechnology Assessment for 2nd Generation Bioethanol Production Guido Zacchi, Chemical Engineering Lund University www.chemeng.lth.se Workshop Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery Campinas August 13-14
  • 2. Schematic process • Steam pretreatment – Acid hydrolysis • Fermentation of all sugars (incl. Pentoses) • Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) • Energy integration • Integration with other processesBiomass Pre- Enzymatic Ferment- Ethanol hydrolysis Distillation treatment ation SSF Lignin
  • 3. Steam pretreatment unit 10 litre reactor 160 - 230 °C Impregnation with H2SO4 or SO2 Main purposes Hydrolysis of hemicellulose Improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose
  • 4. Equipment for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF)
  • 5. Techno-Economic Evaluation Experimental Aspen Plus data Mass & energy balances Thermodynamic calculations Vendor Swedish quotations conditionsIcarus Process Evaluator Production Sizing & cost estimation of cost (SEK/L) process equipment
  • 6. High quality data are crucial• Experimental data for all conversions• Physical data• Phase equilibria• Cost data• Etc Rubish in = Rubish out (Independent of how good the model is)
  • 7. Useful for• Sensitivity analysis (solid content in SSF)• Compare different process configurations one versus two stage pretreatment replace evaporation of stillage with biogas production• Internal process integration recirculation of process streams• External process integration with heat and power production with 1G ethanol production
  • 8. Overall process heat demand as function of the WIS concentration in SSF 28 26 Heat duty (MJ/L ethanol) Salix 24 Corn stover 22 Spruce 20 18 16 14 12 10 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 WIS concentration in SSF (%)Sassner, Thesis LU 2007
  • 9. Ethanol production cost as function of the WIS concentration in SSF 6,50 krEthanol production cost (SEK/L) Salix 6,00 kr Corn stover Spruce 5,50 kr 5,00 kr 4,50 kr 4,00 kr 3,50 kr 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 WIS concentration in SSF (%) Sassner, Thesis LU 2007
  • 10. Fed-batch SSF yeast cultivated on hydrolysate • Above 45 g/l etanol • 2 g/l yeast 12 % Fibres Fed-Batch SSF 50 45 Concentrations (g/L) 40 35 30 Glucose 25 20 Ethanol 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (h)
  • 11. SSF of pretreated and delignified aspen 90 80 20% WIS New reactor 70Ethanol concentration (g/l) 60 15% WIS 50 40 Conventional 10% WIS fermentor 30 20 10 0 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 Time (Hours)
  • 12. 2-step pretreatment Experimental set-upRaw materialPretreatment Pretreatment step 1 solid step 2 liquid slurry Fermentation Enzymatic SSF test hydrolysis
  • 13. Recovery after pretreatment (%) 20 40 60 80 100 0 Glucose Total Mannose SolidOS Liquid Total Glucose MannoseTS+W Total Glucose Comparison yields MannoseTS-W Total
  • 14. Economic evaluationCatalyst HX2 HX6 Steam Catalyst Steam HX7 HX5 HX1 77.0% HX3Wood no flashing No flashing HX4 50% WIS Cooling no washing 50% WIS To SSFto 20°C To SSF 71.8% HX8 74.6% First step Optional second step
  • 15. Ethanol cost (SEK/L) 4.3 4.2 4.1Ethanol cost (SEK/L) 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 BC one-step BC two-step Worst case No flash case Optimistic case
  • 16. The Process Replacement of evaporation with Biogas production Pellet Pellets production Enzymes &Raw material Steam Ethanol Water & nutrients SO2 base DryingFeedstock Pre- SSF & yeast Distillationhandling treatment cultivation & dehydr. Process Electricty Stillage steam Excess solidsWastewater Liquid Steam & Condensates Evaporation fraction Filtrationtreatment electr. gen. Concentrated liquid Biogas (methane)
  • 17. The Process with biogas Pellet Pellets production Enzymes &Raw material Steam Ethanol Water & nutrients SO2 Drying baseFeedstock Pre- SSF & yeast Distillationhandling treatment cultivation & dehydr. Process Electricty Stillage steam Excess solidsWastewater Liquid Steam & fraction Filtrationtreatment electr. gen. Biogas (methane) & sludge
  • 18. The Process Pellet Pellets production Enzymes &Raw material Steam Ethanol Water & nutrients SO2 Drying baseFeedstock Pre- SSF & yeast Distillationhandling treatment cultivation & dehydr. Process Electricty Stillage steam Excess solidsWastewater Liquid Steam & fraction Filtrationtreatment electr. gen. Sludge Biogas Vehicle Biogas upgrading fuel
  • 19. Minimum EtOH selling price 5.00 4.53 kr 4.50 4.27 kr 4.00 3.42 kr 3.50MESP (SEK/L) 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 Base case No Evap - Pellets No Evap - Biogas
  • 20. Biogas productionTwo key issues:- Biogas conversion: - Yield? Rate? Concentration?- Sludge handling: - Fuel properties? Level of dewatering?
  • 21. Recycling of process streams SSF
  • 22. Recirculation of process streams in SSF 4,80Overall production cost (SEK/L) 4,60 Maximum Experimental value 4,40 Before After 4,20 4,00 3,80 0 20 40 60 80 % recycling of stream Evaporation condensate up to 100%
  • 23. Integration with heat and power Schematic flowsheet Pellet Pellets production Enzymes &Raw material Steam Ethanol Water & nutrients SO2 Drying baseFeedstock Pre- SSF & yeast Distillationhandling treatment cultivation & dehydr. Process Stillage steam Excess solidsWastewater Liquid Steam Condensates Evaporation fraction Filtrationtreatment generation Concentrated liquid Biogas (methane)
  • 24. No pellet production Pellet Pellets production Enzymes &Raw material Steam Ethanol Water & nutrients SO2 base DryingFeedstock Pre- SSF & yeast Distillationhandling treatment cultivation & dehydr. Process Electricty Stillage steam Excess solidsWastewater Liquid Steam & Condensates Evaporation fraction Filtrationtreatment electr. gen. Concentrated liquid Biogas (methane)
  • 25. 5 Scenarios A B C D EEthanol X X X X XPellets X XElectricity X X X XDistrict heating X XBC: base case WIS: reduced energy demandLO: lower yield HI&WIS: combined caseHI: higher yield
  • 26. Energy efficiency 100% 92% 90%Energy efficiencyLHV 80% 76% 70% 70% 70% 60% 53% Heat Electricity 50% Pellets 40% Ethanol 30% 20% 10% 0% BC BC BC BC BC LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI LO HI WIS HI&WIS WIS HI&WIS WIS HI&WIS WIS HI&WIS WIS HI&WIS A B C D E
  • 27. Min. EtOH selling price 4.80 4.73 4.65 4.56 4.60 4.40MESP (SEK/L) 4.20 4.20 4.00 3.87 3.80 3.60 3.40 3.20 3.00 LO BC LO BC LO BC LO BC LO BC HI HI HI HI HI WIS HI&WIS WIS HI&WIS WIS HI&WIS WIS HI&WIS WIS HI&WIS A B C D E
  • 28. Effect of feedstock cost 5,75 5,50 5,25 5,00 AMESP (kr/L) 4,75 B 4,50 C 4,25 D 4,00 E 3,75 3,50 3,25 3,00 100 120 140 160 180 200 Feedstock cost (kr/MWh)
  • 29. Effect of electricity spot price 5,00 4,75 4,50 AMESP (kr/L) 4,25 B C 4,00 D 3,75 E 3,50 3,25 3,00 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Electricity spot price (kr/MWh)
  • 30. Effect of district heat credit 5,00 4,75 4,50 AMESP (kr/L) 4,25 B C 4,00 D 3,75 E 3,50 3,25 3,00 100 150 200 250 300 Credit, district heat (kr/MWh)
  • 31. Integration of 1st and 2nd generation ethanol Starch based process Solid material water & Enzymes Wat er Enzymes Yeast Ethanol Solid material steamRaw Sacchari- Centrifug- Liquefaction Fermentation Distillationmaterial fication ation SSF Liquid 1 3 2 4 Steam Wat er Enzymes Yeast Ethanol Solid materialRaw Enzymatic Pretreatment Fermentation Distillation Filtrationmaterial hydrolysis SSF Liquid Solid material Cellulose based process
  • 32. SSF of wheat straw – wheat meal (5% WIS) Yield 60 2.5% straw + 2.5% meal 92% 50Ethanol concentration [g/l] 40 30 5% straw 20 81% 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time [hour]
  • 33. Powerful tool• Assessment of improvements• What if - studies• Sensitivity analysis• Give guidelines for experimental work• Give data for LCA• Basic data for process design
  • 34. Thanks for your attention!