Silicon importance on Aliviating
Biotic and Abiotic Stress on
Sugarcane

GASPAR H. KORNDÖRFER, Prof. Titular
UNIVERSIDADE ...
FACULTY MEMBERS UFU

Master and PhD Studentds

Dr. E. Epstein
(USA)

Post Doc Students

Dr. Datnoff
(USA)
MAIN SILICON FORMS IN
THE SOIL
Solid phase

Liquid phase

Monosilicic Acid

Polisilicic Acid

Amorphous forms

Crystalline...
Available Si in the soil
Si, mg dm-3

40
35

30
25

No. Amostras Solo:
0 - 15% = 32
16 - 35% = 84
36 - 60% = 28
> 60% = 24...
SILICATES
EFFECTS IN
THE SOIL
Ø ↑ pH (replace lime);
Ø ↑ Ca,

Mg and Si
availability;

Ø ↑ P availability (< "P

fixati...
Nutrients Uptake
Cane 12 months – Samuels (1969)
400

379

350

kg/ha

300
250
192

200

148

150
100

73

50

23

51

45
...
56%

23%

Silicon uptake recovered from the fertilizer by
two sugarcane cultivars
SOUZA & KORNDÖRFER. Silicon uptake from ...
LOCAL

Si
Soil

Si
Leaves

Yield
Increase

R.Y.

mg dm-3

g kg-1

kg ha-1

%

C.F.- 715

85.0

39.0

---

98

Brida

19.0
...
Si accumulation in the
rice leaf tissue
Transversal cut leaf tissue

Epidermis expansion

Source: Mauad, et al 2001

Epide...
SEM – Scanner Electronic
Microscopy

Si accumulation

X-Ray
microanalysis

Rice leaf
surface
Source: Korndörfer, & Lepsch,...
Fig. 1. Cross section of monocot leaf (Bidwell, RGS, 1974);
Fig. 2. Development of fungal hyphae in the leaf tissue withou...
HPLC da SF5 obtained in fraction 2

AU (212 nm)

0.6

Si-

0.4

0.6

plantas não
inoculadas

0.4

0.2

plantas
inoculadas
...
THE ROLE OF SILICON ON
PLANT PROTECTION
ü HYPOTHESIS I – Mechanical Barrier - Accumulation of
polymerized Si cell wall (J...
Rust incidence level

Effect of Si fertilizer on brown rust disease
incidence (Puccinia melanocephala) on
sugarcane (cult....
Source: L.A.ZANÃO JÚNIOR. 2007. RESISTÊNCIA DO ARROZ À MANCHA-PARDA
MEDIADA POR SILÍCIO E MANGANÊS. Tese Mestrado. UFV
EFFECT OF SILICON 0N Bipolaris
oryzae DISEASE (RICE)

Reduction
40%
AACPD

Si leaf

Si Foliar
Content (%)

check

Si soil
...
Silicon x Water stress
(upland rice)
100

g/pot
(g vaso -1)

Prod. grãos
Grain Yield,

T. 60% C.C.

T. 70% C.C.

T. 80% C....
Effect of Si application on sorghum growth under water stress
conditions. Plants with 47 days of age (22 days of the start...
Si fertilizer effect and
sorghum dry matter yield
grown under water stress
+ water +Si

→ 0,08 g of water/g of soil + 2 mM...
Clique para editar o estilo do título
Effect of silicon fertilizer (average of 2 Si sources Holcim and Agrosilício) on the...
Treatments for Spittlebug
(Mahanarva fimbriolata)
control and Sugarcane Yield
Site 1

TREATMENTS

Site 2
Cane Yield

-----...
Si fertilizer application and Si
content in the sugarcane leaf
tissue and Spittlebug nymph
mortality
Si
Leaf

Nymph
Mortal...
Sugarcane cultivars and Si
content in the leaf tissue and
Spittlebug nymph mortality and
phase duration
Si
Leaf

Nymph
Mor...
SILICON TREATMENT AND
SPITTLEBUG LONGEVITY AND
OVIPOSITION (ADULTS PHASE)

Treat
ments

Si
Leaf

LONGEVITY
Male

%

Female...
Si in the leaf of different sugarcane
cultivars and the effect on the
longevity and oviposition of
spittlebug (ADULT PHASE...
Number of adults (spittlebug) inside the cage
Cliqueon the leaves (sugarcane) with título
para editar o estilo do and
and
...
Silicon effect on sugarcane sucrose
content and fiber (average of 17
different cultivars) – Guaíra Sugar-mill
Silicon

Jui...
Cane Yield, t/ha

Plant Cane Yield (average of 4 experiment –
Sugar-mill: São Luiz, São Martinho,
Catanduva e Santa Adélia...
Effect of Ca Silicate and Lime
Application - Plant Cane Stalk Yield
Stalk Yield, t/ha

180

CaSiO3

Carbonato de Ca

176

...
Residual Effect of Ca Silicate and Lime
Application - 1st Ratoon Cane Stalk Yield
Cane Yield, t/ha

120
CaSiO3

Carbonato ...
Cane Yield, kg/ha

Silicon effect on plant cane stalk yield (average from
2 silicates sources, Holcim and Agrosilício) – C...
RQ

Plant Cane

IAC 87-3396 Y = 0.103X + 3.397 R2 = 0.56*

40

SP 89-1115 Y = 0.256X - 0.83 R2 = 0.77*

Si - acetic acid (...
Clique para editar o estilo do
título mestre

4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8

8.5

RQ

Plant Cane

Y = 0.004X + 3...
Clique para editar o estilo do
título mestre
Plant Cane

IAC 87 -3396 Y =-0.024 X + 6.645 R2=0.60 *
SP 89 -1115 Y =-0.074 ...
Clique para editar o estilo do
título mestre

Plant Cane Increase
Yield (7.0 t/ha)

106
105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
97

...
Correlation
between Si
content in the
soil and cane
yield (Colombo
Sugar-mill)
considering only
the CLAY group of
soils te...
Correlation
between Si
content in the
soil and cane
yield (Colombo
Sugar-mill)
considering only
the LIME group of
soils te...
Correlation
between Si
content in the
soil and cane
yield (Colombo
Sugar-mill)
considering only
the SANDY group
of soils t...
Clique para editar o estilo do
In conclusion:
título mestre
Sugarcane yield increase using Si as fertilizer is not fully
u...
Si in the beer
may enhance
bone health !!!

A moderate consumption of beer can contribute to the prevention of
osteoporosi...
Grupo de Pesquisa “Silício na
Agricultura”: www.dpv24.iciag.ufu.br

ghk@uber.com.br
Silicon Importance on Aliviating Biotic and Abiotic Stress on Sugarcane
Silicon Importance on Aliviating Biotic and Abiotic Stress on Sugarcane
Silicon Importance on Aliviating Biotic and Abiotic Stress on Sugarcane
Silicon Importance on Aliviating Biotic and Abiotic Stress on Sugarcane
Silicon Importance on Aliviating Biotic and Abiotic Stress on Sugarcane
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Silicon Importance on Aliviating Biotic and Abiotic Stress on Sugarcane

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Event / Evento: II Workshop on Sugarcane Physiology for Agronomic Applications

Speaker / Palestrante: Gaspar H. Korndörfer (Federal University of Uberlândia)
Date / Data: Oct, 29-30th 2013 / 29 e 30 de outubro de 2013
Place / Local: CTBE/CNPEM Campus, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento: www.bioetanol.org.br/sugarcanephysiology

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Silicon Importance on Aliviating Biotic and Abiotic Stress on Sugarcane

  1. 1. Silicon importance on Aliviating Biotic and Abiotic Stress on Sugarcane GASPAR H. KORNDÖRFER, Prof. Titular UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL UBERLANDIA Campinas, 29/10/13 - 14:00-14:40h
  2. 2. FACULTY MEMBERS UFU Master and PhD Studentds Dr. E. Epstein (USA) Post Doc Students Dr. Datnoff (USA)
  3. 3. MAIN SILICON FORMS IN THE SOIL Solid phase Liquid phase Monosilicic Acid Polisilicic Acid Amorphous forms Crystalline forms Minerals (Clay) Biogenic Forms - - Fitolites -  Microorganism residues rich in Si Complex w/ Organic mateial Non Biogenic Forms - Amorphus Silica Mica Montmorilonite Caulonite Ilite Minerals (Sand) - Feldspat - Quartz Source: Korndörfer, et al 2000
  4. 4. Available Si in the soil Si, mg dm-3 40 35 30 25 No. Amostras Solo: 0 - 15% = 32 16 - 35% = 84 36 - 60% = 28 > 60% = 24 20 15 10 5 0 0-15% 16-35% 35-60% >60% Clay content Source: Korndörfer, et al 2002
  5. 5. SILICATES EFFECTS IN THE SOIL Ø ↑ pH (replace lime); Ø ↑ Ca, Mg and Si availability; Ø ↑ P availability (< "P fixation" in the soil); Ø ↓ reduce Fe, Mn e Al toxicity; Ø  have residual effect like the use of lime; Ø ↑ base saturation.
  6. 6. Nutrients Uptake Cane 12 months – Samuels (1969) 400 379 350 kg/ha 300 250 192 200 148 150 100 73 50 23 51 45 0 Si K N P Ca Mg S
  7. 7. 56% 23% Silicon uptake recovered from the fertilizer by two sugarcane cultivars SOUZA & KORNDÖRFER. Silicon uptake from metallurgy slag applied on sugarcane crop
  8. 8. LOCAL Si Soil Si Leaves Yield Increase R.Y. mg dm-3 g kg-1 kg ha-1 % C.F.- 715 85.0 39.0 --- 98 Brida 19.0 16.0 1.002 74 New Farm - 12 14.0 17.0 960 81 Baker 9.0 29.0 683 86 Shawano 6.0 27.0 850 84 31ABE 8.0 22.6 1.163 76 18CDE 9.0 23.0 1.137 73 C.F.48-EF-9N 5.3 21.8 679 91 S.F. 2-E-7 Md 24.2 1.062 79 S.F. 2-E-8 4.5 22.0 867 83 48CG32W 7.6 23.3 1.038 76 AVERAGE INCREASE YIELD 1.007 kg ha-1 (28) RICE (Everglades Agriculture Area - USA) Source: KORNDÖRFER; SNYDER; ULLOA; POWELL and DATNOFF. 2001. Calibration of soil and plant silicon analysis for rice production. Journal of Plant Nutrition.. 24(7):1071-1084.
  9. 9. Si accumulation in the rice leaf tissue Transversal cut leaf tissue Epidermis expansion Source: Mauad, et al 2001 Epidermis expansion
  10. 10. SEM – Scanner Electronic Microscopy Si accumulation X-Ray microanalysis Rice leaf surface Source: Korndörfer, & Lepsch, 1999
  11. 11. Fig. 1. Cross section of monocot leaf (Bidwell, RGS, 1974); Fig. 2. Development of fungal hyphae in the leaf tissue without accumulation of silica; Fig. 3. Silica layer beneath the cuticle hindering the development of hyphae.
  12. 12. HPLC da SF5 obtained in fraction 2 AU (212 nm) 0.6 Si- 0.4 0.6 plantas não inoculadas 0.4 0.2 plantas inoculadas Si- 46 min 0.2 0.0 0.0 0 40 AU (212 nm) 0.6 Si+ 0.4 45 50 0 55 40 45 0.6 plantas não inoculadas 0.2 0.0 Momilactona A 47 min 0.2 0.0 55 plantas inoculadas Si+ 0.4 50 0 40 45 50 Minutos 55 Momilactona B 0 40 45 50 55 Minutos Source: RODRIGUES et al. (2004). Ph.D., University of Florida, USA
  13. 13. THE ROLE OF SILICON ON PLANT PROTECTION ü HYPOTHESIS I – Mechanical Barrier - Accumulation of polymerized Si cell wall (Japan) ü HYPOTHESIS II – Chemical Barrier - Si induces the formation of PHENOL (phytoalexins) ü JOINT ACTION – Mechanical & Chemical Barrier
  14. 14. Rust incidence level Effect of Si fertilizer on brown rust disease incidence (Puccinia melanocephala) on sugarcane (cult. IAC86-2480) Silicate rates, kg/ha
  15. 15. Source: L.A.ZANÃO JÚNIOR. 2007. RESISTÊNCIA DO ARROZ À MANCHA-PARDA MEDIADA POR SILÍCIO E MANGANÊS. Tese Mestrado. UFV
  16. 16. EFFECT OF SILICON 0N Bipolaris oryzae DISEASE (RICE) Reduction 40% AACPD Si leaf Si Foliar Content (%) check Si soil 0,9 0,6 2,6 Source: Rezende & Rodrigues, 2008. UFV
  17. 17. Silicon x Water stress (upland rice) 100 g/pot (g vaso -1) Prod. grãos Grain Yield, T. 60% C.C. T. 70% C.C. T. 80% C.C. y=76,1514+0,0336X -­‐0,0000499X 2   2 r =0,84* 80 y=48,1725+0,0177X +0,0000462X 2   2 60 r =0,92* y=25,7156+0,03069X   2 r =0,99** 40 20 0 200 400 600 -1 Si rates, kg/ha Doses Si (kg.ha ) Source: A. NOLLA; R. J. FARIA; G. H. KORNDORFER; R. B. SILVA. 2012. Effect of silion on drought tolerance of upland rice. Journal of Food. Agriculture & Environment. Vol. 10 (1): 269 – 272
  18. 18. Effect of Si application on sorghum growth under water stress conditions. Plants with 47 days of age (22 days of the start of drought stress) Source: 2005 - Hattori et al. Phys.Plantarum
  19. 19. Si fertilizer effect and sorghum dry matter yield grown under water stress + water +Si → 0,08 g of water/g of soil + 2 mM Si + water -Si → 0,08 g of water/g of soil - water +Si → 0,03 g of water/g of soil + 2 mM Si 60 - water → 0,03 g of water/g of soil 45 b a g pl -1 75 a -Si 30 c 15 0 +água +Si +água -Si -água +Si -água -Si Tratamentos Source: Hattori et al., 2005
  20. 20. Clique para editar o estilo do título Effect of silicon fertilizer (average of 2 Si sources Holcim and Agrosilício) on the number of plant cane mestre stalk borer damage – Guaíra Sugar-mill – Var. SP80-3280 Clique para editar os estilos do texto mestre Segundo nível Terceiro nível Quarto nível Quinto nível % of Stalk borer damage •  •  •  •  •  Silicate rates, kg/ha 24 Source: Leonardo (2007) – M.Sc. Dissertation/UFU
  21. 21. Treatments for Spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata) control and Sugarcane Yield Site 1 TREATMENTS Site 2 Cane Yield -------------t ha-1-------------Check Plot 88,93 b 102,86 a Potassium Silicate (8,2 L ha-1 - 1 application) 111,94 b 100,66 a Potassium Silicate (8,2 L ha-1 - 2 applications) 182,67 a 103,84 a Potassium Silicate (8,2 L ha-1 – 3 applications) 193,55 a 100,00 a Calcium and Magnesium silicate (1.000 kg ha-1) 199,65 a 105,74 a Thiamethoxam 250 WG (0,8 kg ha-1) 191,07 a 107,73 a M. anisopliae Pó (2,0 kg ha-1 - 2 application) 193,46 a 110,27 a M. anisopliae Arroz (2,0 kg ha-1 – 2 application) 195,23 a 100,08 a 67,33 NS 19 8 D.M.S. C.V. (%) Tukey a 5 % de probability Source: Wangen & Korndörfer (2007) – Master Degree Dissertation/ UFU
  22. 22. Si fertilizer application and Si content in the sugarcane leaf tissue and Spittlebug nymph mortality Si Leaf Nymph Mortality Nymph Duration phase % % Dias Si + 2,6 a 59,5 a 49,6 a Si - 1,0 b 41,0 b 48,5 a Treatments Source: KORNDORFER & VENDRAMIM. 2009. Effect of silicon on the development of the spitllebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) on sugarcane. VIII ISSCT Agronomy Workshop. Uberlandia, 24-29/05/09
  23. 23. Sugarcane cultivars and Si content in the leaf tissue and Spittlebug nymph mortality and phase duration Si Leaf Nymph Mortality Nymph Duration Phase % % Dias SP81-3250 1,56 a 35 a 48 a SP80-1816 1,60 b 49 b 49 a SP79-1011 2,31 c 66 c 51 a Tratamentos Source: KORNDORFER & VENDRAMIM. 2009. Effect of silicon on the development of the spitllebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) on sugarcane. VIII ISSCT Agronomy Workshop. Uberlandia, 24-29/05/09
  24. 24. SILICON TREATMENT AND SPITTLEBUG LONGEVITY AND OVIPOSITION (ADULTS PHASE) Treat ments Si Leaf LONGEVITY Male % Female Days Oviposition nº eggs Si + 2,6 a 12 a 13 a 362 a Si - 1,0 b 14 b 15 b 380 a Source: KORNDORFER & VENDRAMIM. 2009. Effect of silicon on the development of the spitllebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) on sugarcane. VIII ISSCT Agronomy Workshop. Uberlandia, 24-29/05/09
  25. 25. Si in the leaf of different sugarcane cultivars and the effect on the longevity and oviposition of spittlebug (ADULT PHASE) Treat ments Si Leaf Longevity Male % Female Days Ovo Posição nº of eggs SP81-3250 1,56 a 15 a 18 a 495 a SP80-1816 1,60 b 13 a 15 a 369 b SP79-1011 2,31 c 11 b 11 b 242 c Source: KORNDORFER & VENDRAMIM. 2009. Effect of silicon on the development of the spitllebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) on sugarcane. VIII ISSCT Agronomy Workshop. Uberlandia, 24-29/05/09
  26. 26. Number of adults (spittlebug) inside the cage Cliqueon the leaves (sugarcane) with título para editar o estilo do and and without Si mestre treatment fertilizer •  •  •  •  •  Observations - Si + Si Clique para editar os estilos do texto mestre n de adults/plant Segundo nível 1h 1,41 a 1,38 a 2h 1,76 a 1,64 a Terceiro nível 3h 1,76 a 1,64 a 4h 1,91 a 1,71 a Quarto nível 5h 2,00 a 1,84 a 6h 2,01 a 1,84 a Quinto nível o 7h 1,82 a 8h 2,07 a 1,84 a 9h 2,11 b 1,78 a 10h Korndörfer, A.P. 2010. Tese Doutorado, Esalq/USP 2,09 b 2,30 b 1,78 a 11h 2,36 b 1,68 a 24h 2,41 b 1,59 a 30
  27. 27. Silicon effect on sugarcane sucrose content and fiber (average of 17 different cultivars) – Guaíra Sugar-mill Silicon Juice Sucrose Juice Brix % Juice Purity % Fiber ------------------------- % ------------------------- Si 18,70 b 21,27 a 87,90 a 10,83 a + Si 19,21 a 21,78 b 88,16 a 11,56 b 683 kg/ha of sugar or 11,4 bags/ha (60 kg bag) Korndörfer (2010) - Tese Doutorado, Esalq/USP
  28. 28. Cane Yield, t/ha Plant Cane Yield (average of 4 experiment – Sugar-mill: São Luiz, São Martinho, Catanduva e Santa Adélia) 161 159 157 155 153 151 149 147 y = -0,25x2 + 2,6x + 151,7 R² = 0,94** y = -0,3125x2 + 1,725x + 151,95 R2 = 0,99** 0 2 4 Silicate Rates, t/ha 6 Korndorfer, et al. 2003. Copersucar X UFU
  29. 29. Effect of Ca Silicate and Lime Application - Plant Cane Stalk Yield Stalk Yield, t/ha 180 CaSiO3 Carbonato de Ca 176 Silicato de Ca CaCO3 172 168 164 160 0 2 3 4 Application rate, t/ha 6 Korndorfer, et al. 2003. Copersucar X UFU
  30. 30. Residual Effect of Ca Silicate and Lime Application - 1st Ratoon Cane Stalk Yield Cane Yield, t/ha 120 CaSiO3 Carbonato Ca Silicato de Ca 116 112 108 CaCO3 104 100 0 2 3 4 Silicate rates, t/ha 6 Korndorfer, et al. 2003. Copersucar X UFU
  31. 31. Cane Yield, kg/ha Silicon effect on plant cane stalk yield (average from 2 silicates sources, Holcim and Agrosilício) – Cult. SP80-3250, Red Latosol – 25% clay Diference = 13,4 t/ha Silicate rates, kg/ha Source: ARAÚJO (2010). Master Degree Dissertation, ICIAG/UFU
  32. 32. RQ Plant Cane IAC 87-3396 Y = 0.103X + 3.397 R2 = 0.56* 40 SP 89-1115 Y = 0.256X - 0.83 R2 = 0.77* Si - acetic acid (mg kg-1) Si- acetic acid (mg kg -1) Clique para editar40o estilo do 60 35 título mestre 50 30 First ratoon RQ IAC 87 3396 Y = 0.047X + 4.68 R2 = 0.68* SP 89 1115 Y = -0.001X2+0.206X+5.325 R²=0.77* 25 • 30Clique para editar os estilos do texto Linear 20 increase mestre 15 20 10 • 10Segundo nível 5 C A 0 •  0Terceiro nível 0 55 110 165 0 55 110 165 Si kg ha Si (kg ha ) •  Quarto nível Available silicon (0.5 mol L-1 acetic acid) in soil samples •  Quinto nível cm after plant cane and first ratoon collected at 0-25 -1 -1 harvest (RQ soil) CAMARGO & KORNDÖRFER. 2013. Silicon fertilization: soil availability, plant uptake, crop yield and 37 stalk borer damage. ISSCT. Panamá City, USA
  33. 33. Clique para editar o estilo do título mestre 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 8.5 RQ Plant Cane Y = 0.004X + 3.91 R² 0.90* 8.0 First Ratoon RQ Y = 0.0073X+ 6.802 R2 = 0.97* Si (g kg-1) Si (g kg-1) •  Clique para editar os estilos do texto 7.5 mestre 7.0 •  Segundo nível A C 6.5 0 55 110 165 0 55 110 165 Si (kg ha ) •  Terceiro nível Si (kg ha ) •  Quarto nível Effect of Si •  Quinto nível fertilizer on Si content in the -1 -1 sugarcane leaves – Site I, RQ Soil CAMARGO & KORNDÖRFER. 2013. Silicon fertilization: soil availability, plant uptake, crop yield and 38 stalk borer damage. ISSCT. Panamá City, USA
  34. 34. Clique para editar o estilo do título mestre Plant Cane IAC 87 -3396 Y =-0.024 X + 6.645 R2=0.60 * SP 89 -1115 Y =-0.074 X + 30 .42 R2=0.80 * Stalk Borer Incidence, % Stalk Borer Incidence, % 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 30 First Ratoon Y = -0.026 X + 25 .23 R² = 0.71 * 25 •  Clique para editar os estilos do texto 20 mestre A B •  Segundo nível 15 0 55 110 165 55 165 •  0 Terceiro(kg ha 110 nível Si (kg ha ) Si ) •  Quarto nível Silicon fertilization rates and •  Quinto nível -1 -1 stalk borer incidence on Site II CAMARGO & KORNDÖRFER. 2013. Silicon fertilization: soil availability, plant uptake, crop yield and 39 stalk borer damage. ISSCT. Panamá City, USA
  35. 35. Clique para editar o estilo do título mestre Plant Cane Increase Yield (7.0 t/ha) 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 First Ratoon Increase Yield (15.0 t/ha) RQ Plant Cane 110 First Ratoon RQ Y = 0.094X + 86.926 R2 = 0.60* -1 Yield (t ha-1) Yield (t ha-1) 100 •  Clique para editar os estilos do texto 90 mestre 80 •  Segundo nível C 70 •  Terceiro nível A 0 55 110 165 0 55 110 165 Si (kg ha ) •  Quarto Si (kg ha ) nível Effect nível •  Quintoof Si fertilizer applied in the furrow on Y = 0.047X + 97.57 R² = 0.84* -1 Plant Cane and 1º Ratoon Sugarcane Yield (Site I, RQ Soil) CAMARGO & KORNDÖRFER. 2013. Silicon fertilization: soil availability, plant uptake, crop yield and 40 stalk borer damage. ISSCT. Panamá City, USA
  36. 36. Correlation between Si content in the soil and cane yield (Colombo Sugar-mill) considering only the CLAY group of soils texture and different Si extractors: (A) acetic acid, (B) Resin, (C) Water, (D) Buffer pH 7,0, (E) Standart CaCl2, (F) KCl, (G) modified CaCl2 and (H) Chloridric Acid. Crusciol, et al, 2009 - Tese Mestrado UNESP/Botucatu
  37. 37. Correlation between Si content in the soil and cane yield (Colombo Sugar-mill) considering only the LIME group of soils texture and different Si extractors: (A) acetic acid, (B) Resin, (C) Water, (D) Buffer pH 7,0, (E) Standart CaCl2, (F) KCl, (G) modified CaCl2 and (H) Chloridric Acid. Crusciol, et al, 2009 - Tese Mestrado UNESP/Botucatu
  38. 38. Correlation between Si content in the soil and cane yield (Colombo Sugar-mill) considering only the SANDY group of soils texture and different Si extractors: (A) acetic acid, (B) Resin, (C) Water, (D) Buffer pH 7,0, (E) Standart CaCl2, (F) KCl, (G) modified CaCl2 and (H) Chloridric Acid. Crusciol, et al, 2009 - Tese Mestrado UNESP/Botucatu
  39. 39. Clique para editar o estilo do In conclusion: título mestre Sugarcane yield increase using Si as fertilizer is not fully understood, but several mechanisms have been proposed. Some of them indicate that responses may be associated with induced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, such as: •  Clique para editar os estilos do texto mestre •  Segundo nível - disease and insect resistance; - reducing lodging; •  Terceiro nível - improving leaf and stalk erectness; •  Quarto nível - freeze resistance; - and improvements in plant water economy. •  Quinto nível 44
  40. 40. Si in the beer may enhance bone health !!! A moderate consumption of beer can contribute to the prevention of osteoporosis because Si promotes bone health by promoting the formation of collagen. Si also reduce cardiovascular risk and, furthermore, have antioxidant activity that may improve nutritional values; - Daily Si rate recommended to enhance bone health = 30mg - Average Si content in 280mL glass of beer = 6mg of Si of Si Source: I Simp. Beer and Health, London-2003. (Hosp.St.Thomas e Univ. King’s College de Londres)
  41. 41. Grupo de Pesquisa “Silício na Agricultura”: www.dpv24.iciag.ufu.br ghk@uber.com.br
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