Socio-economics Aspects Biofuels Production: What are the concerns in Europe?
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Presentation of Semida Silveira for the "2nd Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle" ...

Presentation of Semida Silveira for the "2nd Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle"

Apresentação de Semida Silveira realizada no "2nd Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle "

Date / Data : Novr 11th - 12th 2009/
11 e 12 de novembro de 2009
Place / Local: CTBE, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento: http://www.bioetanol.org.br/workshop5

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Socio-economics Aspects Biofuels Production: What are the concerns in Europe? Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Socio-economic aspects of biofuels production– what are the concerns in Europe? Semida Silveira Professor, PhD, head of division Energy and Climate Studies Coordinator of KTH Strategic Platform for Energy and Climate II Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle Campinas, 11-12 November 2009 semida.silveira@energy.kth.se 1
  • 2. Socio-economic aspects of biofuels production– what are the concerns in Europe?   bioenergy (among renewables) in the EU   sustainability criteria - environmental x social preocupations in perspective   the global development agenda   tasks for CTBE 2
  • 3. Ambitious goals in the EU define new market conditions At least 20% less ghg emissions 30% if a global agreement is reached 20%20% more energy efficiency 20% renewable energy 2020 20% 20% 10% renewables in transport at least 14% of bio-energy in the total mix in 2020 3
  • 4. Renewables for EU 27, 2000 and 2005and national targets for 2020Source: Eurostat, Swedish Energy Agency 4
  • 5. Public sector energy R&DIEA countries from 1974 to 2006 Source: IEA 2008, in support to G8 plan of action 5
  • 6. Global new investment in clean energytechnology by asset class, 2004-2007 Source: New Energy Finance 6
  • 7. Global new investment by technology 2007Public markets newinvestments Source: New Energy Finance 7
  • 8. Biofuel policy development in the EU•  2001: In the “Communication on alternative fuels forroad transport” the European Commission identifies i.a.biofuels as potential future transport fuel•  2003: The EU adopts the Biofuels Directive (2003/30EC ). Targets: 2% in 2005; 5.75% in 2010•  2003: Energy taxation Directive (2003/96 EC) allowsde-taxation of biofuels•  2005: EC presents “Biomass Action Plan”•  2006: EC presents “An EU strategy for biofuels”prepares revision of the Biofuels Directive 2003/30 EC•  2007: “Road Map for Renewable Energy in Europe”•  2010: Deadline for National Action Plans 8
  • 9. The role of biofuels in the EU•  Increased security of supply•  Reduction of greenhouse gases•  Reduction of oil dependency•  Sustainable development•  Rural revitalization•  Competitiveness 9
  • 10. ! Ethanol one option among others in EU ! •  EU is evaluating various alternatives Ethanol and biodiesel Gas / biogas Electricity •  Strong focus on what EU can do internally to increase supply security •  EU pushing for technological development to increase its competitiveness •  Plan for 15 pilot/demo plants to accelerate biofuel development (SET Plan) 10
  • 11. The SET-Plan in the EU•  Strategic
Energy
Technology
Plan (COM(2007) 723 final)= strategic
plan
to
accelerate
the
development
 and
deployment
of
cost‐effec7ve
low
carbon
 technologies
•  Communica5on
on
Inves5ng
in
the
development
of
 low
Carbon
Technologies (COM(2009) 519 Final) = explains
what
we
need
to
finance
and
how
much
it
 will
cost
•  Technology
Roadmaps (SEC(2009) 1295) = wri=en
in
 consulta7on
with
stakeholders
and
meant
to
guide
 the
implementa7on
of
the
European
Industrial
 Ini7a7ves

 11
  • 12. The technology roadmap for bioenergy•  Industrial
sector
objec5ve:
 
To ensure at least 14% bioenergy in the EU energy mix by 2020, and guarantee GHG emission savings of 60% for bio-fuels and bio- liquids under the sustainability criteria of the new RES directive Bring to commercial maturity the currently most promising technologies and value-chains, in order to promote large-scale, sustainable production of advanced biofuels and highly efficient heat & power from biomass. 12
  • 13. The technology roadmap for bioenergy Ac5ons
 Cost
 M€
 1.
Op7misa7on
of
the
most
promising
 7900
 value
chains
via
thermo‐chemical
and
 biochemical
pathways
=>
collabora7ve
 programme
of
demonstra7on
and
first‐ of‐this‐kind
industrial‐size
plants
 2.
Support
ac7vi7es
on
biomass
feedstock
 600
 assessment,
produc7on,
management
Cooperation with and
harves7ng
for
energy
purposes
Brazil being 3.Iden7fica7on
and
development
of
new
 400
contemplated but value
chains
not specified TOTAL 
 9000
 13
  • 14. Growing concerns about sustainabilityin the up-scaling of bioenergy use •  Sustainable biomass production •  Replacement of tropical rainforest by energy crop plantations •  Greenhouse gas emissions from biomass producing and processing •  Social issues i.e. land rights and labour conditions 14
  • 15. → Formation of global markets for biofuels→ increased production of biofuels (scaling up)→ social and environmental concerns→ new views about impacts (direct and indirect) •  Deforestation •  Greenhouse gas emissions •  Pressure on natural resources •  Destruction of eco-systems and their services •  Competition with food production •  Social conditions in areas of biofuel production 15
  • 16. Initiatives on biofuels sustainability (examples) •  Cramer Commission (NL) •  Round Table on Responsible Soy Association (RTRS, AR) •  Better Sugar Initiative (BR) •  Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO, UK) •  Roundtable for sustainable biofuels (RSB, CH) •  German draft biomass sustainability regulation / ISCC (DE) •  Roundtable on sustainable Palm oil (RSPO, MY) •  INMETRO (BR) •  SEKAB / UNICA (SE, BR) •  Mozambique Govt., GTZ-ProBEC 16
  • 17. Roundtable table on sustainable biofuels international initiative bringing together stakeholder concerned with ensuring the sustainability of biofuels production and processing •  Farmers and growers of biofuel feedstocks •  Industrial biofuel producers •  Retailers/blenders & the transportation industry •  Banks/investors •  Rights-based NGOs (incl land, water, human, and labour rights) •  Rural development and food security organisations •  Environment and conservation organisations •  Climate change and policy organisations •  Trade unions •  Smallholder farmer org and indigenous peoples org/ community-based civil society organizations •  Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), governments, standard-setters, specialist advisory agencies, certification agencies, and consultant experts 17
  • 18. Criticism: poor developing countries as sources of: •  Cheap land (assuming plentiful availability) •  Cheap labour (therefore inexpensive to implement measures) •  Suitable climate conditions (assuming large water availability) •  Weak legislation and regulations (assumes rapid decisions) Criticism of Ian Bryceson and other researchers 18
  • 19. Biofuels and neo-colonialism“Eco-friendly” ethanol fuel for big 4WD Volvosand racy Saabs in Sweden that replacesTanzanian coastal forests with Swedish-ownedsugar plantations, that consumes huge quantitiesof scarce water, that pollutes soil and coral reefs,that violates the traditional land-rights of poorpeople and threatens their food security. This isindeed violation of human rights, or else whatshould we label this?Source: Prof. Seif Maliondo, Prof. Salim Madoffe, Dr. Faustin Maganga, Dr.Elifuraha Mtalo, Dr. Fred Midtgaard and Prof. Ian Bryceson 19
  • 20. A number of studies address land grabbing in Africa Kenya: Munguti (2008), Mathenge (2009) Madagascar: Jung-a et al. (2008), Olivier (2008), Hervieu (2009) Mozambique: AIM (2007), IRIN (2007), Cotula(2008) Sudan: Hazaimeh (2008), Rice (2008) Tanzania: ABN (2007), Haki Ardhi (2008), Sulle (2009), Madoffe et al. (2009), Benjaminsen & Bryceson (2009), Benjaminsen et al. (2009) 20
  • 21. Land-grabbing for biofuel plantations in Africathe concern of international organisations• ABN (2007). Agrofuels in Africa. 36 pages.• FAO (2008). Biofuels: prospects, risks and opportunities. 138pages.• GRAIN (2007). Agrofuels special issue. 60 pages.• IFG & IPS (2007). The false promise of biofuels. 35 pages.• IIED (2008). Fuelling exclusion? The biofuels boom and poorpeople’saccess to land. 82 pages.• IIED (2009). Land grab or development opportunity? 130 pages.• IFPRI (2009). Land grabbing by foreign investors in developingcountries: risks and opportunities. 4 pages.• Oxfam (2008). Another inconvenient truth: how biofuel policiesaredeepening poverty and accelerating climate change. 58 pages.• Sida SwedBio (2009). Biofuels – potentials and challenges fordeveloping countries. 4 pages. 21
  • 22. ISEAL Alliancesupports credible standards and conformityassessment by promoting credible voluntarysocial and environmental certification as a policyinstrument in global trade and development. •  International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) •  Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) •  Marine Aquarium Council (MAC) •  Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) •  SAN Rainforest Alliance (RA) •  Social Accountability International (SAI) •  Fairtrade Labelling Organisation (FLO) revised code is expected to be launched in 2010 22
  • 23. The role of “fair trade” certification •  Guarantees minimum prices somewhat above global market prices •  New Swedish report claims little is achieved for farmers •  Can work in small scale in nisch markets / difficult to apply at large scales •  Better productivity in agriculture gives more results in alleviating poverty 23
  • 24. Sustainability criteria being put in place in the EU •  Environmental impacts along supply chains •  Greenhouse gas emissions •  Land availability and change of energy use •  Competition for resources (land, water…) •  Market competition •  Food production X biofuel production •  Impact on developing countries’ economies Directive on sustainability related to promotion of energy use from renewable sources (2009/28/EG) 24
  • 25. The sustainability criteria in the EU•  Rules in the directive are comprehensive and detailed•  Criteria described are rich in methods for accountability and verification•  Shall apply to biofuels for transport and other energy uses in the beginning Etanol, RME, biogas for transport Talloil, bio-oils (i.e. palm oil, rapseed oil)•  Work in progress in the member countries to put all in place in 2010 but a lot of completion is still necessary 25
  • 26. When/why shall the criteria of the directive be met?1.  To be counted in binding national targets2.  To be counted as renewable energy green certificate scheme, etc3.  To receive any type of support subsidies, tax incentives, etc 26
  • 27. Directive criteria application•  Reduction of greenhouse gases: 35% to start•  Protection of areas of high biological diversity (forests, natural reserves, other special eco-systems)•  Protection of areas rich in carbon stocks (wetlands, reforested areas, peat land)•  Economic agents to meet criteria (mass balance)•  External evaluation 27
  • 28. What is development? ”What has been happening to poverty?What has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to inequality? If all of these have declined, then there has been development." (Seers, 1977) 28
  • 29. What is sustainable development? ”a development strategy that manages all assets, natural resources, and human resources, as well as financial and physical assets, for increasing long-term wealth and well-being" (Repetto, 1986) 29
  • 30. The gap 30
  • 31. CO2 emissionsper capita 31
  • 32. Differentiating cooperation with developing countries 32
  • 33. Clean energy incubators by country 2007 Note: Excludes China 33
  • 34. Sizing the bioenergy potential through a systems perspective POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT Logistics / Logistics / infrastructure infrastructure DEMANDLOCAL DistributionPOTENTIAL Collection/processing District cooling / heating MARKETS Road/railroad systems Local Natural conditions Storage Road / railroad systems RegionalKnow-how Priorities Industrial synergy Ports International Biomass sources Conversion End - uses Forest residues technology Biofuels for transport Agriculture CHP (co-generation) Electricity residues Integration with other Refrigeration Energy crops production systems Heat Waste Biofuels for transport Heat / cooling 34
  • 35. Summarizing: context of biofuels in EU •  Biomass is the largest renewable in EU (65-70%) but other alternatives are growing more rapidly •  Biomass resources being considered in various production and use chains (broad treatment of bioenergy potential) •  Credibility and acceptance of bioenergy needs to be restored among the general public •  EU sees bioenergy as an opportunity to restructure agriculture policy •  corporate responsibility still to be further explored – potential hidden due to concerns on competitiveness 35
  • 36. Summarizing: concerns on biofuels in EU •  Pushing for technological development (SET plan) •  Focus on environmental impacts in sust criteria greenhouse gas reductions land use change eco-systems interference biological invasion •  Public debate on social dimensions of expansion of biomass utilization (dispersed) •  Social issues being dealt in certification schemes (i.e fair trade, ISO) and various sustainability criteria •  Corporate responsibility increasing in context of climate change and labour issues 36
  • 37. Ultimate goals to be pursued by CTBE (related to socio-economic concerns)  take leadership in development debate in context of bioenergyopportunities for enhancing modern energy access  assume key role in capacity building for realizing the bioenergypotential in developing countries  consider whole production chain when addressing sustainabilityhighlighting environmental, social and economic analysis 37
  • 38. Instruments for achieving objectives  strong and high-qualified research with high output in the form ofinternational publications  cooperation with international groups not least in otherdeveloping countries  development of methodologies defining criteria and parameterswith broad relevance for biomass production and use  databases  indicators for monitoring change and sustainability  scenarios (beyond Brazil)  policy analysis for active input in various international fora 38
  • 39. Obrigada pela atenção! 39