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Open access publishing and open access data sharing for malaria research and control

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Prof. Bob Snow, Malaria Public Health & Epidemiology Group, KEMRI-University of Oxford-Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme speaking at Open Access Africa 2010

Prof. Bob Snow, Malaria Public Health & Epidemiology Group, KEMRI-University of Oxford-Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme speaking at Open Access Africa 2010

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  • 1. Open access publishing and open access data sharing for malaria research and control Bob Snow Head Malaria Public Health & Epidemiology Group, KEMRI, Nairobi Director of the Malaria Atlas Project Professor of Tropical Public Health, University of Oxford
  • 2. 1994 Moved to Nairobi Wellcome, Malaria Public health Group Trust-KEMRI-University Oxford Collaboration 2000 Worked with Ministry of Health to establish a National Malaria Strategy 2005 Established Malaria Atlas Project 1984 Joined Medical Research Council, Farafenni, The Gambia 1989 Moved to Kilifi District Hospital, Wellcome Trust-KEMRI-University Oxford Collaboration
  • 3. The internet PDF libraries linked to shared endnote PubMed online Hinari Open Access Of course there have been changes… 1989 2004-5
  • 4.
    • Biomedical research results are privately owned and sold only to those who can afford it
    • Publishers make huge profits by restricting access
    • Medical research results should be considered a global public good (most is funded by the public)?
    The problem
  • 5. The private ownership of research results Gavin Yamey former editor PLoS Medicine
    • You write the research paper
    • You give your work to publishers, you hand over copyright to them , they sell it to wealthy readers
    • A high profile drug trial can earn a journal $1m in reprint sales ($5 billion per year industry)
    • A tiny fraction of the intended audience reads your work
    • Owned by 4 multinational companies (“information arms race”)
  • 6.
      • The work has just been published, so he goes online:
    2006 made it a requirement of all Trust funded work to be made available on-line not later than 6 months after publication
    • The director of the world's largest medical research charity receives notification from one of his funded investigators in Africa reporting exciting progress toward the development of a malaria vaccine
    Access Denied
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. The solution make all research results freely available online “ It is now possible to share the results of medical research with anyone, anywhere, who could benefit from it. How could we not do it?” Harold Varmus, Nobel Laureate, PLoS Co-founder Chief Science Advisor to President Barack Obama
  • 10. Open access: what do we mean?
    • Free, unrestricted online access
    • Users are licensed to download, print, copy, redistribute, and create derivative works ( CC Attribution License )
    • Author retains the copyright (not the publisher), i.e. right to be credited
    • Papers are deposited immediately in a public database that allows sophisticated searches
  • 11. Physicists doing it for years 2000 Biomed central 2001 PLoS Medicine 2002 Malaria Journal 2003 PloS Biology 2004 PLos Medicine 2008 Parasites & vectors ? Lancet ? NEJM ? Trends in Parasitology ? Transactions of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene ? Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology ? American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene ? African Health Journals … . Still relatively new c. 10 years
  • 12. Most prestigious highest impact factor journals not OA (Lancet, NEJM, Nature) – must pay for OA Old literature needs archiving and making available Still dependent on internet speed and access still a N-S divide There is now simply too much to read and digest, search engines and synthesis programmes much us less well read Inadequate quality? Still not perfect……….
  • 13.  
  • 14. Most prestigious highest impact factor journals not OA (Lancet, NEJM, Nature) – must pay for OA Old literature needs archiving and making available Still dependent on internet speed and access still a N-S divide There is now simply too much to read and digest, search engines and synthesis programmes much us less well read Inadequate quality? Need to educate journalists and public – climate-gate One step beyond – Open Access Data
  • 15.
    • Internet Rights Charter
      • “ Scientific and social research that is produced with the support of public funds should be freely available to all”
  • 16. Three main steps Data assembly from published and unpublished sources (including government/DHS sources) Mathematical space-time modeling Data archive for others
  • 17. MBGW I map used circa 8000 data points MAP I 2007 iteration Globally
  • 18.
    • MBGWII being developed now 22,800 data points
    • 185% increase over last iteration
    • 55% of data post 2005
    • Includes 15 national surveys; 5 of which we have been directly involved with
    • More data with time will reduce uncertainty and increase capacities to examine time-space cube of risk
    MAP II 2010 iteration
  • 19. Interpolated global stable endemic surface of P. falciparum parasite prevalence to 2007 Hay et al. PLoS Medicine, 2009 0.9 billion people in unstable risk 1.38 billion people in stable risk
  • 20. Repository of Open Access Data – Malaria Atlas Project ROAD-MAP
  • 21. R.O.A.D